Constructive speech

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In policy debate, constructive speeches are the first four speeches of a debate round. Constructive speeches are each followed by a 3-minute cross-examination period.

In high school, constructive speeches are 8 minutes long; in college, they are 9 minutes.

In general, constructive arguments are the only time that a team can make new arguments. The last four speeches of the debate are reserved for refutations of arguments already made.

In current policy debate, the "first affirmative constructive" (1AC) is used to present the "plan". Whether all new "off-case arguments" must be presented in the "first negative constructive" is a point of contention.[1][2]


  1. ^ Prager, John. "Introduction to Policy Debate, Chapter 13". Retrieved 12 March 2013. 
  2. ^ "Coaching the Negative" (PDF). NAUDL. Retrieved 12 March 2013. 

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