Coronary arteries

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Coronary arteries
Coronary arteries.png
Coronary arteries (labeled in red text) and other major landmarks (in blue text)]]
Anatomical terminology

The coronary arteries are the arteries of the coronary circulation that transport blood into and out of the cardiac muscle. They are mainly composed of the left and right coronary arteries both of which give off branches.

The left coronary artery, arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart. It branches into two arteries and sometimes a third branch is formed at the fork, known as a ramus or intermediate artery.[1]

The right coronary artery, originates from above the right cusp of the aortic valve. It travels down the right coronary sulcus, towards the crux of the heart.

There is also the conus artery, which is only present in about 45 per cent of the human population, and which may provide collateral blood flow to the heart when the left anterior descending artery is occluded.[2][3]

Clinical significance[edit]

Either or both arteriosclerosis and atherosclerosis, can cause one or more of the coronary arteries or their branches to become seriously blocked. Coronary artery bypass surgery can be performed to bypass the blockages.

The coronary arteries can constrict as a response to various stimuli, mostly chemical. This is known as a coronary reflex.

There is also a rare condition known as spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

Additional images[edit]

Cast of coronary arteries. Right - yellow, left - red 

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fuster, V; Alexander RW; O'Rourke RA (2001). Hurst's The Heart (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 53. ISBN 0-07-135694-0. 
  2. ^ Wynn GJ, Noronha B, Burgess MI (2008). "Functional significance of the conus artery as a collateral to an occluded left anterior descending artery demonstrated by stress echocardiography". International Journal of Cardiology. 140 (1): e14–5. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2008.11.039. PMID 19108914. 
  3. ^ Schlesinger MJ, Zoll PM, Wessler S (1949). "The conus artery: a third coronary artery". American Heart Journal. 38 (6): 823–38. doi:10.1016/0002-8703(49)90884-4. PMID 15395916.