Dongola

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Dongola
Dongola is located in Sudan
Dongola
Dongola
Location in Sudan
Coordinates: 19°10′11.37″N 30°28′29.62″E / 19.1698250°N 30.4748944°E / 19.1698250; 30.4748944
CountryFlag of Sudan.svg Sudan
StateNorthern
Population
 (2010)
 • Total13,473

Dongola (Arabic: دنقلا, romanizedDunqulā), also spelled Dunqulah, is the capital of the state of Northern Sudan, on the banks of the Nile, and a former Latin Catholic bishopric (14th century). It should not be confused with Old Dongola, an ancient city located 80 km upstream on the opposite bank.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The word Dongola comes from the Nubian word "Doñqal" which means red brick,[2] as most buildings were made of bricks, thus provoking one of ancient Nubia's biggest industries.[citation needed] A more modern use of the word is to describe a strong and hard bulwark,[clarification needed] that being so Dongola is often called "the Resident of a large Nile castle".

History[edit]

Dongola was a province of Upper Nubia on both sides of the Nile,[3] and the city was a centre for Nubian civilization, as manifested by its many archaeological remains from the Makurian and Islamic periods. Dongolawis originate from early indigenous Nubian Sub Saharan African inhabitants[4] with many taking pride in their mostly non-mixed ancestry; although always faced with criticism this helped preserve the Nilo Saharan Dongolawi Nubian language (sometimes pejoratively referred to as Rotana); however, cultural preferences are slowly changing. The remains of the revered Baqt Treaty are to be found in Dongola. The province of Dongola was part of the Makuria kingdom, which later became part of Egypt after Muhammad Ali Pasha ordered the invasion and occupation of Sudan in 1820; after which it was designated as a seat of a pasha. Its first governor was Abidin Bey.

Map showing the British advance upon Dongola

Dongola was the scene of a victory by General Herbert Kitchener over the indigenous Mahdist Muslim tribes in 1899 who later turned it into a British-Egyptian army base with the objective of collecting and storing weapons, gear and resources. Dongola was a considered an all time base for sending campaign reports to Britain, and the first English press release was issued in the name of Dongola Star, with news of the British-Egyptian army in Sudan.[5] Kitchener's forces were known for their mercilessness, killing over 15,000 Mahdist troops in the Battle of Omdurman before conquering Dongola, and later on proceeded to kill the wounded, raising the overall death toll to over 50,000.[6]

Dongola Road and Dongola Avenue in the Bishopston area of Bristol were named after this event; as was Dongola Road in Tottenham, North London which runs next to Kitchener Road. There is also a Dongola Road in Jersey (Channel Islands). There is a Dongola Road, in Plaistow, East London. In the United States, Dongola, Illinois was established in the 1850s, and named for Dongola.[7] There is also a Dongola Lane in Shakopee, Minnesota, and a Dongola Hwy. in Conway, South Carolina.

Ecclesiastical history[edit]

Dongola Market

The Latin Catholic Diocese of Dongola was established in 1330 and suppressed in 1350. No incumbent is recorded.[8]

Church of the Granite Columns

Dongola racing[edit]

The Nile Expedition of 1884–1885 to relieve Gordon at Khartoum passed through the area. Regiments were challenged to race up the river by boat, and this gave rise to the English regatta competition of dongola racing.

Climate[edit]

Dongola has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh) as it is located in the Sahara Desert, one of the hottest, sunniest and driest regions in the world. The temperature is warm or hot year-round, with January, the coolest month, having a mean of 17.6 °C (63.7 °F) and an average low of 8.5 °C (47.3 °F). June has the highest average high of 43.4 °C (110.1 °F), while August has the highest average low at 25.2 °C (77.4 °F). On 22 June 2010, Dongola recorded a temperature of 49.7 °C (121.5 °F), which is the highest temperature that has been recorded in Sudan.[9] The lowest recorded temperature was −2.7 °C (27.1 °F) in January.[year needed]

Dongola receives only 12.3 millimetres (0.48 in) of precipitation annually because of its arid location. September is the wettest month, receiving 7.7 millimetres (0.30 in) of rain on average. Rainfall is sporadic but more likely to occur in the summer. Six months receive no precipitation at all. Humidity is low year-round, but it is higher in winter. Dongola receives 3813.8 hours of sunshine annually, which is 87% of all possible sunshine. June has the most sunshine and September has the least.

Climate data for Dongola (1961–1990)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.6
(97.9)
42.2
(108.0)
46.0
(114.8)
46.5
(115.7)
48.6
(119.5)
49.7
(121.5)
49.0
(120.2)
46.6
(115.9)
46.8
(116.2)
44.4
(111.9)
40.1
(104.2)
37.3
(99.1)
49.7
(121.5)
Average high °C (°F) 26.7
(80.1)
29.4
(84.9)
33.8
(92.8)
38.6
(101.5)
41.8
(107.2)
43.4
(110.1)
42.2
(108.0)
41.8
(107.2)
39.8
(103.6)
38.4
(101.1)
32.1
(89.8)
28.3
(82.9)
36.4
(97.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
19.6
(67.3)
23.9
(75.0)
28.5
(83.3)
32.1
(89.8)
34.0
(93.2)
33.6
(92.5)
33.5
(92.3)
32.3
(90.1)
29.4
(84.9)
23.5
(74.3)
19.3
(66.7)
27.3
(81.1)
Average low °C (°F) 8.5
(47.3)
9.8
(49.6)
13.9
(57.0)
18.5
(65.3)
22.3
(72.1)
24.7
(76.5)
25.0
(77.0)
25.2
(77.4)
24.7
(76.5)
20.4
(68.7)
14.8
(58.6)
10.2
(50.4)
18.2
(64.8)
Record low °C (°F) −2.7
(27.1)
1.0
(33.8)
4.3
(39.7)
8.4
(47.1)
12.6
(54.7)
17.3
(63.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.0
(64.4)
16.6
(61.9)
11.4
(52.5)
6.0
(42.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.7
(27.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 0.3
(0.01)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.5
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
3.2
(0.13)
7.7
(0.30)
0.1
(0.00)
0.5
(0.02)
0.0
(0.0)
12.3
(0.48)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 2.0
Average relative humidity (%) 35 30 23 21 18 17 21 22 21 25 32 36 25
Mean monthly sunshine hours 306.9 294.0 319.3 321.0 325.5 339.0 334.8 337.9 288.0 319.3 315.0 313.1 3,813.8
Percent possible sunshine 91 91 85 85 84 89 81 83 78 88 93 91 87
Source: NOAA[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Old Dongola". World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  2. ^ "معنى كلمة دنقلا". maraga.ahlamontada.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  3. ^ "Nubia | Definition, History, Map, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  4. ^ "قبيلة الدناقلة". maraga.ahlamontada.com (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  5. ^ Surri, Mohammad (2019-06-26). "محلية دنقلا في السودان". اقرأ - السوق المفتوح (in Arabic). Retrieved 2020-07-21.
  6. ^ "Sudanese honour warriors who fell fighting British - Sudan Tribune: Plural news and views on Sudan". www.sudantribune.com. Retrieved 2020-07-21.
  7. ^ "Dongola, IL - Dongola, Illinois Map & Directions - MapQuest". www.mapquest.com. Retrieved 2020-07-01.
  8. ^ http://www.gcatholic.org/dioceses/former/dong0.htm GCatholic.org
  9. ^ Masters, Jeff. "Bolivia ties its all-time heat record". Weather Underground. Dr. Jeff Masters' WunderBlog. Archived from the original on 24 November 2010. Retrieved 23 November 2010.
  10. ^ "Dongola Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 23, 2015.

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 19°10′11.37″N 30°28′29.62″E / 19.1698250°N 30.4748944°E / 19.1698250; 30.4748944