Fayetteville Shale

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Fayetteville Shale Sandstone
Stratigraphic range: Carboniferous: Mississippian (Serpukhovian)[1]
LowerFayettevilleShale.jpeg
Outcrop of the lower Fayetteville shale in northern Arkansas.
Type Geological formation
Sub-units Weddington Sandstone
Underlies Pitkin Limestone,[2] Hale Sandstone (Morrow Group)[3]
Overlies Rudell Shale, Batesville Sandstone [2] Moorefield Shale[3]
Area Arkansas and Oklahoma [4]
Thickness 50 to 500 feet (15 to 152 m)
Lithology
Primary Shale
Other Sandstone, Limesone
Location
Region Arkansas
Country United States
Extent 50 miles (80 km)
Type section
Named for Fayetteville, Arkansas
Map of USA AR.svg
The Fayetteville formation runs widespread across Arkansas

The Fayetteville Shale is a geologic formation of Mississippian age (354–323 million years ago) composed of tight shale within the Arkoma basin of Arkansas and Oklahoma.[4][5] It is named for the city of Fayetteville, Arkansas, and requires hydraulic fracturing to release the natural gas contained within.

Natural gas[edit]

Gas production from Fayetteville Shale

The formation holds natural gas in a fine-grained rock matrix which requires hydraulic fracturing to release the gas.[6] This process became cost-effective in some shales such as the Fayetteville after years of experimentation in the Barnett Shale in North Texas, especially when combined with horizontal drilling.

The US Energy Information Administration estimated that the 5,853 square miles (15,160 km2) shale play held 13,240 billion cubic ft (375 billion cubic meters) of unproved, technically recoverable gas.[5] The average well was estimated to produce 1.3 billion cubic feet of gas.[7]

Paleontology[edit]

Flora[edit]

Artist's impression of a Lepidodendron

Fauna[edit]

Vertebrates[edit]

Echinoderms[edit]

Fossil of the upper portion of Taxocrinus (on the right)

Cephalopods[edit]

Fossil of Goniatites

Corals[edit]

Bivalves[edit]

Aviculopecten subcardiformis from the Logan Formation (Lower Carboniferous) of Wooster, Ohio (external mold).

Brachiopods[edit]

Gastropods[edit]

Platyceras sp. from Museo di Storia Naturale di Milano.

Arthropods[edit]

A life-reconstruction of the trilobite Paladin.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f M. Gordon, Jr. and T. W. Henry. 1993. Late Mississippian Productoid Brachiopods Inflatia, Keokukia, and Adairia, Ozark Region of Oklahoma and Arkansas. Paleontological Society Memoir 30:1-29
  2. ^ a b Freemen, T. Fossils of Arkansas. Arkansas Geologic Commission.
  3. ^ a b "Major Stratigraphic Layers of the Fayetteville Shale Formation". Chesapeake Energy, Inc. Retrieved July 25, 2011. 
  4. ^ a b c d Sando, W. 1969. Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Part B- Corals. United States Geologic Survey Professional Paper 606
  5. ^ a b Reed, Michael (June 2013). "Shale Play Should See Added Capacity Next 2 Years". Pipeline & Gas Journal. Houston, TX: Oildom Publishing Company. 240 (6): 46. 
  6. ^ "About the Fayetteville Shale". University of Arkansas. Retrieved July 25, 2011. 
  7. ^ US Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy outlook 2012, accessed 14 Sept. 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g Taylor, T., Eggard, D.,1967. Petrified Plants from the Upper Mississippian (Chester Series) of Arkansas. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 86: 4
  9. ^ Tomescu, A. 2001. Lyginopteris royalii sp. nov. from the Upper Mississippian of North America. Review of Paleobotany and Palynology. 116: 3-4
  10. ^ Dunn, M., Rothwell, G., Mapes, G. 2002.Additional observations on Rhynchosperma quinnii (Medullosaceae): a permineralized ovule from the Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) Fayetteville Formation of Arkansas. Journal of Botany. 89:11
  11. ^ Dunn, M., Rothwell, G., Mapes, G. 2003. On Paleozoic plants from marine strata: Trivena arkansana (Lyginopteridaceae) gen. et sp. nov., a lyginopterid from the Fayetteville Formation (middle Chesterian/Upper Mississippian) of Arkansas, USA. Journal of Botany. 90:8
  12. ^ Lund, R., Mapes, R. 1984. Carcharopsis wortheni from the Fayetteville Formation (Mississippian) of Arkansas. Journal of Paleontology. 58:3.
  13. ^ Alan Pradel; John G. Maisey; Paul Tafforeau; Royal H. Mapes; Jon Mallatt (2014). "A Palaeozoic shark with osteichthyan-like branchial arches". Nature. 509 (7502): 608–611. doi:10.1038/nature13195. PMID 24739974. 
  14. ^ a b c Burdick, D., Strimple, H. 1973. Flexible Crinoids from the Fayetteville Formation (Chesterian) of Northeastern Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology. 47:2
  15. ^ Strimple, H. 1948. Notes on Phanocrinus from the Fayetteville Formation of Northeastern Oklahoma. Journal of Paleontology. 22:4
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Mapes, R. 1966. Late Mississippian Lycopsid Branch from Arkansas. Oklahoma Geology Notes.
  17. ^ Doughouzhaeva L, Mapes, R., Mutvei, H. 1997. Beaks and radulae of Early Carboniferous goniatites. Lethia. 30:4
  18. ^ Easton, W. 1945. Kinkaid Corals from Illinois and Amplexoid Corals from the Chester of Illinois and Arkansas. Journal of Paleontology. 19:4
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Pojeta, J. 1969. Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Part C- Pelecypods. United States Geologic Survey Professional Paper 606
  20. ^ a b c d e f g Yochelson, E 1969. Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Part C- Pelecypods. United States Geologic Survey Professional Paper 606
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sohn, I. 1969.Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Part F- Ostracodes. United States Geologic Survey Professional Paper 606
  22. ^ Gordon, M. 1969.Revision of Some of Girty's Invertebrate Fossils from the Fayetteville Shale (Mississippian) of Arkansas and Oklahoma: Part E- Trilobites. United States Geologic Survey Professional Paper 606