Electric car EPA fuel economy

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The following table compares official EPA ratings for fuel economy (in miles per gallon gasoline equivalent, mpg-e, for plug-in electric vehicles) for series production all-electric passenger vehicles rated by the EPA for model years 2015,[1] 2016,[2] and 2017[3] versus the model year 2016 vehicles that were rated the most efficient by the EPA with plug-in hybrid drivetrains (Chevrolet Volt – second generation), gasoline-electric hybrid drivetrains (Toyota Prius Eco - fourth generation),[4][5][6] and the average new vehicle for that model year, which has a fuel economy of 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp).[2][4]

EPA rating data are taken from manufacturer testing of their own vehicles, usually conducted using pre-production prototypes. Manufacturers report the results to EPA, which reviews the results and confirms about 15%–20% of them through their own tests at the National Vehicles and Fuel Emissions Laboratory.[7]

Comparison of fuel economy for all the electric cars rated by the EPA for the U.S. market as of November 2016 against EPA rated most fuel economic plug-in hybrid, hybrid electric vehicle and 2016 average gasoline-powered car in the U.S.
(Fuel economy as displayed in the Monroney label)[1][2][3]
Vehicle Model
year
EPA rated fuel economy Notes
Combined City Highway
Tesla Model 3 Standard Range[8] & Standard Range Plus[9] 2020 141 mpg‑e
24.4 kWh/100 mi; 15.2 kWh/100 km
148 mpg‑e
23.2 kWh/100 mi; 14.4 kWh/100 km
132 mpg‑e
26.1 kWh/100 mi; 16.2 kWh/100 km
(1)
Hyundai Ioniq Electric[3][10] 2017 136 mpg‑e
25.3 kWh/100 mi; 15.7 kWh/100 km
150 mpg‑e
22.9 kWh/100 mi; 14.2 kWh/100 km
122 mpg‑e
28.2 kWh/100 mi; 17.5 kWh/100 km
(1) (4)
BMW i3 (60 A·h)[11][12] 2014/15/16 124 mpg‑e
27.7 kWh/100 mi; 17.2 kWh/100 km
137 mpg‑e
25.1 kWh/100 mi; 15.6 kWh/100 km
111 mpg‑e
31.0 kWh/100 mi; 19.3 kWh/100 km
(1) (3) (4) (5)
Scion iQ EV[13] 2013 121 mpg‑e
28.4 kWh/100 mi; 17.7 kWh/100 km
138 mpg‑e
24.9 kWh/100 mi; 15.5 kWh/100 km
105 mpg‑e
32.8 kWh/100 mi; 20.4 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model 3 Long Range AWD[14] 2020 121 mpg‑e
28.4 kWh/100 mi; 17.7 kWh/100 km
124 mpg‑e
27.7 kWh/100 mi; 17.2 kWh/100 km
116 mpg‑e
29.6 kWh/100 mi; 18.4 kWh/100 km
(1)
Chevrolet Bolt EV[15] 2017 119 mpg‑e
28.9 kWh/100 mi; 18.0 kWh/100 km
121 mpg‑e
28.4 kWh/100 mi; 17.7 kWh/100 km
110 mpg‑e
31.3 kWh/100 mi; 19.4 kWh/100 km
Chevrolet Spark EV[16] 2014/15/16 119 mpg‑e
28.9 kWh/100 mi; 18.0 kWh/100 km
128 mpg‑e
26.9 kWh/100 mi; 16.7 kWh/100 km
109 mpg‑e
31.5 kWh/100 mi; 19.6 kWh/100 km
(1)
BMW i3 (94 A·h)[11] 2017 118 mpg‑e
29.1 kWh/100 mi; 18.1 kWh/100 km
129 mpg‑e
26.7 kWh/100 mi; 16.6 kWh/100 km
106 mpg‑e
32.4 kWh/100 mi; 20.2 kWh/100 km
(1)
Honda Fit EV[17] 2013/14 118 mpg‑e
29.1 kWh/100 mi; 18.1 kWh/100 km
132 mpg‑e
26.1 kWh/100 mi; 16.2 kWh/100 km
105 mpg‑e
32.8 kWh/100 mi; 20.4 kWh/100 km
(1)
Fiat 500e[18] 2013/14/15 116 mpg‑e
29.6 kWh/100 mi; 18.4 kWh/100 km
122 mpg‑e
28.2 kWh/100 mi; 17.5 kWh/100 km
108 mpg‑e
31.8 kWh/100 mi; 19.8 kWh/100 km
(1)
Volkswagen e-Golf[19] 2015/16 116 mpg‑e
29.6 kWh/100 mi; 18.4 kWh/100 km
126 mpg‑e
27.3 kWh/100 mi; 17.0 kWh/100 km
105 mpg‑e
32.8 kWh/100 mi; 20.4 kWh/100 km
(1)
Nissan Leaf (24 kW-h)[20] 2013/14/15/16 114 mpg‑e
30.2 kWh/100 mi; 18.7 kWh/100 km
126 mpg‑e
27.3 kWh/100 mi; 17.0 kWh/100 km
101 mpg‑e
34.0 kWh/100 mi; 21.2 kWh/100 km
(1) (6)
Mitsubishi i[21] 2012/13/14/16 112 mpg‑e
30.7 kWh/100 mi; 19.1 kWh/100 km
126 mpg‑e
27.3 kWh/100 mi; 17.0 kWh/100 km
99 mpg‑e
34.7 kWh/100 mi; 21.6 kWh/100 km
(1)
Nissan Leaf (30 kW-h)[20] 2016 112 mpg‑e
30.7 kWh/100 mi; 19.1 kWh/100 km
124 mpg‑e
27.7 kWh/100 mi; 17.2 kWh/100 km
101 mpg‑e
34.0 kWh/100 mi; 21.2 kWh/100 km
(1)
Fiat 500e[22] 2016 112 mpg‑e
30.7 kWh/100 mi; 19.1 kWh/100 km
121 mpg‑e
28.4 kWh/100 mi; 17.7 kWh/100 km
103 mpg‑e
33.4 kWh/100 mi; 20.7 kWh/100 km
(1)
Smart electric drive[23] 2013/14/15/16 107 mpg‑e
32.1 kWh/100 mi; 20.0 kWh/100 km
122 mpg‑e
28.2 kWh/100 mi; 17.5 kWh/100 km
93 mpg‑e
37.0 kWh/100 mi; 23.0 kWh/100 km
(1) (7)
Kia Soul EV[24] 2015/16 105 mpg‑e
32.8 kWh/100 mi; 20.4 kWh/100 km
120 mpg‑e
28.7 kWh/100 mi; 17.8 kWh/100 km
92 mpg‑e
37.4 kWh/100 mi; 23.2 kWh/100 km
(1)
Ford Focus Electric[25] 2012/13/14/15/16 105 mpg‑e
32.8 kWh/100 mi; 20.4 kWh/100 km
110 mpg‑e
31.3 kWh/100 mi; 19.4 kWh/100 km
99 mpg‑e
34.7 kWh/100 mi; 21.6 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 70D[2][26] 2015/16 101 mpg‑e
34.0 kWh/100 mi; 21.2 kWh/100 km
101 mpg‑e
34.0 kWh/100 mi; 21.2 kWh/100 km
102 mpg‑e
33.7 kWh/100 mi; 20.9 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - 85D[2][27] & 90D[2][26] 2015/16 100 mpg‑e
34.4 kWh/100 mi; 21.4 kWh/100 km
95 mpg‑e
36.2 kWh/100 mi; 22.5 kWh/100 km
106 mpg‑e
32.4 kWh/100 mi; 20.2 kWh/100 km
(1) (8)
Tesla Model S (60 kW·h)[2][26] 2014/15/16 95 mpg‑e
36.2 kWh/100 mi; 22.5 kWh/100 km
94 mpg‑e
36.6 kWh/100 mi; 22.7 kWh/100 km
97 mpg‑e
35.5 kWh/100 mi; 22.0 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model S AWD - P85D[2][27] & P90D[2][26] 2015/16 93 mpg‑e
37.0 kWh/100 mi; 23.0 kWh/100 km
89 mpg‑e
38.6 kWh/100 mi; 24.0 kWh/100 km
98 mpg‑e
35.1 kWh/100 mi; 21.8 kWh/100 km
(1) (8)
Tesla Model X AWD – 90D[28] 2016 92 mpg‑e
37.4 kWh/100 mi; 23.2 kWh/100 km
90 mpg‑e
38.2 kWh/100 mi; 23.7 kWh/100 km
94 mpg‑e
36.6 kWh/100 mi; 22.7 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model X AWD – P90D[28] 2016 89 mpg‑e
38.6 kWh/100 mi; 24.0 kWh/100 km
89 mpg‑e
38.6 kWh/100 mi; 24.0 kWh/100 km
90 mpg‑e
38.2 kWh/100 mi; 23.7 kWh/100 km
(1)
Tesla Model S (85 kW·h)[29] 2012/13/14/15 89 mpg‑e
38.6 kWh/100 mi; 24.0 kWh/100 km
88 mpg‑e
39.1 kWh/100 mi; 24.3 kWh/100 km
90 mpg‑e
38.2 kWh/100 mi; 23.7 kWh/100 km
(1)
Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive[30] 2014/15/16 84 mpg‑e
40.9 kWh/100 mi; 25.4 kWh/100 km
85 mpg‑e
40.5 kWh/100 mi; 25.1 kWh/100 km
83 mpg‑e
41.4 kWh/100 mi; 25.7 kWh/100 km
(1)
Toyota RAV4 EV[31] 2012/13/14 76 mpg‑e
45.2 kWh/100 mi; 28.1 kWh/100 km
78 mpg‑e
44.1 kWh/100 mi; 27.4 kWh/100 km
74 mpg‑e
46.5 kWh/100 mi; 28.9 kWh/100 km
(1)
BYD e6[2][32] 2012/13/14/15/16 63 mpg‑e
54.6 kWh/100 mi; 33.9 kWh/100 km
61 mpg‑e
56.4 kWh/100 mi; 35.0 kWh/100 km
65 mpg‑e
52.9 kWh/100 mi; 32.9 kWh/100 km
(1)
Second gen Chevrolet Volt[2][33][34]
Plug-in hybrid (PHEV)
Electricity only
2016 106 mpg‑e
32.4 kWh/100 mi; 20.2 kWh/100 km
113 mpg‑e
30.4 kWh/100 mi; 18.9 kWh/100 km
99 mpg‑e
34.7 kWh/100 mi; 21.6 kWh/100 km
(1) (2) (9)
Volt, Gasoline only 42 mpg 43 mpg 42 mpg
2016 Toyota Prius Eco (4th gen)[5]
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV)
Gasoline-electric hybrid
2016 56 mpg 58 mpg 53 mpg (2) (10)
Ford Fusion AWD A-S6 2.0L[2][35]
Gasoline-powered
(Average new vehicle)
2016 25 mpg 22 mpg 31 mpg (2) (11)
Notes: All estimated fuel economy based on 15,000 miles (24,000 km) annual driving, 45% highway and 55% city

(1) Conversion 1 gallon of gasoline=33.7 kW·h.
(2) The 2014 i3 REx is classified by EPA as a series plug-in hybrid, while for CARB is a range-extended battery-electric vehicle (BEVx). The i3 REx is the most fuel economic EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine with a combined gasoline/electricity rating of 88 mpg-e, but its total range is limited to 150 mi (240 km).[4][36]
(3) The 2014/16 BMW i3 (60 A·h) ranked as the most fuel economic EPA-certified vehicle of all fuel types considered in all years until MY 2016. It was surpassed by the 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric in November 2016.[36]
(4) The i3 REx has a combined fuel economy in all-electric mode of 117 mpg-e (29 kW·h/100 mi; 18 kW⋅h/100 km).[37]
(5) The 2016 model year Leaf correspond to the variant with the 24 kW·h battery pack.
(6) Ratings correspond to both convertible and coupe models.
(7) Model with 85 kW·h battery pack
(8) Most fuel economic plug-in hybrid capable of long distance travel. The 2016 Volt has a rating of 77 mpg-e for combined gasoline/electricity operation.[4]
(9) Most fuel economic hybrid electric car.[2][4]
(10) Other 2016 MY cars achieving 25 mpg‑US (9.4 L/100 km; 30 mpg‑imp) combined city/hwy include the Honda Accord A-S6 3.5L, Toyota Camry A-S6 3.5L and Toyota RAV4 A-S6 2.5L.[2][35]


ADAC also carried out consumption measurements.[38]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Fuel Economy Guide, Model Year 2015 (PDF) (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. pp. 31–34. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Fuel Economy Guide, Model Year 2016 (PDF) (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2023. See pp. 27–28 for all-electric vehicles and pp. 30–31 for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. The average 2016 vehicle gets 25 mpg
  3. ^ a b c Fuel Economy Guide, Model Year 2017 (PDF) (Report). United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. pp. 32–36. Retrieved 27 January 2023.
  4. ^ a b c d e U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Fueleconomy.gov's Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, All Years)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06. Excludes all-electric vehicles. Click on the tab "Top Fuel Sippers (EPA Ratings, All Years)" - The 2016 Volt has a combined fuel economy of 77 mpg-e. The BMW i3 REx has a combined fuel economy of 88 mpg-e, and ranks as the most efficient EPA-certified current year vehicle with a gasoline engine.
  5. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-18). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015 Toyota Prius, 2016 Toyota Prius and 2016 Toyota Prius Eco". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-18. The average 2016 vehicle gets 25 mpg.
  6. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-08-14). "2016 Best and Worst Fuel Economy Vehicles - (excluding electric vehicles)". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-08-17. See the tab "Cars excl. EVs" – The Prius c is the most fuel efficient in the compact class and the conventional Prius is the most fuel efficient in the midsize class, and both rank ahead of the most fuel efficient in any other clars.
  7. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. "How Vehicles Are Tested". www.fueleconomy.gov.
  8. ^ "2020 Tesla Model 3 Standard Range Plus". www.fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2020-12-05.
  9. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2020-05-10). "2020 Model 3 SR+". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  10. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-18). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2017 Hyundai Ioniq Electric". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-19.
  11. ^ a b United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-09-29). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2015 BMW i3 REX, 2016 BMW i3 REX, 2017 BMW i3 REX (94 Amp-hour battery), and 2017 BMW i3 BEV (94 Amp-hour battery)". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-30.
  12. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2014 BMW i3 BEV". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  13. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Scion iQ EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  14. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2020-05-10). "2020 Model 3 LR AWD". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  15. ^ Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy and U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and (2016-09-20). "Compare Side-by-Syde - 2017 Chevrolet Bolt". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-09-20.
  16. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2014 Chvevrolet Spark EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  17. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Honda Fit EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  18. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 Fiat 500e". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  19. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Volkswagen e-Golf". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  20. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare side by side: 2013 Nissan Leaf/2014 Nissan Leaf/2015 Nissan Leaf/2016 Nissan Leaf (24 kW-hr battery pack)/2016 Nissan Leaf (30 kW-hr battery pack)". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  21. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2011–12 Electric Vehicles- 2012 Mitsubishi i-MiEV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  22. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2016 Fiat 500e". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  23. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2013 smart fortwo electric drive coupe". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  24. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Kia Soul Electric". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  25. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012 Ford Focus BEV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  26. ^ a b c d U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2015 Tesla Model S 60 kW-hr/AWD - 70D/AWD - 90D/AWD - P90D". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  27. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2015 Tesla Model S (85 kW-hr battery pack); 2014 Tesla Model S AWD (85 kW-hr battery pack); 2015 Tesla Model S AWD - 85D; and 2015 Tesla Model S AWD - P85D". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  28. ^ a b U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2016 Tesla Model X AWD - 90D and P90D". Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  29. ^ U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012 Tesla Model S". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  30. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2014/2015/2016 Mercedes-Benz B-Class Electric Drive". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  31. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "2012/2013/2014 Toyota RAV4 EV". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  32. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2012/13/14/15 BYD e6". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  33. ^ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side - 2016/2015 Chevrolet Volt". Fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  34. ^ Eric Loveday (2015-09-01). "Detailed Look At 2016 Chevrolet Volt EPA Ratings". InsideEVs.com. Retrieved 2015-09-02.
  35. ^ a b United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2015-12-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2016 Ford Fusion AWD, 2016 Honda Accord, 2016 Toyota Camry, and 2016 Toyota RAV4 AWD". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2015-12-06.
  36. ^ a b U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2016-11-18). "Most Efficient EPA Certified Vehicles". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2016-11-19. Current Model Year excludes all-electric vehicles.
  37. ^ United States Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy (2014-07-04). "Compare Side-by-Side: 2014 BMW i3 BEV & 2014 BMW i3 REx". fueleconomy.gov. Retrieved 2014-07-26.
  38. ^ (de) Electricity consumption - electric cars