Techniques include clapping or percussion: the therapist lightly claps the patient's chest, back, and area under the arms. Percussion, while effective in the treatment of infants and children, is no longer used in Australia in adults due to the introduction of more effective and self-management focused treatments. These include, but are not limited to, the use of "flutter" or oscillating positive pressure devices, PEP masks or devices (positive expiratory pressure) as well as specific exercise regimes. The exercises prescribed can include specific respiratory exercises e.g. autogenic drainage, as well as general cardiovascular exercises that assist the body to remove sputum and improve the efficiency of oxygen uptake in muscles.