Dinosaur size

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For other large prehistoric reptiles, see Largest prehistoric animals#Reptiles (Reptilia).
Reconstructed skeleton of the titanosaur Argentinosaurus huinculensis, the largest known dinosaur.
The bee hummingbird Mellisuga helenae, the smallest known dinosaur.

Size has been one of the most interesting aspects of dinosaur science to the general public and to scientists. Dinosaurs show some of the most extreme variations in size of any land animal group, ranging from the tiny hummingbirds, which can weigh as little as three grams, to the extinct titanosaurs, which could weigh as much as 70 tonnes.[1]

Scientists will probably never be certain of the largest and smallest dinosaurs to have ever existed. This is because only a tiny percentage of animals ever fossilize, and most of these remain buried in the earth. Few of the specimens that are recovered are complete skeletons, and impressions of skin and other soft tissues are rare. Rebuilding a complete skeleton by comparing the size and morphology of bones to those of similar, better-known species is an inexact art, and reconstructing the muscles and other organs of the living animal is, at best, a process of educated guesswork.[2] Weight estimates for dinosaurs are much more variable than length estimates, because estimating length for extinct animals is much more easily done from a skeleton than estimating weight. Estimating weight is most easily done with the laser scan skeleton technique that puts a "virtual" skin over it, but even this is only an estimate.[3]

Current evidence suggests that dinosaur average size varied through the Triassic, early Jurassic, late Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.[4] Predatory theropod dinosaurs, which occupied most terrestrial carnivore niches during the Mesozoic, most often fall into the 100 to 1000 kilogram (220 to 2200 lb) category when sorted by estimated weight into categories based on order of magnitude, whereas recent predatory carnivoran mammals peak in the 10 to 100 kilogram (22 to 220 lb) category.[5] The mode of Mesozoic dinosaur body masses is between one and ten metric tonnes.[6] This contrasts sharply with the size of Cenozoic mammals, estimated by the National Museum of Natural History as about 2 to 5 kilograms (5 to 10 lb).[7]

Record sizes[edit]

The sauropods were the largest and heaviest dinosaurs. For much of the dinosaur era, the smallest sauropods were larger than anything else in their habitat, and the largest were an order of magnitude more massive than anything else that has since walked the Earth. Giant prehistoric mammals such as Paraceratherium (the largest land mammal ever) were dwarfed by the giant sauropods, and only modern whales surpass them in size.[8] There are several proposed advantages for the large size of sauropods, including protection from predation, reduction of energy use, and longevity, but it may be that the most important advantage was dietary. Large animals are more efficient at digestion than small animals, because food spends more time in their digestive systems. This also permits them to subsist on food with lower nutritive value than smaller animals. Sauropod remains are mostly found in rock formations interpreted as dry or seasonally dry, and the ability to eat large quantities of low-nutrient browse would have been advantageous in such environments.[9]

Scale diagram comparing a human and the largest known dinosaurs of five major clades

One of the tallest and heaviest dinosaurs known from good skeletons is Giraffatitan brancai (previously classified as a species of Brachiosaurus). Its remains were discovered in Tanzania between 1907 and 1912. Bones from several similar-sized individuals were incorporated into the skeleton now mounted and on display at the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin;[10] this mount is 12 meters (39 ft) tall and 21.8–22.5 meters (72–74 ft) long,[11][12] and would have belonged to an animal that weighed between 30000 and 60000 kilograms (70000 and 130000 lb). One of the longest complete dinosaurs is the 27-meter (89 ft) long Diplodocus, which was discovered in Wyoming in the United States and displayed in Pittsburgh's Carnegie Natural History Museum in 1907.[13]

There were larger dinosaurs, but knowledge of them is based entirely on a small number of fragmentary fossils. Most of the largest herbivorous specimens on record were all discovered in the 1970s or later, and include the massive titanosaur Argentinosaurus huinculensis, which is the largest dinosaur known from uncontroversial evidence, estimated to have been over 50 t (55 short tons)[14] and 39.7 m (130 ft) long.[15] Some of the longest sauropods were those with exceptionally long, whip-like tails, such as the 33.5 meters (110 ft) long Diplodocus hallorum[9] (formerly Seismosaurus) and the 33 meters (108 ft) long Supersaurus;[16] The tallest was the 18 meters (59 ft) tall Sauroposeidon.

Tyrannosaurus was for many decades the largest theropod and best-known to the general public. Since its discovery, however, a number of other giant carnivorous dinosaurs have been described, including Spinosaurus, Carcharodontosaurus, and Giganotosaurus.[17] The original Spinosaurus specimens (as well as newer fossils described in 2006) support the idea that Spinosaurus is larger than Tyrannosaurus, showing that Spinosaurus was possibly 6 meters longer and at least 1 metric ton heavier than Tyrannosaurus.[18] Therizinosaurus and Deinocheirus were among the tallest of the theropods.[citation needed] There is still no clear explanation for exactly why these animals grew so much larger than the land predators that came before and after them.

The largest extant theropod is the common ostrich, up to 2.74 m (9 ft) tall and weighs between 63.5 and 145.15 kg (140 - 320 lb).[19]

The smallest non-avialan theropod known from adult specimens is the troodontid Anchiornis huxleyi, at 110 grams in weight and 34 centimeters (1 ft) in length.[20] When modern birds are included, the bee hummingbird Mellisuga helenae is smallest at 1.9 g and 5.5 cm (2.2 in) long.[21]

Recent theories propose that theropod body size shrank continuously over the past 50 million years, from an average of 163 kilograms (359 lb) down to 0.8 kilograms (1.8 lb), eventually evolving into modern birds. This was based on evidence that theropods were the only dinosaurs to get continuously smaller, and that their skeletons changed four times faster than those of other dinosaur species.[22][23]

Sauropodomorphs[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs
Main article: Sauropodomorpha

Sauropodomorph size is difficult to estimate given their usually fragmentary state of preservation. Sauropods are often preserved without their tails, so the margin of error in overall length estimates is high. Mass is calculated using the cube of the length, so for species in which the length is particularly uncertain, the weight is even more so. Estimates that are particularly uncertain (due to very fragmentary or lost material) are preceded by a question mark. Each number represents the highest estimate of a given research paper. One large sauropod, Amphicoelias fragillimus, was based on particularly scant remains that have been lost since their description by paleontologists in 1878. Analysis of the illustrations included in the original report suggested that A. fragillimus may have been the largest land animal of all time, weighing up to 150 t (170 short tons) and measuring between 40–60 m (130–200 ft) long.[24] However, later analysis of the surviving evidence, and the biological plausibility of such a large land animal, suggested that the enormous size of this animal was an over-estimate due partly to typographical errors in the original report.[25]

Generally, the giant sauropods can be divided into two categories: the shorter but stockier and more massive forms (mainly titanosaurs and some brachiosaurids), and the longer but slenderer and more light-weight forms (mainly diplodocids).

Heaviest sauropodomorphs[edit]

  1. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 50–90 t (55–99 short tons)[14][24]
  2. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 69–80 t (76–88 short tons)[24][26]
  3. Apatosaurus ajax: 36–80 t (40–88 short tons)[27]
  4. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 75 t (83 short tons)[24]
  5. Sauroposeidon proteles: 40–60 t (44–66 short tons)[24][28][29]
  6. Paralititan stromeri: 20–59 t (22–65 short tons)[24][30]
  7. Unnamed (MPM-PV-39): 58 t (64 short tons)[31]
  8. Brachiosaurus altithorax: 28.7–56.3 t (31.6–62.1 short tons)[14][32]
  9. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 40–50.9 t (44.1–56.1 short tons)[33][14]
  10. Ruyangosaurus giganteus: 50 t (55 short tons)[24]

Longest sauropodomorphs[edit]

  1. Argentinosaurus huinculensis: 30–39.7 m (98–130 ft)[15][34]
  2. Turiasaurus riodevensis: 30–39 m (98–128 ft)[24][33][35]
  3. Supersaurus vivianae: 33–35 m (108–115 ft)[16][24]
  4. Mamenchisaurus sinocanadorum: 26–35 m (85–115 ft)[24][36][dubious ]
  5. Sauroposeidon proteles: 28–34 m (92–112 ft)[28][29][9]
  6. Futalognkosaurus dukei: 26–34 m (85–112 ft)[28][29][9][28][35][37][38]
  7. Diplodocus hallorum: 30–33.5 m (98–110 ft)[16][26][39]
  8. "Antarctosaurus" giganteus: 23–33 m (75–108 ft)[9][35]
  9. Xinjiangtitan shanshanesis: 30–32 m (98–105 ft)[40]
  10. Paralititan stromeri: 20–32 m (66–105 ft)[24][35]

Lightest sauropodomorphs[edit]

  1. Eoraptor lunensis: 2–17.3 kg (4.4–38.1 lb)[14][24]
  2. Pampadromaeus barberenai: 8.5 kg (19 lb)[14]
  3. Saturnalia tupiniquim: 10–10.6 kg (22–23 lb)[14][24]
  4. Chromogisaurus novasi: 13.1 kg (29 lb)[14]
  5. Asylosaurus yalensis: 25 kg (55 lb)[24]
  6. Guaibasaurus candelariensis: 25–30.3 kg (55–67 lb)[14][24]
  7. Adeopapposaurus mognai: 43.9–70 kg (97–154 lb)[14][24]
  8. Coloradisaurus brevis: 70 kg (150 lb)[24]
  9. Anchisaurus polyzelus: 70–137.6 kg (154–303 lb)[14][24]
  10. Sarahsaurus aurifontanalis: 100.2 kg (221 lb)[14]

Shortest sauropodomorphs[edit]

Estimated size of Saturnalia, compared to a human.
  1. Agnosphitys cromhallensis: 70 cm (2.3 ft)[35]
  2. Eoraptor lunensis: 1–1.7 m (3.3–5.6 ft)[24][35]
  3. Pampadromaeus barberenai: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[35]
  4. Saturnalia tupiniquim: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[35]
  5. Chromogisaurus novasi: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[35]
  6. Guaibasaurus candelariensis: 2 m (6.6 ft)[24][35]
  7. Asylosaurus yalensis: 2–2.1 m (6.6–6.9 ft)[24][35]
  8. Leyesaurus marayensis: 2.1 m (6.9 ft)?[35]
  9. Adeopapposaurus mognai: 2.1–3 m (6.9–9.8 ft)[24][35]
  10. Unaysaurus tolentinoi: 2.5 m (8.2 ft)[35]

Theropods[edit]

Main article: Theropoda

Sizes are given with a range, where possible, of estimates that have not been contradicted by more recent studies. In cases where a range of currently accepted estimates exist, sources are given for the sources with the lowest and highest estimates, respectively, and only the highest values are given if these individual sources give a range of estimates.

Heaviest theropods[edit]

Size by overall weight of all theropods with maximum weight estimates of over 5 metric tons (5.5 short tons).

  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 7–20.9 t (7.7–23.0 short tons)[17][18]
  2. Tyrannosaurus rex: 4.5–18.5 t (5.0–20.4 short tons)[41][42][43][44]
  3. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 3–15.1 t (3.3–16.6 short tons)[14][17][45]
  4. Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis: 4 t (4.4 short tons)-(comparable to C. saharicus)[24][46]
  5. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 6.1–13.8 t (6.7–15.2 short tons) (2.6–13.8 t (2.9–15.2 short tons))[14][17][26]
  6. Acrocanthosaurus atokensis: 3.7–7.3 t (4.1–8.0 short tons)[42][47]
  7. Tyrannotitan chubutensis: 5.6–7 t (6.2–7.7 short tons)[24][42]
  8. Oxalaia quilombensis: 5–7 t (5.5–7.7 short tons)[48]
  9. Deinocheirus mirificus: 6.4 t (7.1 short tons)[49]
  10. Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis: 2.5–6 t (2.8–6.6 short tons)[50][51]

Longest theropods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs
  1. Spinosaurus aegyptiacus: 14–18 m (46–59 ft)[24][18][52]
  2. Giganotosaurus carolinii: 12.2–14 m (40–46 ft)[24][53]
  3. Oxalaia quilombensis: 11–14 m (36–46 ft)[35][48]
  4. Carcharodontosaurus saharicus: 12–13.3 m (39–44 ft)[17][35]
  5. Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis: 10 m (33 ft)-(comparable to C. saharicus)[24][46]
  6. Tyrannotitan chubutensis: 12.2–13 m (40–43 ft)[24][35]
  7. Chilantaisaurus tashuikouensis: 11–13 m (36–43 ft)?[24][35]
  8. Saurophaganax maximus: 10.5–13 m (34–43 ft)[24][35]
  9. Mapusaurus roseae: 11.5–12.6 m (38–41 ft)[24][35]
  10. Tyrannosaurus rex: 12–12.5 m (39–41 ft)[24][52]

Lightest theropods[edit]

  1. Mellisuga helenae: 2 g (0.071 oz)[54]
  2. Selasphorus rufus: 2–5 g (0.071–0.176 oz)[55]
  3. Calypte costae: 3.38–4.43 g (0.119–0.156 oz)[56]
  4. Calypte anna: 3.85–5.33 g (0.136–0.188 oz)[56]

Shortest theropods[edit]

  1. Mellisuga helenae: 5–6 cm (2.0–2.4 in)[57][58]
  2. Selasphorus rufus: 7–9 cm (2.8–3.5 in)[55]

Shortest non-avialan theropods[edit]

Size comparison of the smallest non-avialan theropods
  1. Unnamed (BEXHM: 2008.14.1): 17–50 cm (6.7–19.7 in)[59][60]
  2. Epidexipteryx hui: 25 cm (9.8 in)[61]
  3. Eosinopteryx brevipenna: 30 cm (12 in)[62]
  4. Nqwebasaurus thwazi: 30 cm (12 in)[17]
  5. "Ornithomimus" minutus: 30 cm (12 in)[35]
  6. Palaeopteryx thompsoni: 30 cm (12 in)?[35]
  7. Parvicursor remotus: 30–39 cm (12–15 in)[35][63]
  8. Microraptor zhaoianus: 42–120 cm (17–47 in)[64][65]
  9. Xixianykus zhangi: 50 cm (20 in)[35]
  10. Alwalkeria maleriensis: 50 cm (20 in)?[35]

Lightest non-avialan theropods[edit]

A list of all known non-avian theropods with an adult weight of 1 kg (2.2 lb) or less.

  1. Parvicursor remotus: 137–162 g (4.8–5.7 oz)[14][63]
  2. Epidexipteryx hui: 164–391 g (5.8–13.8 oz)[14][61]
  3. Compsognathus longipes: 0.26–3.5 kg (0.57–7.72 lb)[17][45]
  4. Ceratonykus oculatus: 0.3 kg (0.66 lb)[14]
  5. Juravenator starki: 0.34–0.41 kg (0.75–0.90 lb)[14][17]
  6. Ligabueino andesi: 0.35–0.5 kg (0.77–1.10 lb)[14][24]
  7. Microraptor zhaoianus: 0.4 kg (0.88 lb)[14]
  8. Sinosauropteryx prima: 0.55–0.99 kg (1.2–2.2 lb)[14][17]
  9. Rahonavis ostromi: 0.58 kg (1.3 lb)[14]
  10. Mahakala omnogovae: 0.76–0.79 kg (1.7–1.7 lb)[14][42]

Ornithopods[edit]

Main article: Ornithopoda

Longest ornithopods[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ornithopod dinosaurs
  1. Shantungosaurus giganteus: 15–18.7 m (49–61 ft)[35][45][66][67]
  2. Hypsibema crassicauda: 15 m (49 ft)?[35]
  3. Hypsibema missouriensis (Parrosaurus):[35] 15 m (49 ft)?[35]
  4. Edmontosaurus regalis: 9–13 m (30–43 ft)[24][68][69]
  5. Iguanodon bernissartensis: 10–13 m (33–43 ft)[35][70]
  6. Magnapaulia laticaudus: 12.5 m (41 ft)[71]
  7. Saurolophus angustirostris: 12 m (39 ft)[24][72]
  8. Ornithotarsus immanis: 12 m (39 ft)?[35]
  9. Edmontosaurus annectens: 9–12 m (30–39 ft)[24][35][73]
  10. Kritosaurus sp.: 11 m (36 ft)[74]

Heaviest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Magnapaulia laticaudus: 12–23 t (13–25 short tons)[24][75]
  2. Shantungosaurus giganteus: 9.9–22.5 t (10.9–24.8 short tons)[14][24][45][76]
  3. Iguanodon seeleyi: 15 t (17 short tons)[14]
  4. Saurolophus angustirostris: 6.6–9 t (7.3–9.9 short tons)[24]
  5. Iguanodon bernissartensis: 8.3–8.6 t (9.1–9.5 short tons)[14]
  6. Edmontosaurus annectens: 3.2–7.6 t (3.5–8.4 short tons)[14][45][77]
  7. Brachylophosaurus canadensis: 4.5–7 t (5.0–7.7 short tons)[14][24]
  8. Saurolophus osborni: 6.6 t (7.3 short tons)[14]
  9. Lanzhousaurus magnidens: 6 t (6.6 short tons)[24]
  10. Parasaurolophus walkeri: 3–5.1 t (3.3–5.6 short tons)[14][45][78]

Shortest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis: 0.65–1.7 m (2.1–5.6 ft)[24][35][45]
  2. Leaellynasaura amicagraphica: 0.9–3 m (3.0–9.8 ft)[24][35]
  3. Valdosaurus canaliculatus: 1.3 m (4.3 ft)[24]
  4. Notohypsilophodon comodorensis: 1.3 m (4.3 ft)[24]
  5. Fulgurotherium australe: 1.3–2 m (4.3–6.6 ft)[24][35]
  6. Siluosaurus zhangqiani: 1.4 m (4.6 ft)[35]
  7. Qantassaurus intrepidus: 1.4–2 m (4.6–6.6 ft)[24][35]
  8. Changchunsaurus parvus: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[24]
  9. Thescelosaurus sp.: 1.5 m (4.9 ft)[45]
  10. Yandusaurus hongheensis: 1.5–3.8 m (4.9–12.5 ft)[24][35]

Lightest ornithopods[edit]

  1. Gasparinisaura cincosaltensis: 1–13 kg (2.2–28.7 lb)[14][24][42][45]
  2. Yueosaurus tiantaiensis: 3.9 kg (8.6 lb)[14]
  3. Fulgurotherium australe: 6 kg (13 lb)[24]
  4. Notohypsilophodon comodorensis: 6 kg (13 lb)[24]
  5. Yandusaurus hongheensis: 6.6–7.5 kg (15–17 lb)[45][77]
  6. Hypsilophodon foxii: 7–21 kg (15–46 lb)[24][45][77]
  7. Thescelosaurus sp.: 7.9–86 kg (17–190 lb)[45][77]
  8. Valdosaurus canaliculatus: 10 kg (22 lb)[24]
  9. Haya griva: 11 kg (24 lb)[14]
  10. Agilisaurus louderbacki: 12 kg (26 lb)[24]

Ceratopsians[edit]

Main article: Ceratopsia

Longest ceratopsians[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant ceratopsian dinosaurs
  1. Eotriceratops xerinsularis: 8.5–9 m (28–30 ft)[24][35]
  2. Triceratops horridus: 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[24][35][45]
  3. Torosaurus latus: 8–9 m (26–30 ft)[24][35]
  4. Triceratops prorsus: 7.9–9 m (26–30 ft)[24][35][79][80]
  5. Titanoceratops ouranos: 6.8–9 m (22–30 ft)[35][81]
  6. Ojoceratops fowleri: 8 m (26 ft)[35]
  7. Coahuilaceratops magnacuerna: 8 m (26 ft)[35]
  8. Pentaceratops sternbergii: 6–8 m (20–26 ft)[24][35][45][82]
  9. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis: 6–8 m (20–26 ft)[24][35]
  10. Pachyrhinosaurus lakustai: 5–8 m (16–26 ft)[24][35]

Heaviest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Triceratops horridus: 5–14 t (5.5–15.4 short tons)[14][45]
  2. Triceratops prorsus: 9–10.9 t (9.9–12.0 short tons)[14][24]
  3. Titanoceratops ouranos: 4.7–10.8 t (5.2–11.9 short tons)[14][83]
  4. Eotriceratops xerinsularis: 10 t (11 short tons)[24]
  5. Pentaceratops sternbergii: 4.7 t (5.2 short tons)[45]
  6. Pachyrhinosaurus canadensis: 3–4.4 t (3.3–4.9 short tons)[14][24][78]
  7. Styracosaurus albertensis: 2.7–4.2 t (3.0–4.6 short tons)[14][84]
  8. Utahceratops gettyi: 3–4 t (3.3–4.4 short tons)[85]
  9. Achelousaurus horneri: 3 t (3.3 short tons)[24]
  10. Agujaceratops mariscalensis: 2.6 t (2.9 short tons)[14]

Shortest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Yamaceratops dorngobiensis: 50–150 cm (1.6–4.9 ft)[24][35]
  2. Archaeoceratops yujingziensis: 55–150 cm (1.80–4.92 ft)[86][35]
  3. Microceratus gobiensis: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[35]
  4. Aquilops americanus: 60 cm (2.0 ft)[87]
  5. Chaoyangsaurus youngi: 60–100 cm (2.0–3.3 ft)[24][35]
  6. Xuanhuaceratops niei: 60–100 cm (2.0–3.3 ft)[24][35]
  7. Graciliceratops mongoliensis: 60–200 cm (2.0–6.6 ft)[35][88]
  8. Archaeoceratops oshimai: 67–150 cm (2.20–4.92 ft)[24][35][86]
  9. Bagaceratops rozhdestvenskyi: 80–90 cm (2.6–3.0 ft)[24][35]
  10. Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis: 90 cm (3.0 ft)[24]

Lightest ceratopsians[edit]

  1. Aquilops americanus: 1.5 kg (3.3 lb)[87]
  2. Liaoceratops yanzigouensis: 2 kg (4.4 lb)[24]
  3. Yamaceratops dorngobiensis: 2 kg (4.4 lb)[24]
  4. Psittacosaurus sinensis: 4.1 kg (9.0 lb)[14]
  5. Psittacosaurus lujiatunensis: 5 kg (11 lb)[24]
  6. Yinlong downsi: 5.5 kg (12 lb)[14]
  7. Micropachycephalosaurus hongtuyanensis: 5.9 kg (13 lb)[14]
  8. Chaoyangsaurus youngi: 6 kg (13 lb)[24]
  9. Xuanhuaceratops niei: 6 kg (13 lb)[24]
  10. Psittacosaurus gobiensis: 6–9.4 kg (13–21 lb)[14][24]

Pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Main article: Pachycephalosauria

Longest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size comparison of an adult P. wyomingensis (green), potential growth stages, and a human

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 3 meters or more in length.

  1. Pachycephalosaurus wyomingensis: 4.5–7 m (15–23 ft)[24][35]
  2. Stygimoloch spinifer: 3 m (9.8 ft)[35]
  3. Gravitholus albertae: 3 m (9.8 ft)?[35]

Shortest pachycephalosaurs[edit]

Size by overall length, including tail, of all pachycephalosaurs measuring 2 meters or less in length as adults.

  1. Colepiocephale lambei: 1.8 m (5.9 ft)[35]
  2. Stegoceras validum: 2 m (6.6 ft)[35]
  3. Texacephale langstoni: 2 m (6.6 ft)[35]

Thyreophorans[edit]

Main article: Thyreophora

Longest thyreophorans[edit]

Size of Stegosaurus armatus compared to a human
Estimated size of Ankylosaurus compared to a human.
  1. Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum: 7–9 m (23–30 ft)[24][35]
  2. Stegosaurus ungulatus: 7–9 m (23–30 ft)[24][35]
  3. Stegosaurus stenops: 6.5–9 m (21–30 ft)[24][35]
  4. Ankylosaurus magniventris: 6.25–9 m (20.5–29.5 ft)[35][89]
  5. Dacentrurus armatus: 7–8 m (23–26 ft)[24][35][90]
  6. Sauropelta edwardsorum: 5–7.6 m (16–25 ft)[24][35][91]
  7. Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus: 7 m (23 ft)?[35]
  8. Tuojiangosaurus multispinus: 6.5–7 m (21–23 ft)[24][35][45]
  9. Wuerhosaurus homheni: 6.1–7 m (20–23 ft)[24][35]
  10. Edmontonia longiceps: 6–7 m (20–23 ft)[24][35]

Heaviest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Dacentrurus armatus: 5–7.4 t (5.5–8.2 short tons)[14][24]
  2. Stegosaurus ungulatus: 3.8–7 t (4.2–7.7 short tons)[14][24]
  3. Ankylosaurus magniventris: 1.7–6 t (1.9–6.6 short tons)[14][24][45]
  4. Stegosaurus stenops: 2.6–5.3 t (2.9–5.8 short tons)[24][45][78][92]
  5. Cedarpelta bilbeyhallorum: 5 t (5.5 short tons)[24]
  6. Hesperosaurus mjosi: 3.5–5 t (3.9–5.5 short tons)[14][24][92]
  7. Tuojiangosaurus multispinus: 1.1–4.8 t (1.2–5.3 short tons)[14][45]
  8. Wuerhosaurus homheni: 4 t (4.4 short tons)[24]
  9. Niobrarasaurus coleii: 4 t (4.4 short tons)[24]
  10. Gobisaurus domoculus: 3.5 t (3.9 short tons)[24]

Shortest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Tatisaurus oehleri: 1.2 m (3.9 ft)[35]
  2. Scutellosaurus lawleri: 1.2–1.3 m (3.9–4.3 ft)[24][35]
  3. Dracopelta zbyszewskii: 2 m (6.6 ft)[35]
  4. Minmi paravertebra: 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft)[24][35]

Lightest thyreophorans[edit]

  1. Scutellosaurus lawleri: 3 kg (6.6 lb)[24]
  2. Emausaurus ernsti: 50 kg (110 lb)[24]
  3. Scelidosaurus harrisonii: 64.5–270 kg (142–595 lb)[24][45]
  4. Animantarx ramaljonesi: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]
  5. Struthiosaurus transylvanicus: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]
  6. Struthiosaurus austriacus: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]
  7. Gargoyleosaurus parkpinorum: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]
  8. Mymoorapelta maysi: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]
  9. Minmi paravertebra: 300 kg (660 lb)[24]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]