Electric car energy efficiency

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The following table compares official ratings for fuel economy (miles per gallon gasoline equivalent in the case of plug-in electric vehicles) for series production all-electric passenger vehicles rated by the EPA as of November 2016,[1][2] versus EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid with long distance range (Chevrolet Volt – second generation), gasoline-electric hybrid car (Toyota Prius Eco - fourth generation),[3][4][5] and EPA's average new 2016 vehicle, which has a fuel economy of 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp).[1][3]

Comparison of fuel efficiency and costs for all the electric cars rated by the EPA for the U.S. market as of November 2016
against EPA rated most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid, hybrid electric vehicle and 2016 average gasoline-powered car in the U.S.
(Fuel economy and operating costs as displayed in the Monroney label)[1][2][6]
Vehicle Model
year
EPA rated
Combined
fuel economy
EPA rated
City
fuel economy
EPA rated
Highway
fuel economy
Notes
Hyundai Ioniq Electric[2][7] 2017 136 mpg-e
(25 kW·h/100 mi
15.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
150 mpg-e
(22 kW·h/100 mi
14 kW⋅h/100 km)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
17.5 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1) (4)
BMW i3 (60 A·h)[8][9] 2014/15/16 124 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi
17.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
137 mpg-e
(25 kW·h/100 mi
15.6 kW⋅h/100 km)
111 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi
19.3 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1) (3) (4) (5)
Scion iQ EV[10] 2013 121 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
17.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
138 mpg-e
(24 kW·h/100 mi
15.5 kW⋅h/100 km)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi
20.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Chevrolet Bolt EV[11] 2017 119 mpg-e
(28 kW-h/100 mi
17.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
128 mpg-e
(16.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
110 mpg-e
(19 kW⋅h/100 km)
Chevrolet Spark EV[12] 2014/15/16 119 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
18.0 kW⋅h/100 km)
128 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi
16.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
109 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi
19.6 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
BMW i3 (94 A·h)[8] 2017 118 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
129 mpg-e
(16.6 kW⋅h/100 km)
106 mpg-e
(20.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Honda Fit EV[13] 2013/14 118 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
132 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi
16.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi
20.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Fiat 500e[14] 2013/14/15 116 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi
17.5 kW⋅h/100 km)
108 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi
19.8 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Volkswagen e-Golf[15] 2015/16 116 mpg-e
(29 kW·h/100 mi
18.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
126 mpg‑e
(27 kW⋅h/100 mi; 17.0 kW⋅h/100 km)
105 mpg‑e
(33 kW⋅h/100 mi; 20.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Nissan Leaf (24 kW-h)[16] 2013/14/15/16 114 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
18.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi;
17.0 kW⋅h/100 km)
101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1) (6)
Mitsubishi i[17] 2012/13/14/16 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
126 mpg-e
(27 kW·h/100 mi;
17.0 kW⋅h/100 km)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Nissan Leaf (30 kW-h)[16] 2016 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
124 mpg‑e
(28 kW⋅h/100 mi; 17.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
101 mpg‑e
(34 kW⋅h/100 mi; 21 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Fiat 500e[18] 2016 112 mpg-e
(30 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
121 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi;
17.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
103 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Smart electric drive[19] 2013/14/15/16 107 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.0 kW⋅h/100 km)
122 mpg-e
(28 kW·h/100 mi;
17.5 kW⋅h/100 km)
93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1) (7)
Kia Soul EV[20] 2015/16 105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
120 mpg‑e
(29 kW⋅h/100 mi; 18 kW⋅h/100 km)
92 mpg‑e
(37 kW⋅h/100 mi; 23 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Ford Focus Electric[21] 2012/13/14/15/16 105 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
110 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi;
19 kW⋅h/100 km)
99 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model 3 2018 116 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
18.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
120 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
18 kW⋅h/100 km)
112 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
19.1 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model 3 Long Range 2018 130 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi;
16 kW⋅h/100 km)
136 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi;
15.7 kW⋅h/100 km)
123 mpg-e
(26 kW·h/100 mi;
17.4 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 70D[1][22] 2015/16 101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
101 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
102 mpg-e
(33 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 85D[1][23] 2015/16 100 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
106 mpg‑e
(32 kW⋅h/100 mi; 20.2 kWh/100 km)
(1) (8)
Tesla Model S AWD - 90D[1][22] 2015/16 100 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
21 kW⋅h/100 km)
95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
106 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
20.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model S (60 kW·h)[1][22] 2014/15/16 95 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
94 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
97 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - P85D[1][23] 2015/16 93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
98 mpg‑e
(35 kW⋅h/100 mi; 22 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1) (8)
Tesla Model S AWD - P90D[1][22] 2015/16 93 mpg-e
(36 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
98 mpg-e
(35 kW·h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model X AWD – 90D[24] 2016 92 mpg-e
(34 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(37 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
94 mpg-e
(32 kW·h/100 mi;
23 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model X AWD – P90D[24] 2016 89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Tesla Model S (85 kW·h)[25] 2012/13/14/15 89 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
88 mpg-e
(38 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
90 mpg-e
(37 kW·h/100 mi;
24 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive[26] 2014/15/16 84 mpg-e
(40 kW·h/100 mi;
25 kW⋅h/100 km)
85 mpg-e
(40 kW·h/100 mi;
25 kW⋅h/100 km)
83 mpg-e
(41 kW·h/100 mi;
26 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
Toyota RAV4 EV[27] 2012/13/14 76 mpg-e
(44 kW·h/100 mi;
28 kW⋅h/100 km)
78 mpg-e
(43 kW·h/100 mi;
27 kW⋅h/100 km)
74 mpg-e
(46 kW·h/100 mi;
29 kW⋅h/100 km)
(1)
BYD e6[1][28] 2012/13/14/15/16 63 mpg-e
(54 kW·h/100 mi;
34 kW⋅h/100 km)
61 mpg-e
(55 kW·h/100 mi;
35 kW⋅h/100 km)
65 mpg-e
(52 kW·h/100 mi;
33 kW⋅h/100 km
(1)
Second gen Chevrolet Volt[1][29][30]
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
Electricity only/ gasoline only
2016 106 mpg-e
(31 kW·h/100 mi;
20.2 kW⋅h/100 km)
42 mpg
113 mpg-e
(30 kW⋅h/100 mi;
18.9 kW⋅h/100 km)
43 mpg
99 mpg-e
(35 kW⋅h/100 mi;
22 kW⋅h/100 km)
42 mpg
(1) (2) (9)
2016 Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen)[4]
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Gasoline-electric hybrid
2016 56 mpg 58 mpg 53 mpg (2) (10)
Ford Fusion AWD A-S6 2.0L[1][31]
Gasoline-powered
(Average new vehicle)
2016 25 mpg 22 mpg 31 mpg (2) (11)
Notes: All estimated fuel costs based on 15,000 miles (24,000 km) annual driving, 45% highway and 55% city

(1) Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kW·h.
(2) The 2014 i3 REx is classified by EPA as a series plug-in hybrid, while for CARB is a range-extended battery-electric vehicle (BEVx). The i3 REx is the most fuel efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine with a combined gasoline/electricity rating of 88 mpg-e, but its total range is limited to 150 mi (240 km).[3][32]
(3) The 2014/16 BMW i3 (60 A·h) ranked as the most fuel efficient EPA-certified vehicle of all fuel types considered in all years until MY 2016. It was surpassed by the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric in November 2016.[32]
(4) The i3 REx has a combined fuel economy in all-electric mode of 117 mpg-e (29 kW·h/100 mi; 18 kW⋅h/100 km).[33]
(5) The 2016 model year Leaf correspond to the variant with the 24 kW·h battery pack.
(6) Ratings correspond to both convertible and coupe models.
(7) Model with 85 kW·h battery pack
(8) Most fuel efficient plug-in hybrid capable of long distance travel. The 2016 Volt has a rating of 77 mpg-e for combined gasoline/electricity operation.[3]
(9) Most fuel efficient hybrid electric car.[1][3] (10) Other 2016 MY cars achieving 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) combined city/hwy include the Honda Accord A-S6 3.5L, Toyota Camry A-S6 3.5L and Toyota RAV4 A-S6 2.5L.[1][31]

ADAC also carried out consumption measurements[34].

Efficiency[edit]

Energy efficiency of cars in towns and on motorways according to the DoE

According to Jean-Marc Jancovici, the efficiency of an electric vehicle is about 50%, when heating and air conditioning are taken into account (losses due to the electric network being included)[35]. Taking the conversion factor of 2.58 in France into account (see Embodied energy#Electricity), we would find an efficiency of about 0.5/2.58 or 19 %, which corresponds to the order of magnitude of the balance of the combustion vehicles, according to the diagram of the Department of energy (where the efficiency of combustion vehicles is less than 20%). By the way, according to the French energy agency (ADEME), the primary energy consumption of electric vehicles and combustion-powered ones would be approximately equivalent[36].

Taking into account the coefficient of 1.8 in Germany, because of the strong development of renewable energies, we would find an efficiency of approximately 0.5/1.8 or 28 %, which is higher than the balance of the combustion cars (balance lower than 20 %).

The ratio between the efficiency of 50 % for the electric car and that of 20 % (or less) for the combustion cars allows Jean-Marc Jancovici to state that "the electric chain is 2.5 times as efficient as the combustion chain". The problem of the consumption comparison lies in the fact that we generally compare medium or even large combustion vehicles with small electric ones[35].

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-18). "Model Year 2016 Fuel Economy Guide - Electric vehicles & Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles" (PDF). fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-18. See pp. 27–28 for all-electric vehicles and pp. 30–31 for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The average 2016 vehicle gets 25 mpg
  2. ^ a b c United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-16). "Model Year 2017 Fuel Economy Guide - Electric vehicles & Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles" (PDF). fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-19. pp. 32–36.
  3. ^ a b c d e U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Fueleconomy.gov's Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, All Years)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06. Excludes all-electric vehicles. Click on the tab "Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, All Years)" - The 2016 Volt has a combined fuel economy of 77 mpg-e. The BMW i3 REx has a combined fuel economy of 88 mpg-e, and ranks as the most efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine.
  4. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-18). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015 Toyota Prius, 2016 Toyota Prius and 2016 Toyota Prius Eco". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-18. The average 2016 vehicle gets 25 mpg.
  5. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-08-14). "2016 Best and Worst Fuel Economy Vehicles - (excluding electric vehicles)". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-17. See the tab "Cars excl. EVs" – The Prius c is the most fuel efficient in the compact class and the conventional Prius is the most fuel efficient in the midsize class, and both rank ahead of the most fuel efficient in any other clars.
  6. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-08-12). "Model Year 2015 Fuel Economy Guide - Electric vehicles & Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles" (PDF). fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-17. pp. 31–34.
  7. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-18). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
  8. ^ a b United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-09-29). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2015 BMW i3 REX, 2016 BMW i3 REX, 2017 BMW i3 REX (94 Amp-hour battery), and 2017 BMW i3 BEV (94 Amp-hour battery)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  9. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2014 BMW i3 BEV". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  10. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Scion iQ EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  11. ^ Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and (2016-09-20). "Compare Side-by-Syde - 2017 Chevrolet Bolt". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
  12. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2014 Chvevrolet Spark EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  13. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Honda Fit EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  14. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Fiat 500e". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  15. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Volkswagen e-Golf". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  16. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare side by side: 2013 Nissan Leaf/2014 Nissan Leaf/2015 Nissan Leaf/2016 Nissan Leaf (24 kW-hr battery pack)/2016 Nissan Leaf (30 kW-hr battery pack)". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  17. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2011–12 Electric Vehicles- 2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  18. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2016 Fiat 500e". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  19. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 smart fortwo electric drive coupe". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  20. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Kia Soul Electric". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  21. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012 Ford Focus BEV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  22. ^ a b c d U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015 Tesla Model S 60 kW-hr/AWD - 70D/AWD - 90D/AWD - P90D". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  23. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Tesla Model S (85 kW-hr battery pack); 2014 Tesla Model S AWD (85 kW-hr battery pack); 2015 Tesla Model S AWD - 85D; and 2015 Tesla Model S AWD - P85D". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  24. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2016 Tesla Model X AWD - 90D and P90D". Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  25. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012 Tesla Model S". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  26. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2014/2015/2016 Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  27. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012/2013/2014 Toyota RAV4 EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  28. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2012/13/14/15 BYD e6". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  29. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2016/2015 Chevrolet Volt". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  30. ^ Eric Loveday (2015-09-01). "Detailed Look At 2016 Chevrolet Volt EPA Ratings". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  31. ^ a b United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2016 Ford Fusion AWD, 2016 Honda Accord, 2016 Toyota Camry, and 2016 Toyota RAV4 AWD". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  32. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-18). "Most Efficient EPA Certified Vehicles". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-19. Current Model Year excludes all-electric vehicles.
  33. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-07-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2014 BMW i3 BEV & 2014 BMW i3 REx". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-07-26.
  34. ^ (de) Electricity consumption - electric cars
  35. ^ a b (fr) and (en) The electric car website jancovici.com
  36. ^ (fr) Comparative life cycle analysis: electric vehicles and combustion-powered vehicles website connaissancedesenergies.org; see graph on page 26 (improvement potential on page 27).