Schreiber was born at Colchester, the eldest son of Lieutenant-Colonel James Alfred Schreiber of Melton, Suffolk and his wife Mary Ware, daughter of Thomas Ware, of Woodfort, County Cork. He was educated at Cheltenham College and was a scholar at Trinity College Cambridge.
In the 1865 general election, Schreiber was elected Member of Parliament (MP) for Cheltenham, but lost the seat in 1868. In the 1880 general election, he was elected MP Poole and held the seat until his death in 1884.
In 1855, he married Lady Charlotte Guest (1812–1895), his former pupil's mother. Lady Guest was the daughter of Albemarle Bertie, 9th Earl of Lindsey and widow of John Josiah Guest, 1st Baronet, the owner of Dowlais Ironworks in Wales, and a major figure in the history of Welsh literature. She was famous for her collections of china, fans and playing-cards.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Charles Schreiber
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for Cheltenham
Henry Bernhard Samuelson
|Member of Parliament for Poole
William James Harris
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