|Chapters of the Book of Daniel|
Daniel's final vision, chapters 10, 11 and 12 in the Book of Daniel, describes a series of conflicts between the unnamed King of the North and King of the South leading to the "time of the end," when Israel will be vindicated and the dead raised to shame or glory.
The book of Daniel was written in reaction to the persecution of the Jews by the Greek king Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 167-164 BCE. Its authors were the maskil, the "wise", of whom Daniel is one: "Those among the people who are wise shall make many understand ...", and its fundamental theme is God's control over history. The climax comes with the prophecy of the resurrection of the dead: chapter 7 spoke of the coming "kingdom of heaven", but Daniel 10-12 does not say that history will end with the coming of the Jewish kingdom; rather, the "wise" will be brought back to life to lead Israel in the new kingdom of God.
In contemporary Christian millennialism, Daniel 11:36-45 is interpreted as a prophecy of the career and destruction of the Antichrist, and Daniel 12 as concerning the salvation of Israel (the modern State of Israel) and the coming kingdom of Christ.
Chapter 10–prologue: Daniel sees a vision of a man (but clearly a supernatural being) who tells him that he is currently engaged in a battle with the "prince of Persia," in which he is assisted by "Michael, your prince." He must soon return to the combat, but first he will tell Daniel what is written in the "book of truth."
Chapter 11-vision report: The angel continues: There will be four kings of Persia, and the last will make war on Greece. After him will come a great king, and that king's empire will be broken up. There will be wars and marriages between the kings of the South and the North (described in great detail), and the king of the North will desecrate the Temple and set up "the abomination that causes desolation." At the end-time there will be a war between the king of the South and the king of the North, and the king of the North will meet his end "between the sea and the Holy Mountain."
Chapter 12–epilogue: At that time (the end-time) "Michael, the great prince who protects your people, will arise." There will be great distress, but those Jews whose names are written will be saved, the dead will awaken to everlasting shame or life. Daniel asks how long it will be before these things are fulfilled and is told, “From the time that the daily sacrifice is abolished and the abomination that causes desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days; blessed is the one who waits for and reaches the end of the 1,335 days."
The Daniel who appears as the hero of the book of Daniel never existed, but the authors reveal their true identity at the end of Daniel 12: they are the maskil, the "wise", of whom Daniel is one: "Those among the people who are wise shall make many understand ..." The actual background to the book was the persecution of the Jews by the Greek king Antiochus IV Epiphanes in 167-164 BCE, and there is a broad consensus that the book was completed shortly after that crisis ended. The first six chapters are folktales dating from the late Persian/early Hellenistic period, while the visions of chapters 7-12 date from between 167-164. A probable outline of the composition is as follows:
- An original collection of folk-tales, currently chapters 1-6;
- Addition of chapter 7 and revision of the earlier chapters;
- Further revision and the addition of chapters 8-12.
Daniel is episodic rather than linear–it has no plot as such. It does, however, have a structure. Chapters 2-6 form a chiasm, a literary figure in which elements mirror each other: chapter 2 is the counterpart of chapter 7, chapter 3 of chapter 6, and chapter 4 of chapter 5, with the second member of each pair advancing the first in some way. Daniel 8 is then a new beginning, and the single vision contained in chapters 10-12 advances that argument further and gives it more precision.
Within the three chapters of Daniel 10-12, Daniel 10 serves as prologue, chapter 11 as the report of the angelic vision, and chapter 12 as the epilogue. The unit begins with a third-person introduction (10:1), then switches to Daniel speaking in his own voice as one of the two primary characters, his angelic partner being the second–this is probably the angel Gabriel, although he is never identified). Then follows Daniel 11, the "Book of Truth": much of the history it recounts is accurate, down to the two successive Syrian invasions of Egypt in 170 and 168 BCE, but the final verses (verses 40-45) are not–there was no third war between Egypt and Syria, and Antiochus did not die in Palestine. The failure of prophecy helps pinpoint the date of composition: the author knows of the desecration of the Temple in December 167, but not of its re-dedication or of the death of Antiochus, both in late 164; Daniel 12:11-12's countdown of days remaining to the end-time differs from that in Daniel 8, and were most likely added after the original prediction failed to eventuate.
Genre and themes
The vision is an apocalypse in the form of an epiphany (appearance of a divine being) with an angelic discourse (revelation delivered by an angel). The discourse forms an ex eventu (after the event) prophecy, with close parallels with certain Babylonian works. The only true prophecy is the prediction of the death Antiochus, which is probably based on Ezekiel's prophecy of Gog and Magog. The heroes of Daniel 11-12, the "wise", are based on the "Suffering Servant" of Isaiah 53.
The fundamental theme of the book of Daniel is God's control over history. According to Deuteronomy 32:8-9 God assigned each nation its own divine patron; originally these were subordinate gods, but by the time Daniel came to be written they had been redefined as angels). In Daniel, Michael, the angel of Israel, is in battle with the "prince (i.e., angelic patron) of Persia", and this will be followed by further battle with the "prince of Greece"–the theological point being made is that the fate of nations is decided in heaven, not on earth. The same theme underlies the reference to the heavenly "Book of Truth" which is about to be revealed to Daniel, and which supposedly forms the content of chapter 11: both the past and the future are written already, and God is sovereign over all.
The constant preoccupation of the vision chapters is Antiochus' replacement of the "tamid", the twice-daily burnt offering to the God of Israel, by the "abomination of desolation".[Notes 1] The predicted reversal of the blasphemy will usher in the end of history, the theme of the four earthly kingdoms first introduced in Daniel 2 and developed in Daniel 7 and 8; they will be replaced by the Kingdom of Heaven, a kingdom in which Israel will be given domination over the world.
The climax comes with the prophecy of the resurrection of the dead. Prior to the Babylonian exile, all the dead went to Sheol, irrespective of their good or bad deeds, but the idea that the righteous would be rewarded and the wicked punished began to appear in the 3rd century, and is clearly expressed in Daniel 12:2-3: "Many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake..." (although the "many" implies that not all will be resurrected).[Notes 2] Chapter 7 spoke of the coming "kingdom of heaven", but Daniel 10-12 does not say that history will end with the coming of the Jewish kingdom.
Daniel's final vision is set in "the third year of Cyrus, king of Persia": this marks 70 years since Daniel's own captivity began (606 BCE), and thus the fulfillment of Jeremiah's prophecy that the exile would last 70 years. Chapter 11, the centre-piece of the revelation, gives a broad sweep of history from the 6th century BCE to the 2nd, but the coverage is uneven: two centuries of Persian history plus Alexander the Great's conquests and the breakup of his empire, over two and a half centuries of history, are covered in three verses, but the century and a half of wars between the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria receive 16 verses, and the reign of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, which lasted less than ten years, gets 25.
Verses 20-39, the bulk of the historically accurate verses, deal with Antiochus, who reigned 175-164 BCE. Verse 21 describes him as "the contemptible person to whom royal majesty has not been given," meaning that he came to the throne by questionable means. Verse 22 notes his removal of the High Priest Onias III, (Antiochus sold the priesthood twice over, first to a relative of Onias named Jason, and then to a rival of Jason's named Menelaus), and verses 23-24 apparently refer to his liberality in scattering the spoils among his supporters. Verses 25-28 describe his first war with Egypt, in 170 BCE, in which he was largely but not entirely successful. In 169, on his way back to Syria, he stopped in Jerusalem to plunder the Temple (verse 28).
In 168 Antiochus invaded Egypt again, but this time he was stopped by the Romans (the "ships of Kittim") and forced to retreat (verses 29-30).[Notes 3] Verses 30-31 describe the events that followed: passing once more through Jerusalem, Antiochus instituted a persecution of Jewish customs and religion, desecrated the Temple, and established a garrison there. Verses 32-39 describe the response of "the wise" (the group associated with the book of Daniel) and "the many" (the population at large): the wise suffer and die so that the many will understand. In time the faithful receive "a little help" (possibly, but not certainly, a reference to Judas Maccabeus, who led an armed revolt against the Greeks). Verses 36-39 carry Antiochus' history to the cosmic plane, detailing the blasphemy of the tyrant who considered himself a demi-god. He "spoke astonishing things against the God of gods" and gave "no heed to the god of his fathers".
Verses 40-45 finish the chapter with the prophecy that Antiochus would make war once again against Egypt, and would die in Judea. In the event this did not happen: there was no third war and Antiochus died in Persia or in Babylon.
Daniel and Christian millennialism
Christian millennialism is the belief in the resurrection of the martyrs and their thousand-year rule with Christ, followed by general resurrection, the last judgement, and the creation of a new heaven and new earth in which the faithful will be vindicated. Most 21st century Catholics, Orthodox and Protestants do not hold millennialist beliefs, but they remain strong among American evangelicals. A central role in the end-time drama is given to the figure of the Antichrist: opposed to God and his plan, he is either or both a military/political enemy and/or a deceiver who seeks to lead the faithful from Christ.
About a third of American evangelicals follow a form of millennialism known as Dispensationalism,. One important and representative dispensationalist work, Tim LaHaye and Ed Hinson's Popular Bible Prophecy Commentary, interprets Daniel 11 as a description of the reign of Antiochus as far as verse 36, where it switches to prophecy of the far future (far from Daniel's 6th century BCE perspective, but near for modern millennialists). The "King of the North" from this verse onwards refers not to the 2nd century Syrian king but to the Antichrist: he will deceive the Jews, who will accept him as their promised Messiah and enable the Temple to be rebuilt in Jerusalem, but he will not be a Jew and he will betray them. He will be a military conqueror, with his headquarters on the Temple mount (Daniel 11:45), and he will wage war through the Middle East and the world until he will be destroyed by the true Messiah as predicted in Daniel 11:45. LaHaye and Hindson go on to explain Daniel 12, which tells how Israel's suffering will lead to its salvation and the millennial kingdom of Christ.
Christian historicism treats Daniel 10-12 as part of the unfolding symbolic narrative of the Book of Daniel as a whole. The following table gives a more comprehensive overview of the place of these chapters in the prophetic plan as laid out in the book.
|Chapter||Parallel sequence of prophetic elements as understood by Historicists|
|The Past||Present||The Future|
|Chest & 2 arms
|Belly and thighs
|2 Feet with toes
Clay & Iron
God's unending kingdom
left to no other people
|Daniel 7||Winged Lion||Lopsided Bear||4 Headed/4 Winged
|Iron toothed beast
|A son of man comes in clouds
Given everlasting dominion
He gives it to the saints.
|Daniel 8||2-horned Ram
|Uni- / 4-horned Goat
4 Winds (Greece)
A Master of Intrigue
|Cleansing of Sanctuary
|(Kingdom of God)|
|North & South Kings
4 Winds (Greece)
|North & South Kings
Person of Intrigue
Pagan & Papal Rome
|North & South Kings
|Michael stands up
Many dead awake
To everlasting life
- The tamid offering was a lamb accompanied by fine flour, oil and wine, burnt in the morning and the evening. See Lust, 2002, p.672. The exact nature of the "abomination" is somewhat mysterious, but it was clearly a blasphemous pagan disruption of the worship of the God of Israel, possibly involving the sacrifice of swine.
- The valley of dry bones in Ezekiel 37:1-14 does not refer to individual resurrection but to the restoration of the nation of Israel - see Towner, p.166.
- Kittim: originally the town of Kition (now Larnaca) in Cyprus, but applied to the Greeks and Romans; the same verse mentions Ashur, meaning Syria, and Eber, meaning Palestine.
Appendix: Interpretations from the 1st to 19th centuries
|Interpretations of the North and South kingdoms of Daniel 11 by Biblical expositors from the 1st to 19th centuries|
- Collins 2001, p. 2.
- Davies 2006, p. 406.
- Levine 2010, p. 1234.
- Collins 1984, p. 103.
- LaHaye & Hindson 2006, p. 259-263.
- Collins 1999, p. 219.
- Levine 2010, p. 1233.
- Collins 2001, p. 29.
- Goldingay 2002, p. 624.
- Seow 2003, p. 153.
- Hill 2008, p. 176.
- Seow, p. 166.
- Levine 2010, p. 1257 fn..
- Collins 1984, p. 99-100.
- Hammer 1976, p. 102-103.
- Lust 2002, p. 671-684.
- Cohen 2006, p. 86-87.
- Hill 2008, p. 175.
- Towner 2003, p. 157-158.
- Newsom Breed, p. 339.
- Towner 2003, p. 160.
- Towner 2003.
- Watson 2000, p. 900.
- Weber 2007, p. 379-380.
- Hill 2000, p. 66-67.
- Weber 2007, p. 380.
- Smith, U., 1944, Daniel and Revelation, Southern Publishing Association, Nashville, TN
- Anderson, A., 1975, Pacific PRess Pub. Assoc., Unfolding Daniel's Prophecies, Mountain View, CA
- Daniel 7:13-27 see verses 13, 14, 22, 27
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 456–7
- After table in Froom 1950, pp. 894-75
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 528–9
- After table in Froom 1948, pp. 784–5
- After table in Froom 1946, pp. 744–5
- Bandstra, Barry L. (2008). Reading the Old Testament: An Introduction to the Hebrew Bible. Wadsworth Publishing Company.
- Bergsma, John Sietze (2007). The Jubilee from Leviticus to Qumran. BRILL.
- Boyer, Paul S. (1992). When Time Shall Be No More: Prophecy Belief in Modern American Culture. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-95129-8.
- Brettler, Mark Zvi (2005). How To Read the Bible. Jewish Publication Society.
- Carroll, John T. (2000). "Eschatology". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Cohen, Shaye J.D. (2006). From the Maccabees to the Mishnah. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (1999). "Daniel". In Van Der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem. Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (1998). The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to Jewish Apocalyptic Literature. Eerdmans.
- Collins, John J. (2001). "Current Issues in the Study of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception I. BRILL.
- Collins, John J. (2003). "From Prophecy to Apocalypticism: The Expectation of the End". In McGinn, Bernard; Collins, John J.; Stein, Stephen J. The Continuum History of Apocalypticism. Continuum.
- Coogan, Michael (2009). A Brief Introduction to the Old Testament. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 400.
- Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Apocalyptic". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Davidson, Robert (1993). "Jeremiah, Book of". In Metzger, Bruce M.; Coogan, Michael D. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Davies, Philip (2006). "Apocalyptic". In Rogerson, J. W.; Lieu, Judith M. OUP Oxford. Oxford Handbooks Online.
- DeChant, Dell (2009). "Apocalyptic Communities". In Neusner, Jacob. World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Doukhan, Jacques (2000). Secrets of Daniel: wisdom and dreams of a Jewish prince in exile. Review and Herald Pub Assoc.
- Dunn, James D.G. (2002). "The Danilic Son of Man in the New Testament". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1950). Early Church Exposition, Subsequent Deflections, and Medieval Revival. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 1. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 1006.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1948). Pre-Reformation and Reformation Restoration, and Second Departure. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 2. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 863.
- Froom, Le Roy Edwin (1946). PART I, Colonial and Early National American Exposition. PART II, Old World Nineteenth Century Advent Awakening. The Prophetic Faith of our Fathers: The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation 3. The Review and Herald Publishing Association. p. 802.
- Gallagher, Eugene V. (2011). "Millennialism, Scripture, and Tradition". In Wessinger, Catherine. The Oxford Handbook of Millennialism. Oxford University Press.
- Goldingay, John J. (2002). "Daniel in the Context of OT Theology". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception II. BRILL.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. Continuum.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). Judaic Religion in the Second Temple Period: Belief and Practice from the Exile to Yavneh. Routledge.
- Grabbe, Lester L. (2002). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Hammer, Raymond (1976). The Book of Daniel. Cambridge University Press.
- Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). Invitation to the Apocrypha. Eerdmans.
- Hill, Andrew E. (2008). "Daniel-Malachi". In Longman, Tremper; Garland, David E. The Expositor's Bible Commentary 8. Zondervan.
- Hill, Charles E. (2000). "Antichrist". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Holbrook, Frank B. (1986). The Seventy Weeks, Leviticus, and the Nature of Prophecy (Volume 3 of Daniel and Revelation Committee Series ed.). Biblical Research Institute, General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists. ISBN 0925675024.
- Horsley, Richard A. (2007). Scribes, Visionaries, and the Politics of Second Temple Judea. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Knibb, Michael (2009). Essays on the Book of Enoch and Other Early Jewish Texts and Traditions. BRILL.
- Knibb, Michael (2006). The Septuagint and Messianism. Peeters Publishers.
- Knibb, Michael (2002). "The Book of Daniel in its Context". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Koch, Klaus (2002). "Stages in the Canonization of the Book of daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Kratz, Reinhard (2002). "The Visions of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- LaHaye, Tim Ed Hindson; Hindson, Ed (2006). The popular Bible prophecy commentary. Harvest House Publishers.
- Levine, Amy-Jill (2010). "Daniel". In Coogan, Michael D.; Brettler, Marc Z.; Newsom, Carol A. The new Oxford annotated Bible with the Apocryphal/Deuterocanonical books : New Revised Standard Version. Oxford University Press.
- Lucas, Ernest C. (2005). "Daniel, Book of". In Vanhoozer, Kevin J.; Bartholomew, Craig G.; Treier, Daniel J. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Baker Academic.
- Lust, Johan (2002). "Cult and Sacrifice in Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception II. BRILL.
- Mangano, Mark (2001). Esther & Daniel. College Press.
- Marshall, Taylor (2012). The Eternal City: Rome and the Origins of Catholic Christianity. Saint John Press.
- Matthews, Victor H.; Moyer, James C. (2012). The Old Testament: Text and Context. Baker Books.
- Menn, Jonathan (2013). Biblical Eschatology. Wipf and Stock Publishers.
- Nelson, William (2013). Daniel. Baker Books.
- Newsom, Carol A.; Breed, Brennan W. (2014). Daniel: A Commentary. Presbyterian Publishing Corp.
- Nichol, F., ed. (1954). "chronology chart". SDA Bible Commentary. pp. 326–327.
- Niskanen, Paul (2004). The Human and the Divine in History: Herodotus and the Book of Daniel. Continuum.
- Pasachoff, Naomi E.; Littman, Robert J. (2005). A Concise History of the Jewish People. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Portier-Young, Anathea E. (2013). Apocalypse Against Empire: Theologies of Resistance in Early Judaism. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Provan, Iain (2003). "Daniel". In Dunn, James D. G.; Rogerson, John William. Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible. Eerdmans. ISBN 9780802837110.
- Redditt, Paul L. (2009). Introduction to the Prophets. Eerdmans.
- Reid, Stephen Breck (2000). "Daniel, Book of". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Rowland, Christopher (2007). "Apocalyptic Literature". In Hass, Andrew; Jasper, David; Jay, Elisabeth. The Oxford Handbook of English Literature and Theology. Oxford University Press.
- Ryken,, Leland; Wilhoit, Jim; Longman, Tremper (1998). Dictionary of Biblical Imagery. InterVarsity Press.
- Sacchi, Paolo (2004). The History of the Second Temple Period. Continuum.
- Schwartz, Daniel R. (1992). Studies in the Jewish Background of Christianity. Mohr Siebeck.
- Seow, C.L. (2003). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- Schiffman, Lawrence H. (1991). From Text to Tradition: A History of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism. KTAV Publishing House.
- Spencer, Richard A. (2002). "Additions to Daniel". In Mills, Watson E.; Wilson, Richard F. The Deuterocanonicals/Apocrypha. Mercer University Press.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1993). "Daniel". In Coogan, Michael D.; Metzger, Bruce M. The Oxford Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press.
- Towner, W. Sibley (1984). Daniel. Westminster John Knox Press.
- VanderKam, James C. (2010). The Dead Sea Scrolls Today. Eerdmans.
- VanderKam, James C.; Flint, Peter (2013). The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: their significance for understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity. HarperCollins.
- Watson, Duane F. (2000). "Millennium". In Freedman, David Noel; Myers, Allen C. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Eerdmans.
- Weber, Timothy P. (2007). "Millennialism". In Walls, Jerry L. The Oxford Handbook of Eschatology. Oxford University Press.
- Wesselius, Jan-Wim (2002). "The Writing of Daniel". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W.; VanEpps, Cameron. The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. BRILL.
- Walvoord, John F. (2010). Major Bible Prophecies: 37 Crucial Prophecies That Affect You Today. Moody Press.