Familial renal disease in animals
Familial renal disease is an uncommon cause of renal failure (kidney failure) in dogs and cats. Most causes are breed-related (familial) and some are inherited. Some are congenital (present at birth). Renal dysplasia is a type of familial renal disease characterized by abnormal cellular differentiation of renal tissue. Dogs and cats with renal disease caused by these diseases have the typical symptoms of renal failure, including weight loss, loss of appetite, depression, and increased water consumption and urination. A list of familial renal diseases by dog and cat breeds is found below.
- 1 Familial renal disease in dogs
- 1.1 Basenji
- 1.2 Beagle
- 1.3 Bull Terrier
- 1.4 Cairn Terrier
- 1.5 Chow Chow
- 1.6 Cocker Spaniel
- 1.7 Doberman Pinscher
- 1.8 German Shepherd
- 1.9 Lhasa Apso and Shih Tzu
- 1.10 Miniature Schnauzer
- 1.11 Norwegian Elkhound
- 1.12 Rottweiler
- 1.13 Samoyed
- 1.14 Shar Pei
- 1.15 Shih Tzu
- 1.16 Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
- 1.17 Standard Poodle
- 1.18 Welsh Corgi
- 2 Familial renal disease in cats
- 3 References
Familial renal disease in dogs
Bull Terriers can be affected by an inherited type of renal disease caused by basement membrane disease. Protein in the urine is a consistent finding. Bull Terriers are affected between the ages of one and eight years.
Cairn Terriers can be affected by polycystic kidney disease. Multiple small cysts are found in the kidneys. Cysts are present by the age of six weeks. It is inherited through an autosomal recessive mechanism.
Doberman Pinschers can be affected by basement membrane disease of the kidneys that can progress to renal failure.
German Shepherd dogs can be affected by multiple cystadenocarcinomas of the kidney. It is inherited and appears between the ages of five and 11 years. Blood in the urine is often seen. It is sometimes accompanied by nodules in the skin or multiple uterine leiomyomas.
Lhasa Apso and Shih Tzu
Lhasa Apsos and Shih Tzus can both be affected by renal dysplasia before the age of five years. It does progress to renal failure. It can be accompanied by fibrous osteodystrophy, caused by calcium absorption from the bone. Signs include bone fractures and "rubber jaw".
Norwegian Elkhounds can be affected by renal tubule disease (Fanconi syndrome) that does not progress to renal failure. A consistent finding is glucose in the urine.
Samoyeds can be affected by basement membrane disease of the kidneys. It is inherited through the X chromosome and therefore more severe in affected male dogs. Findings in male dogs include the presence of protein and glucose in the urine and the inability to concentrate urine, and progression to renal failure by the age of 9 months and death by 16 months. Affected female dogs have protein in the urine and a failure to gain a normal amount of weight, but are usually otherwise normal.
Shih Tzus have a type of renal dysplasia characterized by persistence of the fetal glomeruli. The predominating signs are of chronic renal failure. Severely affected dogs only live for a few months. The mechanism of inheritance appears to be through an autosomal dominant gene with incomplete penetrance.
Soft-Coated Wheaten Terrier
Welsh Corgis can be affected by renal telangiectasia between the ages of five and thirteen years. It is characterized by red-black nodules in the kidneys. It can cause hydronephrosis and abdominal pain. It usually does not progress to renal failure.
Familial renal disease in cats
Persians can be affected by polycystic kidney disease, characterized by small cysts in the kidneys. It is inherited through an autosomal dominant mechanism and can progress to kidney disease later in life.
- Easley, JR; Breitschwerdt, DB (15 May 1976). "Glucosuria associated with renal tubular dysfunction in three Basenji dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 168 (10): 938–43. PMID 1270337.
- Ettinger, Stephen J.; Feldman, Edward C. (1995). Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine (4th ed.). W.B. Saunders Company. ISBN 978-0-7216-6795-9.
- Giger, Urs (2002). "Diseases of the Kidneys". Proceedings of the 27th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Lees G, Helman R, Homco L, Millichamp N, Hunter J, Frey M (1998). "Early diagnosis of familial nephropathy in English cocker spaniels". J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 34 (3): 189–95. PMID 9590445.
- Bovee, Kenneth C. (2003). "Renal Dysplasia in Shih Tzu Dogs". Proceedings of the 28th World Congress of the World Small Animal Veterinary Association. Retrieved 2007-03-25.