Comparison of audio network protocols
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|Technology||Development date||Transport||Transmission scheme||Mixed use networking||Control communications||Topology||Fault tolerance||Distance||Diameter||Network capacity||Latency||Maximum available sampling rate|
|AES47||2002||ATM||Isochronous||Coexists with ATM||Any IP or ATM protocol, IEC 62379||Mesh||Provided by ATM||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Unlimited||Unlimited||125 μs per hop||192 kHz|
|AES50||Ethernet physical layer[a]||Isochronous or synchronous||dedicated Cat5||5 Mbit/s Ethernet||Point-to-point||FEC, redundant link||Cat5=100 m||Unlimited||48 channels||63 μs||384 kHz and DSD|
|AES67||September 2013||Any IP medium||Isochronous||Coexists with other traffic using DiffServ QoS||IP, SIP||Any L2 or IP network||Provided by IP||Medium dependent||Unlimited||Unlimited||4, 1, 1⁄3, 1⁄4 and 1⁄8 ms packet times[b]||96 kHz|
|AudioRail[c]||Ethernet physical layer||Synchronous||Cat5 or fiber||Proprietary||Daisy chain||None||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Unlimited||32 channels||4.5 μs + 0.25 μs per hop||48 kHz (32 channels), 96 kHz (16 channels)|
|AVB (using IEEE 1722 transport)||September 2011||Enhanced Ethernet||Isochronous||Coexists with other traffic using IEEE 802.1p QoS and admission control||IEEE 1722.1||Spanning tree||Provided by IEEE 802.1||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Dependent on latency class and network speed||Unlimited||2 ms or less||192 kHz|
|Aviom Pro64||Ethernet physical layer||Synchronous||Dedicated Cat5 and fiber||Proprietary||Daisy chain (bidirectional)||Redundant links||Cat5e=120 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||9520 km[d]||64 channels||322 μs + 1.34 μs per hop||208 kHz[e]|
|CobraNet||1996||Ethernet data link layer||Isochronous||coexists with Ethernet||Ethernet, SNMP, MIDI||Spanning tree||Provided by IEEE 802.1[f]||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||7 hops, 10 km[g]||Unlimited||1 1⁄3, 2 2⁄3 and 5 1⁄3 ms||96 kHz|
|Dante||2006||Any IP medium||Isochronous||Coexists with other traffic using DiffServ QoS||Proprietary Control Protocol based on IP, Bonjour||Any L2 or single IP subnet||Provided by IEEE 802.1 and redundant link||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Dependent on latency||Unlimited||84 μs or greater[h]||192 kHz|
|EtherSound ES‑100||2001||Ethernet data link layer||Isochronous||Dedicated Ethernet||Proprietary||Star, daisy chain, ring||Fault tolerant ring||Cat5=140 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Unlimited||64[i]||84–125 μs + 1.4 μs/node||96 kHz|
|EtherSound ES‑Giga||Ethernet data-link layer||Isochronous||Coexists with Ethernet||Proprietary||Star, Daisy chain, ring||Fault tolerant ring||Cat5=140 m, MM=600 m, SM=70 km||Unlimited||512[j]||84–125 μs + 0.5 μs/node||96 kHz|
|HyperMAC||Gigabit Ethernet||Isochronous||Dedicated Cat5, Cat6, or fiber||100 Mbit/s+ Ethernet||Point-to-point||Redundant link||Cat6=100 m, MM=500 m, SM=10 km||Unlimited||384+ channels||63 μs||384 kHz and DSD|
|Livewire||2003||Any IP medium||Isochronous||Coexists with Ethernet||Ethernet, HTTP, XML||Any L2 or IP network||Provided by IEEE 802.1[k]||Cat5=100 m, MM=2 km, SM=70 km||Unlimited||32760 channels||0.75 ms||48 kHz|
|mLAN||January 2000||IEEE 1394||Isochronous||Coexists with IEEE 1394||IEEE 1394, MIDI||Tree||Provided by IEEE 1394b||IEEE 1394 cable (2 power, 4 signal): 4.5 m||100 m||63 devices (800 Mbit/s)||354.17 μs||192 kHz[l]|
|Optocore[m]||Dedicated fiber||Synchronous||Dedicated Cat5/fiber||Proprietary||Ring||Redundant ring||MM=700 m, SM=110 km||Unlimited||1008
channels at 48 kHz
|41.6 μs||96 kHz|
|Q-LAN||2009||IP over Gigabit Ethernet||Isochronous||Coexists with other traffic using DiffServ QoS||IP, HTTP, XML||Any L2 or IP network||IEEE 802.1, redundant link, IP routing||Cat5=100 m, MM=550 m, SM=10 km||7 hops or 35 km||Unlimited||1 ms||48 kHz|
|RAVENNA||2010||Any IP medium||Isochronous||Coexists with other traffic using DiffServ QoS||IP, RTSP, Bonjour||Any L2 or IP network||Provided by IP and redundant link||Medium dependent||Unlimited||Unlimited||variable[n]||384 kHz and DSD|
|Riedel Rocknet||Ethernet physical layer||Isochronous||Dedicated Cat5/fiber||Proprietary||Ring||Redundant ring||Cat5e=150 m, MM=2 km, SM=20 km||10 km max, 99 devices||160 channels (48 kHz/24-bit)||400 μs at 48 kHz||96 kHz|
|SoundGrid||Ethernet data link layer||Isochronous||Dedicated Ethernet||Proprietary||Star, daisy chain||Device redundancy||Cat5/Cat5e/Cat6/Cat7 =100m,
|3 hops||Unlimited||166 μs or greater||96kHz|
|Symetrix SymLink||Ethernet physical layer||Synchronous||Dedicated Ethernet||Proprietary||Ring||None||Cat5=10 m||16 devices||64 channels||83 μs per hop||48 kHz|
|UMAN||IEEE 1394 and Ethernet AVB[o]||Isochronous and asynchronous||Coexists with Ethernet||IP-based XFN||Daisy chain in ring, tree, or star (with hubs)||fault tolerant ring, device redundancy||Cat5e=50 m, Cat6=75 m, MM=1 km, SM=>2 km||Unlimited||400 channels (48 kHz/24 bit)[p]||354 μs + 125 μs per hop[q]||192 kHz|
- Ethernet transport is combined with a proprietary audio clock transport. AES50 and HyperMAC are point-to-point audio connections, but they bridge a limited bandwidth of regular Ethernet for the purpose of control communications. An AES50/HyperMAC router contains a crosspoint matrix (or similar) for audio routing, and an Ethernet switch for control routing. The system topology may therefore follow any valid Ethernet topology, but the audio routers need a priori knowledge of the topology. While there are no limits to the number of AES50 routing devices that can be interconnected, each hop adds another link’s worth of latency, and each router device needs to be controlled individually.
- AES67 devices are required to implement the 1 ms packet time. Minimum theoretical latency is two times packet time. Typical implementations achieve latencies of three times the packet time.
- Technology retired February 2014
- The network diameter figure is the largest conceivable network using fiber and 138 Pro64 merger units; derived from maximum allowed response time between control master and furthest slave device.
- Pro64 supports a wide variation range from the nominal sample rate values (e.g., 158.8 kHz - 208 kHz).
- Network redundancy is provided by 802.1 Ethernet: STP, Link aggregation; redundant network connections (DualLink) and redundant devices (BuddyLink) are supported.
- Indicated diameter is for 5 1⁄3 ms latency mode. CobraNet has more stringent design rules for its lower latency modes. Requirements are documented in terms of maximum delay and delay variation. A downloadable CAD tool can be used to validate a network design for a given operating mode.
- The 84 μs latency value is based on 4 audio samples with this configuration. Note that latency is dependent on topology and bandwidth constraints of the underlying hardware, for example, 800 μs on a 100 Mbit/s Dolby Lake Processor.
- EtherSound allows channels to be dropped and added at each node along the daisy-chain or ring. Although the number of channels between any two locations is limited to 64, depending on routing requirements, the total number of channels on the network may be significantly higher.
- EtherSound allows channels to be dropped and added at each node along the daisy-chain or ring. Although the number of channels between any two locations is limited to 512, depending on routing requirements, the total number of channels on the network may be significantly higher.
- Network redundancy is provided by 802.1 Ethernet: STP, Link aggregation.
- Many mLAN devices have a maximum sampling rate of 96 kHz, but this is a constraint of the stream extraction chips used rather than the core mLAN technology.
- These entries refer to the classic fiber-based Optocore system; no information has yet been obtained regarding the Cat5e version. Confirmation is being sought for the figure of 110 km max distance.
- Latency depends on frame size (packet time), network topology and chosen link offset, with. min. frame size = 1 sample.
- Transport is listed for media streaming and control. Ethernet is also for control.
- UMAN also supports up to 25 channels of H.264 video.
- Base latency measurement is provided for up to 16 daisy-chained devices.
- "Best Practices in Network Audio" (PDF). Audio Engineering Society. 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-13. Cite journal requires
- AES47-2006 (r2011): AES standard for digital audio - Digital input-output interfacing - Transmission of digital audio over asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks, Audio Engineering Society
- AES67-2013: AES standard for audio applications of networks - High-performance streaming audio-over-IP interoperability, Audio Engineering Society, 2013-09-11, retrieved 2018-04-15
- "AudioRail product line retired (February, 2014)". Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- Yamaha Utilizes "Firewire" for Audio and MIDI: Reduces Need For Cables, Harmony Central, archived from the original on 2006-01-08
- "Optocore connects everything". Retrieved 2015-12-13.
- "ROCKNET – Digital Audio Network". Archived from the original on 2015-12-22. Retrieved 2015-12-13.