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Russell's viper
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Serpentes
Family: Viperidae
Genus: Daboia
D. russelii
Binomial name
Daboia russelii
(Shaw & Nodder, 1797)
Daboia russelii distribution
  • Coluber russelii Shaw & Nodder, 1797
  • Coluber daboie
    Latreille In Sonnini & Latreille, 1801
  • Coluber trinoculus
    Schneider In Bechstein, 1802
  • Vipera daboya Daudin, 1803
  • Vipera elegans Daudin, 1803
  • Coluber triseriatus Hermann, 1804
  • Vipera russelii — Gray, 1831
  • Daboia elegans — Gray, 1842
  • Daboia russelii — Gray, 1842
  • Daboia pulchella Gray, 1842
  • Echidna russellii Steindachner, 1869
Russell's viper (Daboia russelli) in a sensing moment

Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) is a highly venomous snake in the family Viperidae native to India and Bangladesh. It was described in 1797 by George Shaw and Frederick Polydore Nodder. It is named after Patrick Russell and is one of the big four snakes in India.


English naturalist George Shaw—with illustrator Frederick Polydore Nodder—in The Naturalist's Miscellany: Or, Coloured Figures Of Natural Objects; Drawn and Described Immediately From Nature formally described the species in 1797 as Coluber russelii, from a specimen presented to the British Museum by Scottish herpetologist Patrick Russell.[1] Russell had written of the species in his 1796 work An account of Indian serpents, collected on the coast of Coromandel, confirming its highly venomous nature by experimenting on chickens and dogs. He added the native people called it katuka retula poda.[2]

Analysis of morphological and mitochondrial DNA data shows that the eastern subspecies of D. russelii should be considered a separate species, Daboia siamensis.[3]

A number of other subspecies may be encountered in literature.[4] including:

  • D. s. formosensis (Maki, 1931) – found in Thailand (considered a synonym of D. siamensis).
  • D. s. limitis (Mertens, 1927) – found in Indonesia (considered a synonym of D. siamensis).
  • D. r. pulchella (Gray, 1842) – found in Sri Lanka (considered a synonym of D. russelii).
  • D. r. nordicus (Deraniyagala, 1945) – found in northern India (considered a synonym of D. russelii).

The correct spelling of the species, D. russelii, has been, and still is, a matter of debate. Shaw and Nodder (1797), in their account of the species Coluber russelii, named it after Patrick Russell, but apparently misspelled his name, using only one "L" instead of two. Russell (1727–1805) was the author of An Account of Indian Serpents (1796) and A Continuation of an Account of Indian Serpents (1801). McDiarmid et al. (1999) are among those who favor the original misspelling, citing Article 32c (ii) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Others, such as Zhao and Adler (1993) favor russellii.[5]


The species is named after Patrick Russell (1726–1805),[6] a Scottish herpetologist who first described many of India's snakes, and the name of the genus is from the Hindi word[specify] meaning "that lies hid", or "the lurker".[7]

In English, common names of D. russelii include Russell's viper,[4][8][9][10] chain viper,[8][10] Indian Russell's viper,[11][12] common Russell's viper,[13] seven pacer,[14] chain snake, and scissors snake.[15]


Head of the Russell's viper
Large fangs
Russell's viper in Pune Zoo

The head is flattened, triangular, and distinct from the neck. The snout is blunt, rounded, and raised. The nostrils are large, each in the middle of a large, single nasal scale. The lower edge of the nasal scale touches the nasorostral scale. The supranasal scale has a strong crescent shape and separates the nasal from the nasorostral scale anteriorly. The rostral scale is as broad as it is high.[4]

The crown of the head is covered with irregular, strongly fragmented scales. The supraocular scales are narrow, single, and separated by six to nine scales across the head. The eyes are large, flecked with yellow or gold, and surrounded by 10–15 circumorbital scales. The snake has 10–12 supralabials, the fourth and fifth of which are significantly larger. The eye is separated from the supralabials by three or four rows of suboculars. Of the two pairs of chin shields, the front pair is notably enlarged. The two maxillary bones support at least two, and at the most five or six, pairs of fangs at a time: the first are active and the rest replacements.[4] The fangs attain a length of 16.5 mm (0.65 in) in the average specimen.[16]

The body is stout, the cross-section of which is rounded to circular. The dorsal scales are strongly keeled; only the lowest row is smooth. Mid-body, the dorsal scales number 27–33. The ventral scales number 153–180. The anal plate is not divided. The tail is short—about 14% of the total length—with the paired subcaudals numbering 41–68.[4]

Dorsally, the color pattern consists of a deep yellow, tan, or brown ground color, with three series of dark brown spots that run the length of the body. Each of these spots has a black ring around it, the outer border of which is intensified with a rim of white or yellow. The dorsal spots, which usually number 23–30, may grow together, while the side spots may break apart. The head has a pair of distinct dark patches, one on each temple, together with a pinkish, salmon, or brownish V or X marking that forms an apex towards the snout. Behind the eye is a dark streak, outlined in white, pink, or buff. The venter is white, whitish, yellowish, or pinkish, often with an irregular scattering of dark spots.[4]

Russell's viper grows to a maximum body and tail length of 166 cm (65 in) and averages about 120 cm (47 in) in mainland Asia. On islands, it is slightly shorter on average.[4] It is more slender than most vipers.[17] The following dimensions for a "fair-sized adult specimen" were reported in 1937:[18]

  • Total length 1.24 m (4 ft 1 in)
  • Length of tail 430 mm (17 in)
  • Girth 150 mm (6 in)
  • Width of head 51 mm (2 in)
  • Length of head 51 mm (2 in)

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Russell's viper from India

Russell's viper is found in India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan. Populations from South-East Asia previously assigned to this species are now considered to be part of a different species, Daboia siamensis.[3] The type locality is listed as "India". More specifically, this would be the Coromandel Coast, by inference of Russell (1796).[5]

Within its range, it can be common in some areas, but scarce in others.[17] In India, it is abundant in Punjab, very common along the West Coast and its hills, and in southern India, especially in the state of Karnataka and north to Bengal. It is uncommon to rare in the Ganges valley, northern Bengal, and Assam.

Russell's viper is not restricted to any particular habitat, but does tend to avoid dense forests. The snake is mostly found in open, grassy or bushy areas, but may also be found in second growth forests (scrub jungles), on forested plantations and farmland. It is most common in plains, coastal lowlands, and hills of suitable habitat. Generally, it is not found at altitude, but has been reported as far up as 2300–3000 m (7,500–9,800 ft). Humid environments, such as marshes, swamps, and rain forests, are avoided.[4]

This species is often found in highly urbanized areas and settlements in the countryside, the attraction being the rodents commensal with man.[16] As a result, those working outside in these areas are most at risk of being bitten. D. russelii does not associate as closely with human habitation as Naja and Bungarus species (cobras and kraits).[4]

Behaviour and ecology[edit]

The Russell's viper is terrestrial and active primarily as a nocturnal forager. However, during cool weather, it becomes more active during the day.[4] Adults are reported to be slow and sluggish and usually do not attack unless provoked; they can strike at lightning speed. Juveniles are generally more nervous.[4] When threatened, they form a series of S-loops, raise the first third of the body, and produce a hiss that is supposedly louder than that of any other snake. If provoked even more, they resort to striking and can exert so much force that large individuals can lift off the ground in the process.[4] This behaviour has often led to the misconception that the Russell's vipers "chase" and bite humans. They are strong and may react violently to being picked up.[19] The bite may be a snap, or they may hang on for many seconds.[16]

Although this genus does not have the heat-sensitive pit organs common to the Crotalinae, it is one of a number of viperines that are apparently able to react to thermal cues, further supporting the notion that they, too, possess a heat-sensitive organ.[20][21] The identity of this sensor is not certain, but the nerve endings in the supranasal sac of these snakes resemble those found in other heat-sensitive organs.[22]


Russell's viper is ovoviviparous.[17] Mating generally occurs early in the year, although pregnant females may be found at any time. The gestation period is more than six months. Young are produced from May to November, but mostly in June and July. It is a prolific breeder. Litters of 20–40 are common,[4] although fewer offspring may occur, as few as one.[16] The reported maximum is 75[23] in a single litter. At birth, juveniles are 215–260 mm (8.5–10.2 in) in total length. The minimum total length for a gravid female is about 100 cm (39 in). It seems that sexual maturity is achieved in 2–3 years. In one case, it took a specimen nearly 4.5 hours to give birth to 11 young.[4]


Russell's viper hunting

Russell's viper feeds primarily on rodents, although it will also eat small reptiles, land crabs, scorpions, and other arthropods. Juveniles are crepuscular, feeding on lizards and foraging actively. As they grow and become adults, they begin to specialize in rodents. Indeed, the presence of rodents and lizards is the main reason they are attracted to human habitation.[4] Juveniles are known to be cannibalistic.[16]


The rough-scaled sand boa Eryx conicus possibly mimics the appearance of Russell's viper

Some herpetologists believe, because D. russelii is so successful as a species and has such a fearful reputation within its natural environment, another snake has come to mimic its appearance. Superficially, the rough-scaled sand boa Eryx conicus has a color pattern that often looks like that of D. russelii, though it is completely harmless.[4][18]


Venom of this species is delivered by means of solenoglyphous dentition.[24] The quantity of venom produced by individual specimens of D. russelii is considerable. Venom yields for adult specimens have been reported as 130–250 mg, 150–250 mg, and 21–268 mg. For 13 juveniles with an average total length of 79 cm (31 in), the venom yield ranged from 8 to 79 mg (mean 45 mg).[4]

The LD50 in mice, which is used as a possible indicator of snake venom toxicity, is: 0.133 mg/kg intravenous,[25] 0.40 mg/kg intraperitoneal,[26] about 0.75 mg/kg subcutaneous.[27] For most humans, a lethal dose is about 40–70 mg, well within the amount that can be delivered in one bite. In general, the toxicity depends on a combination of five different venom fractions, each of which is less toxic when tested separately. Venom toxicity and bite symptoms in humans vary within different populations and over time.[4] In another study, Meier and Theakston reported that the lethality of venom of Russell viper varies with change in route of injection, as their results predicts the LD50 of 0.4 mg/kg through intraperitoneal (I.P) route, 0.75 mg/kg/subcutaneous (S.C) route and 0.3 mg/kg through intravenous (I.V) route.[28]


Envenomation symptoms begin with pain at the site of the bite, immediately followed by swelling of the affected extremity. Bleeding is a common symptom, especially from the gums and in the urine, and sputum may show signs of blood within 20 minutes after the bite. The blood pressure drops, and the heart rate falls. Blistering occurs at the site of the bite, developing along the affected limb in severe cases. Necrosis is usually superficial and limited to the muscles near the bite, but may be severe in extreme cases. Vomiting and facial swelling occur in about one-third of all cases.[4] Kidney failure (renal failure) also occurs in approximately 25–30 percent of untreated bites. Severe disseminated intravascular coagulation also can occur in severe envenomations. Early medical treatment and early access to antivenom can prevent and drastically reduce the chance of developing the severe/potentially lethal complications.

Severe pain may last for 2–4 weeks. It may persist locally, depending on the level of tissue damage. Often, local swelling peaks within 48–72 hours, involving both the affected limb and the trunk. If swelling up to the trunk occurs within 1–2 hours, envenomation is likely to be massive. Discoloration may occur throughout the swollen area as red blood cells and plasma leak into muscle tissue.[15] Death from septicaemia or kidney, respiratory, or cardiac failure may ensue 1 to 14 days after the bite, or sometimes later.[16]

A study in The Lancet showed that out of a sample of people who survived bites by D. russelii, 29% suffered severe damage to their pituitary glands, which later caused hypopituitarism.[29] Other scientific studies support the hypothesis that D. russelii bites can cause hypopituitarism.[30][31]

Antivenom treatment[edit]

In India, the Haffkine Institute prepares a polyvalent antivenom that is used to treat bites from this species.[16] In late 2016, a new antivenom had been developed by the Costa Rican Clodomiro Picado Institute and clinical trials were started in Sri Lanka.[32]

Clinical use[edit]

Because this venom is so effective at inducing thrombosis, it has been incorporated into an in vitro diagnostic test for blood clotting that is widely used in hospital laboratories. This test is often referred to as dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT). The coagulant in the venom directly activates factor X, which turns prothrombin into thrombin in the presence of factor V and phospholipid. The venom is diluted to give a clotting time of 23 to 27 seconds and the phospholipid is reduced to make the test extremely sensitive to phospholipid. The dRVVT test is more sensitive than the aPTT test for the detection of lupus anticoagulant (an autoimmune disorder), because it is not influenced by deficiencies in clotting factors VIII, IX or XI.[33]


  1. ^ Shaw, George (1797). "The Russelian Snake". The Naturalist's Miscellany. 8: 291–293.
  2. ^ Russell, Patrick (1796). An account of Indian serpents, collected on the coast of Coromandel. Vol. 1. London: W. Bulmer and Co. Shakespeare-Press. p. 10. Archived from the original on 2023-02-10. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
  3. ^ a b Thorpe RS, Pook CE, Malhotra A (2007). "Phylogeography of the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) complex in relation to variation in the colour pattern and symptoms of envenoming". Herpetological Journal. 17: 209–18.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Mallow D, Ludwig D, Nilson G (2003). True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 359 pp. ISBN 0-89464-877-2.
  5. ^ a b McDiarmid RW, Campbell JA, Touré TA (1999). Snake Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference, Volume 1. Washington, District of Columbia: Herpetologists' League. 511 pp. ISBN 1-893777-00-6 (series). ISBN 1-893777-01-4 (volume).
  6. ^ Beolens, Bo; Watkins, Michael; Grayson, Michael (2011). The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. xiii + 296 pp. ISBN 978-1-4214-0135-5. (Daboia russelii, pp. 229-230).
  7. ^ Weiner ESC, Simpson JA (editors) (1991). The Compact Oxford English Dictionary: New Edition. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861258-3.
  8. ^ a b Snakes of Thailand: Venomous snakes Archived 2016-03-30 at the Wayback Machine at Siam-Info Archived 2016-05-06 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  9. ^ Daboia russelii at the Reptarium.cz Reptile Database. Accessed 2 August 2007.
  10. ^ a b . Retrieved 20 October 2006.
  11. ^ Captive Care of the Russell's viper Archived 2008-04-09 at the Wayback Machine at VenomousReptiles.org. Retrieved 14 March 2007. Archived April 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ Somaweera A (2007). Checklist of the Snakes of Sri Lanka. Peradeniya, Sri Lanka: Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Peradeniya. PDF Archived 2008-09-20 at the Wayback Machine at Sri Lanka Reptile Archived 2009-08-18 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 14 March 2007.
  13. ^ Mehrtens JM (1987). Living Snakes of the World in Color. New York: Sterling Publishers. 480 pp. ISBN 0-8069-6460-X.
  14. ^ Brown JH (1973). Toxicology and Pharmacology of Venoms from Poisonous Snakes. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. 184 pp. LCCCN 73-229. ISBN 0-398-02808-7.
  15. ^ a b United States Navy (1991). Poisonous Snakes of the World. New York: United States Government/Dover Publications Inc. 203 pp. ISBN 0-486-26629-X.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Daniel, J.C. (2002). "Russell's viper". The Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians. Oxford, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 148–151. ISBN 0-19-566099-4.
  17. ^ a b c Stidworthy, J. (1974). Snakes of the World (Revised ed.). New York: Grosset & Dunlap Inc. ISBN 0-448-11856-4.
  18. ^ a b Ditmars, R.L. (1937). Reptiles of the World: The Crocodilians, Lizards, Snakes, Turtles and Tortoises of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. New York: The MacMillan Company.
  19. ^ Whitaker Z (1989). Snakeman: The Story of a Naturalist. Bombay: India Magazine Books. 184 pp. ASIN B0007BR65Y.
  20. ^ Krochmal, A.R.; Bakken, G.S. (August 2003). "Thermoregulation is the pits: use of thermal radiation for retreat site selection by rattlesnakes". Journal of Experimental Biology. 206 (15): 2539–2545. doi:10.1242/jeb.00471. PMID 12819261.
  21. ^ Krochmal, A.R.; Bakken, G.S.; LaDuc, T.J. (2004). "Heat in evolution's kitchen: evolutionary perspectives on the functions and origin of the facial pit of pitvipers (Viperidae: Crotalinae)". Journal of Experimental Biology. 207 (24): 4231–4238. doi:10.1242/jeb.01278. PMID 15531644.
  22. ^ York, D.S.; Silver, T.M.; Smith, A.A. (1998). "Innervation of the supranasal sac of the puff adder". The Anatomical Record. 251 (2): 221–225. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0185(199806)251:2<221::AID-AR10>3.0.CO;2-Q. PMID 9624452.
  23. ^ "Russell's Viper delivers 75 snakelets". Bangalore Mirror. Archived from the original on 2020-07-11. Retrieved 2020-07-11.
  24. ^ Mao, Shou-Hsian (May 19, 1967). "Bite Patterns of Taiwan Venomous and Non-Venomous Snakes" (PDF). zoolstud.sinica.edu.tw. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 23, 2021. Retrieved December 23, 2021.
  25. ^ "LD50 - intravenous". Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  26. ^ "LD50 - intraperitoneal". Archived from the original on 2009-07-18. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  27. ^ "LD50 - subcutaneous". Archived from the original on 2005-02-05. Retrieved 2012-01-08.
  28. ^ Meier, J; Theakston, RD (1986). "Approximate LD50 determinations of snake venoms using eight to ten experimental animals". Toxicon. 24 (4): 395–401. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(86)90199-6. PMID 3715904.
  29. ^ "The deadly Russell Viper: How the snake's venom affects humans". May 4, 2015. Archived from the original on December 13, 2020. Retrieved November 29, 2020.
  30. ^ Tun-Pe; Warrell, D. A.; Tin-Nu-Swe; Phillips, R. E.; Moore, R. A.; Myint-Lwin; Burke, C. W. (3 October 1987). "Acute and chronic pituitary failure resembling Sheehan's syndrome following bites by Russell's viper in Burma". The Lancet. 330 (8562): 763–767. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(87)92500-1. PMID 2888987. S2CID 41839362.
  31. ^ Antonypillai, C. N.; Wass, J. A. H.; Warrell, D. A.; Rajaratnam, H. N. (2010). "Hypopituitarism following envenoming by Russell's Vipers (Daboia siamensis and D. russelii ) resembling Sheehan's syndrome: First case report from Sri Lanka, a review of the literature and recommendations for endocrine management". QJM. 104 (2): 97–108. doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcq214. PMID 21115460.
  32. ^ Rodrigo, Malaka (9 October 2016). "Trials to start for home-grown anti-venom". The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka). Archived from the original on 20 July 2021. Retrieved 20 July 2021.
  33. ^ Antiphospholipid Syndrome Archived 2006-11-17 at the Wayback Machine at SpecialtyLaboratories Archived 2019-04-02 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 27 September 2006.

Further reading[edit]

  • Hawgood BJ (November 1994). "The life and viper of Dr Patrick Russell MD FRS (1727–1805): physician and naturalist". Toxicon. 32 (11): 1295–304. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(94)90402-2. PMID 7886689.
  • Adler K, Smith HM, Prince SH, David P, Chiszar D (2000). "Russell's viper: Daboia russelii not Daboia russellii, due to Classical Latin rules". Hamadryad. 25 (2): 83–5.
  • Boulenger GA (1890). The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. London: Secretary of State for India in Council. (Taylor and Francis, printers). xviii + 541 pp. ("Vipera russellii", pp. 420–421, Figure 123).
  • Boulenger GA (1896). Catalogue of the Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume III., Containing the...Viperidæ. London: Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). (Taylor and Francis, printers). xiv + 727 pp. + Plates I.- XXV. ("Vipera russellii", pp. 490–491).
  • Breidenbach CH (1990). "Thermal cues influence strikes in pitless vipers". Journal of Herpetology. 24 (4). Society for the Study of Reptiles and Amphibians: 448–50. doi:10.2307/1565074. JSTOR 1565074.
  • Cox M (1991). The Snakes of Thailand and Their Husbandry. Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company. 526 pp. ISBN 0-89464-437-8.
  • Daniels JC (2002). Book of Indian Reptiles and Amphibians Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society/Oxford University Press. viii + 238pp.
  • Das I (2002). A Photographic Guide to Snakes and other Reptiles of India. Sanibel Island, Florida: Ralph Curtis Books. 144 pp. ISBN 0-88359-056-5. (Russell's viper, "Daboia russelii", p. 60).
  • Dimitrov GD, Kankonkar RC (February 1968). "Fractionation of Vipera russelli venom by gel filtration. I. Venom composition and relative fraction function". Toxicon. 5 (3): 213–21. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(68)90092-5. PMID 5640304.
  • Dowling HG (1993). "The name of Russell's viper". Amphibia-Reptilia. 14 (3): 320. doi:10.1163/156853893X00543.
  • Gharpurey K (1962). Snakes of India and Pakistan. Bombay, India: Popular Prakishan. 79 pp.
  • Groombridge B (1980). A phyletic analysis of viperine snakes. Ph-D thesis. City of London: Polytechnic College. 250 pp.
  • Groombridge B (1986). "Phyletic relationships among viperine snakes". In: Proceedings of the third European herpetological meeting; 1985 July 5–11; Charles University, Prague. pp 11–17.
  • Jena I, Sarangi A (1993). Snakes of Medical Importance and Snake-bite Treatment. New Delhi: SB Nangia, Ashish Publishing House. 293 pp.
  • Lenk P, Kalyabina S, Wink M, Joger U [in German] (April 2001). "Evolutionary relationships among the true vipers (Reptilia: Viperidae) inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 19 (1): 94–104. doi:10.1006/mpev.2001.0912. PMID 11286494.
  • Mahendra BC (1984). "Handbook of the snakes of India, Ceylon, Burma, Bangladesh and Pakistan". Annals of Zoology (Agra, India) 22.
  • Master RW, Rao SS (July 1961). "Identification of enzymes and toxins in venoms of Indian cobra and Russell's viper after starch gel electrophoresis". J. Biol. Chem. 236 (7): 1986–90. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18)64116-X. PMID 13767976.
  • Minton SA Jr. (1974). Venom Diseases. Springfield, Illinois: CC Thomas Publishing. 386 pp.
  • Morris PA (1948). Boy's Book of Snakes: How to Recognize and Understand Them. A volume of the Humanizing Science Series, edited by Jacques Cattell. New York: Ronald Press. viii + 185 pp. (Russell's viper, "Vipera russellii", pp. 156–157, 182).
  • Naulleau G, van den Brule B (1980). "Captive reproduction of Vipera russelli". Herpetological Review. 11. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles: 110–2.
  • Obst FJ (1983). "Zur Kenntnis der Schlangengattung Vipera". Zoologische Abhandlungen. 38. Staatliches Museums für Tierkunde in Dresden: 229–35. (in German).
  • Reid HA (1968). "Symptomatology, pathology, and treatment of land snake bite in India and southeast Asia". In: Bucherl W, Buckley E, Deulofeu V (editors). Venomous Animals and Their Venoms. Vol. 1. New York: Academic Press. pp 611–42.
  • Shaw G, Nodder FP (1797). The Naturalist's Miscellany. Volume 9. London: Nodder and Co. 65 pp. (Coluber russelii, new species, Plate 291).
  • Shortt (1863). "A short account of the viper Daboia elegans (Vipera Russellii)". Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 11 (3): 384–5.
  • Silva A de (1990). Colour Guide to the Snakes of Sri Lanka. Avon (Eng): R & A Books. ISBN 1-872688-00-4. 130 pp.
  • Sitprija V, Benyajati C, Boonpucknavig V (1974). "Further observations of renal insufficiency in snakebite". Nephron. 13 (5): 396–403. doi:10.1159/000180416. PMID 4610437.
  • Smith MA (1943). The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-region. Reptilia and Amphibia. Vol. III.—Serpentes. London: Secretary of State for India. (Taylor and Francis, printers). xii + 583 pp. ("Vipera russelli", pp. 482–485).
  • Thiagarajan P, Pengo V, Shapiro SS (October 1986). "The use of the dilute Russell viper venom time for the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulants". Blood. 68 (4): 869–74. doi:10.1182/blood.V68.4.869.869. PMID 3092888.
  • Maung-Maung-Thwin, Khin-Mee-Mee, Mi-Mi-Kyin, Thein-Than (1988). "Kinetics of envenomation with Russell's viper (Vipera russelli) venom and of antivenom use in mice". Toxicon. 26 (4): 373–8. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(88)90005-0. PMID 3406948.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Mg-Mg-Thwin, Thein-Than, U Hla-Pe (1985). "Relationship of administered dose to blood venom levels in mice following experimental envenomation by Russell's viper (Vipera russelli) venom". Toxicon. 23 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1016/0041-0101(85)90108-4. PMID 3922088.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  • Tweedie MWF (1983). The Snakes of Malaya. Singapore: Singapore National Printers Ltd. 105 pp. ASIN B0007B41IO.
  • Vit Z (1977). "The Russell's viper". Prezgl. Zool. 21: 185–8.
  • Wall F (1906). "The breeding of Russell's viper". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 16: 292–312.
  • Wall F (1921). Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo, Ceylon [Sri Lanka]: Colombo Museum. (H.R. Cootle, Government Printer). xxii + 581 pp. ("Vipera russelli", pp. 504–529, Figures 91-92).
  • Whitaker R (1978). Common Indian Snakes. New Delhi (India): MacMillan. 85 pp.
  • Wüster W (1992). "Cobras and other herps in south-east Asia". British Herpetological Society Bulletin. 39: 19–24.
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