|Classification and external resources|
|ICD-10||D21, D25 (ILDS D21.M40)|
A leiomyoma (plural leiomyomas or leiomyomata) (leio- + myo- + -oma, "smooth-muscle tumor") is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%). They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel, and the esophagus. Polycythemia may occur due to increased erythropoietin production as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome.
Uterine fibroids are leiomyomata of the uterine smooth muscle. As other leiomyomata, they are benign, but may lead to excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia), often cause anemia and may lead to infertility.
A rare form of these tumors is uterine lipoleiomyoma - benign tumors consisting of a mixture of adipocytes and smooth muscle cells. Uterine lipoleiomyomata have been observed together with ovarian and other pathologies and some of them may develop into liposarcoma. These tumors are monoclonal, and non-random chromosomal abnormalities have been seen in 40% of the tumors.
Mesenchymal neoplasms of the gallbladder are rare and in particular leiomyomas of the gallbladder have been rarely reported, all of them in patients with immune system disorders. Although, recently, a case was reported in absence of associated immunodeficiency at Monash Hospital in Melbourne Australia in a healthy 39-year-old woman with no symptoms.
- Solitary cutaneous leiomyoma
- Multiple cutaneous (or pilar) leiomyomas arising from the arrectores pilorum muscles
- Angioleiomyomas (Vascular leiomyomas) that are thought to arise from vascular smooth muscle
- Dartoic (or genital) leiomyomas originating in the dartos muscles of the genitalia, areola, and nipple
Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of small bowel. Approximately 50% of cases are found in the jejunum, followed by the ileum in 31% of cases. Almost one half of all lesions are less than 5 centimeters.
Other locations, metastatic leiomyoma
- Metastatic leiomyoma are an extremely rare complication after surgery to remove the uterus for uterine fibroids. The most frequent sites of occurrence are the lungs and pelvis. The lesions are hormonally responsive.
- Fibromyoma of the breast is an extremely rare benign breast neoplasm. Most reports in literature mention a history of hysterectomy for uterine fibroids, although the question of whether these fibromyomas are possibly metastases of the uterine fibroids has not been investigated. An alternative hypothesis is an origin from the smooth muscle of the nipple.
- Associated with papillary variant of renal cell carcinoma and multiple cutaneous leiomyoma. Defect is in the fumarate hydratase gene in the long arm of chromosome 1.
- Pedeutour, F.; Quade, B. J.; Sornberger, K.; Tallini, G.; Ligon, A. H.; Weremowicz, S.; Morton, C. C. (2000). "Dysregulation ofHMGIC in a uterine lipoleiomyoma with a complex rearrangement including chromosomes 7, 12, and 14". Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer 27 (2): 209–215. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1098-2264(200002)27:2<209::AID-GCC14>3.0.CO;2-U. PMID 10612811.
- McDonald, A. G.; Cin, P. D.; Ganguly, A.; Campbell, S.; Imai, Y.; Rosenberg, A. E.; Oliva, E. (2011). "Liposarcoma Arising in Uterine Lipoleiomyoma". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology 35 (2): 221–227. doi:10.1097/PAS.0b013e31820414f7. PMID 21263242.
- Walid MS, Heaton RL. "Case report of a cervical lipoleiomyoma with an incidentally discovered ovarian granulosa cell tumor – imaging and minimal-invasive surgical procedure". GMS Ger Med Sci 8 (26).
- Segura-Sampedro, J. J.; Alamo-Martínez, J. M.; Cañete-Gómez, J.; Suárez-Artacho, G.; González-Cantón, J. R.; Gómez-Bravo, M. Á.; Padillo-Ruiz, F. J. (2012). "Gallbladder leiomyoma in absence of immune system disorders: An unusual diagn". Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Patologia Digestiva 104 (7): 382–384. doi:10.4321/S1130-01082012000700009. PMID 22849501.
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- Odom, Richard B.; Davidsohn, Israel; James, William D.; Henry, John Bernard; Berger, Timothy G.; Dirk M. Elston (2006). Andrews' diseases of the skin: clinical dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders Elsevier. p. 627. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
- Michael P. Buetow, M.D. "Leiomyoma of Jejunum". Applied Radiology Online. Retrieved 2007-03-21.
- Patton, K.; Cheng, L.; Papavero, V.; Blum, M.; Yeldandi, A.; Adley, B.; Luan, C.; Diaz, L.; Hui, P.; Yang, X. J. (2006). "Benign metastasizing leiomyoma: clonality, telomere length and clinicopathologic analysis". Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc 19 (1): 130–140. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800504. PMID 16357844.
- Beck, M. M.; Biswas, B.; d'Souza, A.; Kumar, R. (2012). "Benign metastasising leiomyoma after hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy". Hong Kong medical [Xianggang yi xue za zhi / Hong Kong Academy of Medicine] 18 (2): 153–155. PMID 22477740.
- Rivera, J. A.; Christopoulos, S.; Small, D.; Trifiro, M. (2004). "Hormonal Manipulation of Benign Metastasizing Leiomyomas: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 89 (7): 3183–3188. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-032021. PMID 15240591.