Elias Magnus Fries
|Elias Magnus Fries|
15 August 1794|
|Died||8 February 1878
|Alma mater||Lund University|
|Known for||Founder of modern fungal taxonomy|
|Author abbrev. (botany)||Fr.|
He acquired an extensive knowledge of flowering plants from his father. In 1811 Fries entered Lund University where he obtained a doctorate in 1814. In the same year he was appointed an associate professorship in botany. He was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, and in 1824, became a full professor. In 1834 he became Borgström professor (Swed. Borgströmianska professuren, a chair endowed by Eric Erichsson Borgström, 1708–1770) in applied economics at Uppsala University. The position was changed to "professor of botany and applied economics" in 1851. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1849. That year he was also appointed director of the Uppsala University Botanical Garden. In 1853, he became rector of the University.
Fries most important works were the three-volume Systema mycologicum (1821–1832), Elenchus fungorum (1828), the two-volume Monographia hymenomycetum Sueciae (1857 and 1863) and Hymenomycetes Europaei (1874).
Fries is considered to be, after Christian Hendrik Persoon, a founding father of the modern taxonomy of mushrooms. His taxonomy of mushrooms was influenced by Goethe and the German romantics. He utilized spore color and arrangement of the hymenophore (pores, gills, teeth etc.) as major taxonomic characteristics.
When he died, The Times commented: "His very numerous works, especially on fungi and lichens, give him a position as regards those groups of plants only comparable to that of Linnaeus". Fries was succeeded in the Borgström professorship by Johan Erhard Areschoug, after whom Theodor Magnus Fries, the son of Elias, held the chair.
- Monographia Pyrenomycetum Sueciae (1816)
- Systema Mycologicum (1821)
- Systema Orbis Vegetabilis (1825)
- Elenchus Fungorem (1828)
- Lichenographia Europaea Reformata (1831)
His son was Theodor Magnus Fries.
- "Fries, Elias Magnus". Nordisk Familjebok (in Swedish). 8 (2 ed.). 1908. pp. 1393–1397. Retrieved 3 September 2010.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- "Book of Members, 1780–2010: Chapter F" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 15 September 2016.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Fries, Elias Magnus". Encyclopedia Americana.
- Gulden, Gro; Eckblad, Finn-Egil (2007). "Elias Magnus Fries". In Henriksen, Petter. Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 27 March 2009.
- BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF FORMER FELLOWS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY OF EDINBURGH 1783 – 2002 (PDF). The Royal Society of Edinburgh. July 2006. ISBN 0 902 198 84 X.
- The Times, Thursday, Feb 21, 1878; pg. 6; Issue 29184; col C
- "Author Query for 'Fr.'". International Plant Names Index.
- "Elias Magnus Fries", Authors of fungal names, Mushroom, the Journal of Wild Mushrooming.
- Web site of the Descendants of Elias Fries Association
- "Fries, Elias Magnus". New International Encyclopedia. 1906.
Erik Gustaf Geijer
Carl Rupert Nyblom