The village formed on the banks of the River Cam, a little below its emergence from the hills of north Essex. One of the more populous settlements in its hundred it was split into two ecclesiastical parishes in medieval times until they were united in 1834.
From medieval times the village was unusual in possessing two parish churches, each with a separate incumbent, St John's Church and St Peter's Church. The two parishes were combined in 1874, services being held thereafter at St Peter's; St John's was declared redundant. To the north of the village close to the Royston to Newmarket road lies Duxford Chapel, a 14th-century chantry chapel that was probably part of the Hospital of St John.
A Congregational chapel was built in the late 18th century and licensed in 1794, and at its peak in 1850 had a weekly congregation of 350. The chapel joined with other Congregational churches in uniting with the Presbyterian Church of England in 1972, and has been known as Duxford United Reformed Church since then. The final service was held here was in June 2019. The building's future is to be decided by June 2020.
Duxford gives its name to RAF Duxford (now called Duxford Aerodrome), a former Royal Air Force airfield that was used as a sector station during the Battle of Britain. Duxford Aerodrome was the home of Douglas Bader's Big Wing during that battle. Duxford airfield later became a fighter airfield for the United States Army Air Forces operating P-47 Thunderbolt aircraft. In 1972 the Ministry of Defence began to house historically important aircraft in the hangars, which became the Imperial War Museum Duxford.
The airfield was used in the motion picture The Battle of Britain. During that production one of the hangars was blown up to simulate a Luftwaffe bombing raid. There are currently three all-weekend air shows a year which have good visibility from the village and it is common to see planes flying over the village, either leisure flights or in essential practice.
The village currently has two remaining pubs – The John Barleycorn and The Plough. Other former pubs include The Wheatsheaf (which re-opened in 2018 as Graystones deli/cafe), the Three Horseshoes, first recorded in 1786, the King's Head which opened in the mid-19th century and the Flower Pot, located at the end of the old airfield runway on what is now Hunts Road. The latter was a popular haunt for pilots during the war  The village holds an annual Advent Market at St John's Church to raise funds which are then available for local projects which enhance the quality of life for residents. There is also an annual Soap Box Derby in September. There is a Duxford WI, a local drama group (DVD - Duxford Village Drama) and a bowls club. The local football team is Duxford United FC who play their home games on the recreation ground. There are also two tennis courts on the same ground. The school is a Church of England Primary School in the Diocese of Ely which has a breakfast and after-school club (DX) and a playgroup on site. In May 2019 the foundations of a new village community centre were dug and it is due to be completed in May 2020.
- 2001 Census Archived 2006-04-01 at the Wayback Machine
- "Civil Parish population 2011". Neighbourhood Statistics. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 16 July 2016.
- A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely. 6. Victoria County History. 1978. pp. 201–220.
- A. D. Mills (2003). "A Dictionary of British Place-Names".
- "Duxford Chapel". English Heritage.
- "The John Barleycorn Hotel, Pub & Restaurant Duxford". The John Barleycorn Duxford.
- "Data" (PDF). www.impmac.co.uk. 2015.
- "About us". Duxford Advent Trust.
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