|Founder||Euthydemus I or Sophytes|
|Final ruler||Euthydemus II (Bactria) |
Strato III(?) (India)
|Titles||Basileus, Megas Basileus|
The Euthydemid dynasty was a Hellenic, possibly Magnesian, royal family founded by Euthydemus I in around 230 BCE which ruled the Greco-Bactrian and Greco-Indian kingdoms throughout the Hellenistic period from 230 BCE to around 10 AD.
It is possible that Euthydemus was a son of a certain Apollodotus (born 295 BCE) and a grandson of Sophytes, a satrap or ruler of Bactria in around 300 BCE.
Euthydemus was a satrap of Sogdiana that was married to a sister of Diodotus II, the son of the original rebel, Diodotus. He usurped the throne from Diodotus II or perhaps Antiochus Nikator and became ruler of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom. Later on in his reign, he faced an invasion by the younger and ambitious Antiochus III the Great. He was defeated on the Arius but successively waited out Antiochus in his capital Bactra. His peace treaty with Antiochus granted his son Demetrius I a marriage to an unnamed daughter of Antiochus.
His son Demetrius I would go on to invade northern India and establish the Indo-Greek kingdom. After Demetrius's sons Agathocles, Euthydemus II and perhaps even Demetrius II rule over the Greco-Bactrian and Indo-Greek kingdoms, it becomes harder to pinpoint which of the following rulers were related to each other, or even if they were members of the Euthydemid dynasty. It is possible however, that the powerful king Menander I was a member of this dynasty.
Precise members of this royal family cannot be fully reconstructed due to the lack of evidence and only a remaining vast coinage of following rulers. Demetrius's successor, Agathocles, left behind extensive coinage that helped reconstruct part of the dynasty. Some of the more certain rulers are:
- Euthydemus I (260-195 BCE)
- Demetrius I (222-180 BCE)
- Euthydemus II ( c. 200-185 BCE)
- Pantaleon (190-180 BCE)
- Agathocles (fl. 190-180 BCE)
- Demetrius II (fl. 175-140 BCE)
Possible members, although not certain, can be:
- Apollodotus I (c. 180-160 BCE)
- Antimachus I (c.171-160 BCE)
- Antimachus II (c. 170-165 BCE)
- Menander I (c. 165/155-130 BCE) married Agathokleia, father of Strato I
- Strato I (c. 125-110 BCE)
- Demetrius III (c. 110 BCE)
Following these rulers, it becomes increasingly hard to date or connect them to any family, as they may have been usurpers.
- Polybius. Histories.
For Euthydemus himself was a native of Magnesia
- "Two Remarkable Bactrian Coins" RC Senior, Oriental Numismatic Society Newsletter 159
- Polybius. Histories.
Antiochus received the young prince; and judging from his appearance, conversation, and the dignity of his manners that he was worthy of royal power, he first promised to give him one of his own daughters, and secondly conceded the royal title to his father.
- No undisputed coins of Demetrius I himself use this title, but it is employed on one of the pedigree coins issued by Agathocles, which bear on the reverse the classical profile of Demetrius crowned by the elephant scalp, with the legend DEMETRIOU ANIKETOU, and on the reverse Herakles crowning himself, with the legend "Of king Agathocles" (Boppearachchi, Pl 8). Coins of the supposed Demetrius III also use the title "Invincible", and therefore are attributed by some to the same Demetrius (Whitehead and al.)