"Dermatoglyphics" (from ancient Greek derma=skin, glyph=carving) is the scientific study of fingerprints, lines, mounts, and shapes of hands, while some regard dermatoglyphics as a variant on the pseudoscience of palmistry, there is a considerable scientific literature on linkage of genetic aberrations to finger prints.
Dermatoglyphics refers to the formation of naturally occurring ridges on certain body parts namely palms, fingers, soles and toes as a consequence of continuous friction which occurs in these areas. These are areas where hair usually doesn’t grow and this area enhances contact while preventing slippage. Most dermatoglyphics are correlated with genetic abnormalities and are useful in biomedical studies. They are used in the diagnosis of congenital malformations. The uniqueness of a person’s finger prints led to the analyses of one’s potential, personality and preferences by analyzing dermatoglyphics. The uniqueness is because of the reason that Dermatoglyphics is the reflection of DNA and hence does not change. Finger prints of both hands are not the same and they don’t increase in size except in cases of serious injuries. Finger prints persists lifelong unless when there is damage to dermis. During development various creases develop on the brain and are reflected on the fingerprints representing the various regions of brain. This review article deals with dermatoglyphic studies mainly based on ridge patterns of palms and fingers and the pathologies related to it.
Dermatoglyphic and Genetic Aberrations:
47,XXY or XXY (Klinefelter's syndrome): Excess of arches on digit 1, more frequent ulnar loops on digit 2, overall fewer whorls, lower ridge counts for loops and whorls as compared with controls, and significant reduction of the total finger ridge count.
Noonan syndrome: Increased frequency of whorls on fingertips, and the axial triradius t, as in Turner syndrome, is more often in position t' or t" than in controls. Increased incidence of the single transverse palmar crease.
Trisomy 21 (Down syndrome): People with Down syndrome have a finger print pattern with mainly ulnar loops, and a significantly different angle between the triradia a, t and d (the 'adt angle'). Other differences often include a single transverse palmar crease ("Simian line") (in 50%), and patterns in the hypothenar and interdigital areas, lower ridge counts along digital midlines, especially in little fingers, which corresponds to finger shortening in those with Down syndrome. There is less variation in dermatoglyphic patterns between people with Down syndrome than between controls, and dermatoglyphic patterns can be used to determine correlations with congenital heart defects in individuals with Down syndrome by examining the left hand digit ridge count minus the right hand digit ridge count, and the number of ridges on the fifth digit of the left hand.
- "Publications: Hands & Dermatoglyphics". Retrieved 15 April 2015.
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