Ethics of nanotechnologies

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Ethics of nanotechnology is the study of the ethical issues emerging from advances in nanotechnology and its impacts.

According to Andrew Chen, ethical concerns about nanotechnologies should include the possibility of their military applications, the dangers posed by self-replicant nanomachines, and their use for surveillance monitoring and tracking.[1] Risks to environment to public health are treated in a report from the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment[2] as well as is a report of the European Environment Agency.[3] Academic works on ethics of nanotechnology can be found in the journal Nanoethics.

Guidelines[edit]

According to the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics[1] possible guidelines for an Ethics of nanotechnology could include:

  • Nanomachines should only be specialized, not for general purpose
  • Nanomachines should not be self replicating
  • Nanomachines should not be made to use an abundant natural compound as fuel
  • Nanomachines should be tagged so that they can be tracked

Concerns[edit]

Ethical concern about nanotechnology include the opposition to their use to fabricate Lethal autonomous weapon, and the fear that they may self replicate ad infinitum in a so-called gray goo scenario, first imagined by K. Eric Drexler.[4] For the EEA [3] the challenge posed by nano-materials are due to their properties of being novel, biopersistent, readily dispersed, and bioaccumulative; by analogy, thousands cases of mesothelioma were caused by the inhalation of asbestos dust. See nanotoxicology. Nanotechnology belongs to the class of emerging technology known as GRIN: geno-, robo-, info- nano-technologies. Another common acronym is NBIC (Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology, and Cognitive Science). These technologies are hoped[5] - or feared,[6] depending on the viewpoint, to be leading to improving human bodies and functionalities, see transhumanism.

Further reading[edit]

  • European Environment Agency, 2013, Late lessons from early warning II Chapter 22 - Nanotechnology - early lessons from early warnings.[3] See also Steffen et al., 2008.[7]
  • Jaco Westra (editor), 2014, Assessing health and environmental risks of nanoparticles. An overview, RIVM Rapport.[2]
  • Rene von Schomberg (2011), Introduction: Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields.[8]
  • R. Feynman, Cargo Cult Science, Commencement Speech at Caltech 1974.[9] (also available in the book: Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman![10]).
  • European Commission, 2009, Commission recommendation on A code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research & Council conclusions on Responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research.[11]
  • C. Marris, Final Report of the PABE research project, 2001.[12]
  • E.A.J. Bleeker, S. Evertz, R.E. Geertsma, W.J.G.M. Peijnenburg, J. Westra, S.W.P. Wijnhoven, Assessing health & environmental risks of nanoparticles Current state of affairs in policy, science and areas of application, RIVM Report.[2]
  • Roger Strand, 2011, Nano Ethics, In: Nanotechnology in the Agri‐Food Sector: Implications for the Future.[13]
  • R. Feynman, There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom lecture given at the annual American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959.[14]
  • Job Timmermans; Zhao Yinghuan; and Jeroen van den Hoven, 2011. Ethics and nanopharmacy: Value sensitive design of new drugs. Nanoethics 5(3): 269-283.[15]
  • Steven Umbrello and Seth D. Baum, 2018. Evaluating future nanotechnology: The net societal impacts of atomically precise manufacturing. Futures 100(June): 63-73.[16]
  • K. Eric Drexler, 2013. Radical abundance: How a revolution in nanotechnology will change civilization. Public Affairs: New York.[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Chen, Andrew (3 March 2002). "The Ethics of Nanotechnology". Santa Clarita University. Retrieved 23 September 2021.
  2. ^ a b c E.A.J. Bleeker, S. Evertz, R.E. Geertsma, W.J.G.M. Peijnenburg, J. Westra, S.W.P. Wijnhoven, Assessing health & environmental risks of nanoparticles. Current state of affairs in policy, science and areas of application, RIVM Report 2014-0157.
  3. ^ a b c Chapter 22, Nanotechnology: early lessons from early warnings, in Late lessons from early warnings: science, precaution, innovation, EEA report 1, 2013.
  4. ^ Drexler, K. Eric. (1986). Engines of creation (1st ed.). Garden City, N.Y.: Anchor Press/Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-19972-4. OCLC 12752328.
  5. ^ Roco, M.C., and Bainbridge, W.S. (eds) (2002) Converging technologies for improving human performance, NSF-DOC Report, Kluwer, 2003.
  6. ^ G. Tintino, "From Darwinian to technological evolution: Forgetting the human lottery", Cuad. Bioética, vol. XXV, no. 387–395, 2014.
  7. ^ Steffen Foss Hansen, Andrew Maynard, Anders Baun and Joel A. Tickner, 2008, Late lessons from early warnings for nanotechnology, Nature Nanotechnology, Vol. 3, 444-447.
  8. ^ Rene von Schomberg (2011), Introduction: Towards Responsible Research and Innovation in the Information and Communication Technologies and Security Technologies Fields.
  9. ^ Cargo Cult Science, Commencement Speech at Caltech 1974.
  10. ^ R. Feynman, 1997, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, W. W. Norton & Company.
  11. ^ Commission recommendation on A code of conduct for responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research & Council conclusions on Responsible nanosciences and nanotechnologies research, ISBN 978-92-79-11605-6, Luxembourg.
  12. ^ Final Report of the PABE research project funded by the Commission of European Communities, 2001.
  13. ^ Chapter 16, Nano Ethics, In: Nanotechnology in the Agri‐Food Sector: Implications for the Future, Editors:Lynn J. Frewer, Willem Norde, Arnout Fischer, Frans Kampers, Wiley.
  14. ^ There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom, a lecture given by physicist Richard Feynman at the annual American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959.
  15. ^ Timmermans, Job; Zhao, Yinghuan; van den Hoven, Jeroen (2011-12-01). "Ethics and Nanopharmacy: Value Sensitive Design of New Drugs". NanoEthics. 5 (3): 269–283. doi:10.1007/s11569-011-0135-x. ISSN 1871-4765. PMC 3250608. PMID 22247745.
  16. ^ Umbrello, Steven; Baum, Seth D. (2018-06-01). "Evaluating future nanotechnology: The net societal impacts of atomically precise manufacturing". Futures. 100: 63–73. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2018.04.007. hdl:2318/1685533. ISSN 0016-3287.
  17. ^ Radical Abundance. 2017-06-27.