Cyprinus rubrofuscus is a species of cyprinid fish. It is widespread in Eastern Asia where native to Laos, Vietnam and China from the Amur to Red River drainages. It has also been introduced outside its native range. It is known for its muddy flavor and boniness, hence, it is not commonly eaten by locals except when stewed.
In the past it was considered a subspecies of the common (or European) carp, often under the scientific name C. carpio haematopterus (a synonym), but the two differ in genetics and meristics, leading recent authorities to recognize them as separate species. Although earlier studies also have found minor differences between northern ("haematopterus") and southern ("viridiviolaceus") populations in Eastern Asia in both meristics and genetics, later studies have found that they are not monophyletic. However, any phylogenetic structure is difficult to establish because of widespread translocations of carps between different regions. The parent species of the domesticated koi carp is an East Asian carp, possibly C. rubrofuscus (not C. carpio).
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