Forest Hills School District

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Forest Hills School District
Map of Cambria County Pennsylvania School Districts.png
Address
549 Locust Street
Sidman, Cambria County, Pennsylvania 15955
United States
Information
Type Public
School board 9 locally elected members
Superintendent

Edwin Bowser, Salary $113,300 (2013) (contract August 1, 2011 to July 31, 2016)[1]

Donald G. Bailey, former superintendent 2009
Administrator

Chris Reighard, Business Manager Salary $89,955 (2013)
Vanessa A Sral, Education Administrator salary $107,411 (2013)
James T Lashinsky, salary $102,262

Claudia Mehall, Special Education Supervisor/psychologist $96,782 (2013)
Principal Lucas Jacobs, ES
Principal Edward Alexander, MS $87,377
Principal Curt P Vasas, HS $94,411
Faculty 132 teachers (2013)[2]
Grades Pre-K-12
Age 4 years old preschool to 21 years old special education pupils
Pupils

1946 pupils (2014)[3]
1,933 pupils (2012)[4]
1,957 pupils (2010)[5]
2,064 pupils (2008)[6]
2,258 pupils (2006)[7]

2,308 pupils (2004)
 • Kindergarten 139 (2012), 121 (2010)
 • Grade 1 143 (2012), 139
 • Grade 2 127 (2012), 124
 • Grade 3 141 (2012), 127
 • Grade 4 124 (2012),142
 • Grade 5 129 (2012), 144
 • Grade 6 139 (2012), 157
 • Grade 7 146 (2012), 148
 • Grade 8 164 (2012), 149
 • Grade 9 146 (2012), 166
 • Grade 10 143 (2012), 175
 • Grade 11 167 (2012), 179
 • Grade 12 166 (2012), 186 (2010)
 • Other 59 pupils (2012) 35 pupils (2009)
Language English
Color(s) Green and Yellow
Team name Rangers
Budget

$45,168,864 (2014-15)[8]
$23,807,084 (2009)
$22,819,644 (2008)
$23,824,106 (2007)
$22,954,134 (2006)
$21,035,787 (2005)

$20,185,713 (2004)
Per pupil spending $10,450 (2008)
Per pupil spending $11,829.03 (2012)[9]
Website

The Forest Hills School District is a small, rural, public school district in Cambria County, Pennsylvania. It serves the boroughs of Wilmore, Summerhill, South Fork, and Ehrenfeld, plus the townships of Adams, Summerhill, and Croyle. The Forest Hills School District encompasses approximately 96 square miles (250 km2). According to 2000 US Census Bureau data, it served a resident population of 13,597 people. By 2010, the District's population declined to 12,641 people.[10] The educational attainment levels for the Forest Hills School District population (25 years old and over) were 88.7% high school graduates and 16.1% college graduates.[11] The District is one of the 500 public school districts of Pennsylvania. The District operates 3 schools, providing kindergarten (5 years old) through 12th grade. Since 2009, the District has provided taxpayer funded preschool to 4-year-olds.

According to the Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, 44.7% of the District’s pupils lived at 185% or below the Federal Poverty level as shown by their eligibility for the federal free or reduced price school meal programs in 2012.[12] In 2010, the District residents’ per capita income was $14,904, while the median family income was $37,099.[13] In the Commonwealth, the median family income was $49,501 [14] and the United States median family income was $49,445, in 2010.[15] In Cambria County, the median household income was $39,574.[16] By 2013, the median household income in the United States rose to $52,100.[17]

According to Forest Hills School District officials, in school year 2007-08 the FHSD provided basic educational services to 2,173 pupils. It employed: 154 teachers, 110 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 10 administrators. Forest Hills School District received more than $16.5 million in state funding in school year 2007-08. Per Forest Hills School District officials, the District provided basic educational services to 1,985 pupils in 2012. It employed: 149 teachers, 113 full-time and part-time support personnel, and 10 administrators during the 2011-12 school year. The District received $17.4 million in state funding in the 2011-12 school year.[18]

Schools[edit]

School Name
Grade Level
Address
Forest Hills Elementary School
Grades Preschool-6th grade
547 Locust Street
Sidman, Pennsylvania 15955
Forest Hills Junior-Senior High School
Grades 7th-12th grade
549 Locust Street
Sidman, Pennsylvania 15955

High school students may choose to attend Greater Johnstown Career and Technology Center for training in the construction and mechanical trades as well as other careers. The Appalachia Intermediate Unit IU8 provides the District with a wide variety of services like specialized education for disabled students and hearing, background checks for employees, state mandated recognizing and reporting child abuse training, speech and visual disability services and professional development for staff and faculty.

Governance[edit]

Forest Hills School District is governed by 9 individually elected board members (serve without compensation for a term of four years), the Pennsylvania State Board of Education, the Pennsylvania Department of Education and the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[19] The federal government controls programs it funds like: Title I funding for low income children in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act, which mandates the district focus resources on student success in acquiring reading and math skills. The Superintendent and Business Manager are appointed by the school board. The Superintendent is the chief administrative officer with overall responsibility for all aspects of operations, including education and finance. The Business Manager is responsible for budget and financial operations. Neither of these officials are voting members of the School Board. The School Board enters into individual employment contracts for these positions. In Pennsylvania, public school districts are required to give 150 days notice to the Superintendent regarding renewal of the employment contract.[20]

The Commonwealth Foundation for Public Policy Alternatives Sunshine Review gave the Forest Hills School Board and district administration a "F" for transparency based on a review of "What information can people find on their school district's website". It examined the school district's website for information regarding; taxes, the current budget, meetings, school board members names and terms, contracts, audits, public records information and more.[21]

Academic achievement[edit]

In 2015, Forest Hills School District ranked 231st out of 496 Pennsylvania public school districts, by the Pittsburgh Business Times.[22] The ranking is based on the last 3 years of student academic achievement as demonstrated by PSSAs results in: reading, writing, math and science and the three Keystone Exams (literature, Algebra 1, Biology I) in high school.[23] Three school districts were excluded because they do not operate high schools (Saint Clair Area School District, Midland Borough School District, Duquesne City School District). The PSSAs are given to all children in grades 3rd through 8th. Adapted PSSA examinations are given to children in the special education programs. Writing exams were given to children in 5th and 8th grades.

  • 2014 - 241st[24]
  • 2013 - 241st[25]
  • 2012 - 246th [26]
  • 2008 - 223rd
  • 2007 - 273rd out of 501 school districts.[27]

District AYP status history[edit]

In 2012, Forest Hills School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status.[28] In 2011, Forest Hills School District achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP). In 2011, 94 percent of the 500 Pennsylvania public school districts achieved the No Child Left Behind Act progress level of 72% of students reading on grade level and 67% of students demonstrating on grade level math. In 2011, 46.9 percent of Pennsylvania school districts achieved Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) based on student performance. An additional 37.8 percent of Pennsylvania public school districts made AYP based on a calculated method called safe harbor, 8.2 percent on the growth model and 0.8 percent on a two-year average performance.[29][30] Forest Hills School District achieved AYP status each year from 2004 to 2010, while in 2003 the District was in Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement.[31]

Graduation rate[edit]

In 2014, the Forest Hills School District graduation rate was 94%.[32]

  • 2013 - 96.6% [33]
  • 2012 - 96.7%.[34]
  • 2011 - 96.1%.[35]
  • 2010 - 96.7%, the Pennsylvania Department of Education issued a new, 4-year cohort graduation rate. Area High School's rate was 97.8% for 2010.[36]
According to traditional graduation rate calculations

High School[edit]

Forest Hills High School is located in Sidman. In 2014, enrollment was reported as 454 pupils in 10th through 12th grades, with 49% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 9% of pupils received special education services, while 2.8% of pupils were identified as gifted. The school employed 33 teachers.[40] Per the PA Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, the school reported an enrollment of 476 pupils in grades 10th through 12th, with 189 pupils eligible for a federal free or reduced price lunch due to the family meeting the federal poverty level. In 2012, the School employed 33 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 14:1.[41] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[42]

2014 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills High School achieved 72.5 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 78% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, 66% showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology, only 27% demonstrated on grade level science understanding at the end of the course.[43] Statewide, the percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in Algebra I increased to 39.7% to 40.1%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in reading/literature declined to 52.5%. The percentage of high school students who scored proficient and advanced in biology improved from 39.7% to 41.4%.[44]

According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,134 of 2,947 Pennsylvania public schools (72 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.[45] Fifty-three percent of schools statewide received lower SPP scores compared with last year's, while 46 percent improved. A handful were unchanged.[46][47]

2013 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills High School achieved 78.8 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 84% were on grade level. In Algebra 1, only 67% showed on grade level skills at the end of the course. In Biology, just 28% showed on grade level science understanding.[48] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher. Pennsylvania 11th grade students no longer take the PSSAs. Instead, beginning in 2012, they take the Keystone Exams at the end of the associated course.[49]

AYP History

Effective with Spring 2013, the Pennsylvania Department of Education discontinued administering the PSSA's to 11th graders.

In 2012, Forest Hills High School declined to Warning Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status, due to missing all academic metrics measured.[50]

  • 2011 - achieved AYP status.[51]
  • 2010 - Making Progress School Improvement Level II[52]
  • 2009 - School Improvement Level II[53]
  • 2008 - declined further to School Improvement Level II - mandated by NCLB to provide tutoring.[54][55]
  • 2007 - Making Progress - School Improvement Level I.[56]
  • 2006 - declined again to School Improvement Level I.[57]
  • 2005 - declined to Warning AYP status[58]
  • 2004 and 2003 - Achieved AYP status

Under the federal No Child Left Behind Act, in 2009 Forest Hills High School administration was required to notify parents of the school's poor achievement outcomes and to offer the parent the opportunity to transfer to a successful school within the District. In 2006, Forest Hills High School Administration was required by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, to develop a School Improvement Plan to address the school's low student achievement. Under the Pennsylvania Accountability System, the school district must pay for additional tutoring for struggling students.[59] Due to the low student achievement, Forest Hills High School was eligible for special, extra funding under School Improvement Grants from the federal government, which the school must apply for each year.[60]

PSSA results

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered from 2003 through 2012, in all Pennsylvania public high schools. The exams were administered in the Spring of each school year. The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam included content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies. The mathematics exam included: algebra I, algebra II, geometry and trigonometry. The standards were first published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[61] In 2013, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania changed its high school assessments to the Keystone Exams in Algebra 1, Reading/literature and Biology1. The exams are given at the end of the course, rather than all in the spring of the student's 11th grade. year.[62]

11th Grade Reading:

  • 2012 - 68% on grade level, (16% below basic). State - 67% of 11th graders are on grade level.[63]
  • 2011 - 77% (11% below basic). State - 69.1%[64]
  • 2010 - 69% (15% below basic). State - 66%[65]
  • 2009 - 64% (18% below basic). State - 65%[66]
  • 2008 - 64% (17% below basic). State - 65%[67]

11th Grade Math:

  • 2012 - 61% on grade level (25% below basic). In Pennsylvania, 59% of 11th graders are on grade level.[68]
  • 2011 - 72% (15% below basic). State - 60.3%[69]
  • 2010 - 59% (25% below basic). State - 59%[70]
  • 2009 - 62% (20% below basic). State - 56%[71]
  • 2008 - 48% (30% below basic). State - 56%[72]

11th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 50% on grade level (13% below basic). State - 42% of 11th graders were on grade level.[73]
  • 2011 - 41% (10% below basic). State - 40%[74]
  • 2010 - 37% (17% below basic). State - 39%
  • 2009 - 31% (18% below basic). State - 40%[75]
  • 2008 - 25% (17% below basic). State - 39%[76]
  • 2007 - students field tested. Results withheld from the public by PDE.

College Remediation Rate[edit]

According to a Pennsylvania Department of Education study released in January 2009, 15 % of Forest Hills High School graduates required remediation in mathematics and or reading, before they were prepared to take college level courses in the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education or Pennsylvania community colleges.[77][78] Less than 66% of Pennsylvania high school graduates, who enroll in a four-year college in Pennsylvania, will earn a bachelor's degree within six years. Among Pennsylvania high school graduates pursuing an associate degree, only one in three graduate in three years.[79][80] Per the Pennsylvania Department of Education, one in three recent high school graduates who attend Pennsylvania's public universities and community colleges takes at least one remedial course in math, reading or English.

Dual enrollment[edit]

The high school offers a dual enrollment program. This state program permits high school students to take courses, at local higher education institutions, to earn college credits. Students remain enrolled at their high school. The courses count towards high school graduation requirements and towards earning a college degree. The students continue to have full access to activities and programs at their high school. The college credits are offered at a deeply discounted rate. The state offered a small grant to assist students in costs for tuition, fees and books.[81] Under the Pennsylvania Transfer and Articulation Agreement, many Pennsylvania colleges and universities accept these credits for students who transfer to their institutions.[82] Under state rules, other students that reside in the district, who attend a private school, a charter school or are home schooled are eligible to participate in this program.[83] For the 2009-10 funding year, the Forest Hills School District received a state grant of $2,721 for the program.[84] In 2010, Governor Edward Rendell eliminated the grants to students, from the Commonwealth, due to a state budget crisis.

Graduation requirements[edit]

Among Pennsylvania's 500 public school districts, graduation requirements widely vary. The Forest Hills School Board has determined that a pupil must earn 26.5 credits to graduate, including: a required class every year in math, English, social studies, science, Physical Education and electives. Students attending Vo-Tech must earn twenty-three (23) credits.[85]

For nearly two decades, all Pennsylvania secondary school students were required to complete a project as a part of their eligibility to graduate from high school. The type of project, its rigor and its expectations are set by the individual school district.[86] Effective with the graduating class of 2017, the Pennsylvania State Board of Education eliminated the state mandate that students complete a culminating project in order to graduate.[87]

By Pennsylvania State School Board regulations, beginning with the class of 2017, public school students must demonstrate successful completion of secondary level course work in Algebra I, Biology, and English Literature by passing the respective Keystone Exams for each course.[88] The exam is given at the end of the course. Keystone Exams replace the PSSAs for 11th grade.[89]

Students have several opportunities to pass the exam. Schools are mandated to provide targeted assistance to help the student be successful. Those who do not pass after several attempts can perform a project in order to graduate.[90][91] For the class of 2019, a Composition exam will be added. For the class of 2020, passing a civics and government exam will be added to the graduation requirements.[92] In 2011, Pennsylvania high school students field tested the Algebra 1, Biology and English Lit exams. The statewide results were: Algebra 1 38% on grade level, Biology 35% on grade level and English Lit - 49% on grade level.[93] Individual student, school or district reports were not made public, although they were reported to district officials by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Students identified as having special needs and qualifying for an Individual Educational Program (IEP) may graduate by meeting the requirements of their IEP.

SAT scores[edit]

In 2014, 104 Forest Hills School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 498. The Math average score was 506. The Writing average score was 474.[94][95] Statewide in Pennsylvania, Verbal Average Score was 497. The Math average score was 504. The Writing average score was 480. The College Board also reported that nationwide scores were: 497 in reading, 513 in math and 487 in writing.[96]

In 2013, 93 Forest Hills School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 488. The Math average score was 515. The Writing average score was 479. The College Board reported that statewide scores were: 494 in reading, 504 in math and 482 in writing. The nationwide SAT results were the same as in 2012.[97]

In 2012, 107 Forest Hills School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 477. The Math average score was 509. The Writing average score was 463. The statewide Verbal SAT exams results were: Verbal 491, Math 501, Writing 480. In the USA, 1.65 million students took the exams achieving scores: Verbal 496, Math 514, Writing 488. According to the College Board the maximum score on each section was 800, and 360 students nationwide scored a perfect 2,400.

In 2011, 94 Forest Hills School District students took the SAT exams. The District's Verbal Average Score was 485. The Math average score was 499. The Writing average score was 462.[98] Pennsylvania ranked 40th among states with SAT scores: Verbal - 493, Math - 501, Writing - 479.[99] In the United States, 1.65 million students took the exam in 2011. They averaged 497 (out of 800) verbal, 514 math and 489 in writing.[100]

The Center for Rural Pennsylvania, a research arm of the Pennsylvania General Assembly, compared the SAT data of students in rural areas of Pennsylvania to students in urban areas. From 2003 to 2005, the average total SAT score for students in rural Pennsylvania was 992, while urban students averaged 1,006. During the same period, 28 percent of 11th and 12th graders in rural school districts took the exam, compared to 32 percent of urban students in the same grades. The average math and verbal scores were 495 and 497, respectively, for rural students, while urban test-takers averaged 499 and 507, respectively. Pennsylvania’s SAT composite score ranked low on the national scale in 2004. The composite SAT score of 1,003 left Pennsylvania ranking 44 out of the 50 states and Washington, DC.[101]

AP Courses[edit]

In 2014, Forest Hills High School offered 5 Advanced Placement (AP) courses at a higher cost than regular courses. The fee for each AP Exam is $91 (2014).[102] The school normally retains $9 of that fee as a rebate to help with administrative costs. In 2012, the fee was $89 per test per pupil. Students have the option of taking College Board approved courses and then taking the College Board's examination in the Spring. Students, who achieve a 3 or better on the exam, may be awarded college credits at US universities and colleges. Each higher education institution sets its own standards about what level of credits are awarded to a student based on their AP exam score. Most higher education give credits for scores of 4 or 5. Some schools also give credits for scores of 3. High schools give credits towards graduation to students who take the school's AP class. At Forest Hills High School just 7% of students who took an AP course earned a 3 or better on the exam.[103] In 2013, Forest Hills High School offered five (5) AP courses with 12% of pupils earning a 3 or better on the end of course exam.

Middle school[edit]

Forest Hills Middle School is located at Sidman. In 2014, enrollment was 469 pupils, in grades 7th through 9th, with 53% of pupils eligible for a free lunch due to family poverty. Additionally, 12% of pupils received special education services, while 4% of pupils were identified as gifted.[104] According to a 2014 report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[105]

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, Forest Hills Middle School reported an enrollment of 456 pupils, in grades 7th through 9th, with 211 pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price lunch due to family poverty. The school employed 32 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 14:1.[106] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under No Child Left Behind.[107]

2014 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills Middle School achieved 81.2 out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, mathematics and science achievement. In reading/literature - 81% were on grade level. In Algebra 1/Math, 74% showed on grade level mathematics skills. In Science, 65% of 8th graders showed on grade level science understanding. In writing, 85% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[108]

2013 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills Middle School achieved out of 100. Reflects on grade level reading, writing, mathematics and science achievement. In reading, just 81% of the students were on grade level in 7th and 8th grades. In Mathematics/Algebra 1, 75% of the students showed on grade level skills. In Science, only 70% of the 8th graders demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing, 65% of the 8th grade students demonstrated on grade level writing skills.[109]

AYP History

In 2011 and 2012, Forest Hills Middle School achieved AYP status.[110]

  • 2009 and 2010 - achieved AYP status
  • 2008 - declined to Warning AYP status
  • 2004-2007 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - Warning AYP status
PSSA Results:

Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, are given in the Spring of each school year. Seventh grades have been tested in reading and mathematics since 2006. Eighth graders are tested in: reading, writing, mathematics and Science. Ninth graders do not take PSSAs. Beginning in the Spring of 2013, eighth graders, who are enrolled in Algebra I take the Keystone Exam for Algebra I at the end of the course. The testing of 8th grade in reading and mathematics began in 1999, as a state initiative.[111] Testing in science began in 2007. The goal is for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014. The tests focus on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science.[112] The standards were published in 1998 and are mandated by the Pennsylvania State Board of Education.[113] In 2014, the Commonwealth adopted the Pennsylvania Core Standards - Mathematics.[114]

8th Grade Science:

  • 2012 - 58% on grade level (18% below basic). State - 59%[120]
  • 2011 - 46% (32% below basic). State - 58.3%
  • 2010 - 63% (16% below basic). State - 57% [121]

Elementary school[edit]

Forest Hills Elementary School is located at 547 Locust Street, Sidman. In 2014, the School's enrollment was 1023 pupils in grades preschool through 6th, with 51.5% of pupils receiving a federal free or reduced price meals due to family poverty. Additionally, 14.7% of the pupils receive special education services, while 2.5% are identified as gifted.[122] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of the teachers were rated highly qualified under No Child Left Behind. The school provides full day kindergarten.[123] The school is a federally designated Title I school.

According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2012, enrollment was 1,001 pupils in grades preschool through 6th, with 475 pupils receiving a free or reduced price lunch. The School employed 67 teachers yielding a student-teacher ratio of 14:1.[124] According to a report by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 100% of its teachers were rated "Highly Qualified" under the federal No Child Left Behind Act.[125] The school provided full day kindergarten to all its pupils.[126] The preschool program had 59 children.

2014 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills Elementary School achieved a score of 78.3 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2013-14, only 76.5% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 6th. In 3rd grade, 83.8% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 79% were on grade level (3rd-6th grades). In 4th grade science, 90% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing only 65% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[127]

2013 School Performance Profile

Forest Hills Elementary School achieved a score of 68.9 out of 100. The score reflects on grade level: reading, science, writing and mathematics achievement. In 2012-13, only 72% of the students were reading on grade level in grades 3rd through 6th. In 3rd grade, 89% of the pupils were reading on grade level. In math, 78% were on grade level (3rd-6th grades). In 4th grade science, 87% of the pupils demonstrated on grade level understanding. In writing only 57% of 5th grade pupils demonstrated on grade level skills.[128] According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2,181 public schools (less than 73 percent of Pennsylvania public schools), achieved an academic score of 70 or higher.

AYP status history

In 2011 and 2012, Forest Hills Elementary School achieved AYP status.[129]

  • 2009 and 2010 - achieved AYP status
  • 2008 - declined to Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement in reading and math[130]
  • 2004-2007 - achieved AYP status
  • 2003 - Warning AYP status due to lagging student achievement in reading[131]
PSSA History

Each year, in the Spring, the 3rd graders and 6th graders take the PSSAs in math and reading. The fourth grade is tested in reading, math and science. The fifth grade is evaluated in reading, mathematics and writing. Pennsylvania System of School Assessments, commonly called PSSAs are No Child Left Behind Act related examinations which were administered beginning 2003 to all Pennsylvania public school students in grades 3rd-8th.[132] The goal was for 100% of students to be on grade level or better in reading and mathematics, by the Spring of 2014.[133][134][135] The tests focused on the state's Academic Standards for reading, writing, mathematics and science. The Science exam is given to 4th grades and includes content in science, technology, ecology and the environmental studies.[136]

4th Grade Science
  • 2012 - 91%, (7% below basic). State - 82%
  • 2011 - 90%, (0% below basic). State - 82.9%
  • 2010 - 90%, (1% below basic). State - 81%

Special education[edit]

In December 2013, the District administration reported that 261 pupils or 13.7% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 37.9% of the identified students having a specific learning disability.[141] In December 2009, the District administration reported that 255 pupils or 12.5% of the district's pupils received Special Education services, with 44% of the identified students having a specific learning disability. Special education services in the Commonwealth are provided to students from ages three years to 21 years old. In the 2010-2011 school year, the total student enrollment was more than 1.78 million students with approximately 275,000 students eligible for special education services. Among these students 18,959 were identified with mental retardation and 21,245 students with autism.[142] The largest group of students are identified as Specific Learning Disabilities 126,026 students (46.9 percent) and Speech or Language Impairments with 43,542 students (16.2 percent).

In 2007, Pennsylvania Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak testified before the Pennsylvania House Education Committee regarding full day kindergarten. He claimed that districts which offered the program would see a significant decrease in special education students due to early identification and early intervention. He asserted the high cost of full day kindergarten would be recouped by Districts in lower special education costs.[143] Forest Hills School District has seen an increase in the percentage of special education students it serves, yielding no savings.

In order to comply with state and federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act rules and regulations, Forest Hills School District engages in identification procedures to ensure that eligible students receive an appropriate educational program consisting of special education and related services, individualized to meet student needs. At no cost to the parents, these services are provided in compliance with state and federal law; and are reasonably calculated to yield meaningful educational benefit and student progress.[144] To identify students who may be eligible for special education services, various screening activities are conducted on an ongoing basis. These screening activities include: review of group-based data (cumulative records, enrollment records, health records, report cards, ability and achievement test scores); hearing, vision, motor, and speech/language screening; and review by the Special Education administration. When screening results suggest that the student may be eligible, the District seeks parental consent to conduct a multidisciplinary evaluation. Parents who suspect their child is eligible may verbally request a multidisciplinary evaluation from a professional employee of the District or contact the district's Special Education Department.[145][146] The IDEA 2004 requires each school entity to publish a notice to parents, in newspapers or other media, including the student handbook and website regarding the availability of screening and intervention services and how to access them.

In 2010, the state of Pennsylvania provided $1,026,815,000 for Special Education services. This funding was in addition to the state's basic education per pupil funding, as well as, all other state and federal funding.[147] The Special Education funding structure is through the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) funds and state appropriations. IDEA funds are appropriated to the state on an annual basis and distributed through intermediate units (IUs) to school districts, while state funds are distributed directly to the districts. Total funds that are received by school districts are calculated through a formula. The Pennsylvania Department of Education oversees four appropriations used to fund students with special needs: Special Education; Approved Private Schools; Pennsylvania Chartered Schools for the Deaf and Blind; and Early Intervention. The Pennsylvania Special Education funding system assumes that 16% of the district’s students receive special education services. It also assumes that each student’s needs accrue the same level of costs.[148] Over identification of students, in order to increase state funding, has been an issue in the Commonwealth. Some districts have more than 20% of its students receiving special education services while others have 10% supported through special education.[149] The state requires each public school district and charter school to have a three-year special education plan to meet the unique needs of its special education students.[150] In 2012, the Obama Administration's US Department of Education issued a directive requiring schools include students with disabilities in extracurricular activities, including sports.[151]

The Forest Hills School District received a $1,347,786 supplement for special education services in 2010.[152] For the 2011-12, 2012–13 and 2013-14 school years, all Pennsylvania public school districts received the same level of funding for special education that they received in 2010-11. This level funding is provided regardless of changes in the number of pupils who need special education services and regardless of the level of services the respective students required.[153][154] For the 2014-2015 school year, FHSD received an increase to $1,361,712 from the Commonwealth for special education funding.[155] Additionally, the state provides supplemental funding for extraordinarily impacted students. The District must apply for this added funding.

In 2013, the state's Special Education Funding Reform Commission provided a report on the state of funding for special education in the Commonwealth.[156] Funding for special education programs is borne largely on a local basis at 60%, with the state contributing $1 billion or 30% and the federal government providing 10% of the funding.

Gifted education[edit]

Forest Hills District Administration reported that 80 or 3.94% of its students were gifted in 2009. The highest percentage of gifted students reported among all 500 school districts and 100 public charter schools in Pennsylvania was North Allegheny School District with 15.5% of its students identified as gifted.[157] By law, the district must provide mentally gifted programs at all grade levels. The referral process for a gifted evaluation can be initiated by teachers or parents by contacting the student’s building principal and requesting an evaluation. All requests must be made in writing. To be eligible for mentally gifted programs in Pennsylvania, a student must have a cognitive ability of at least 130 as measured on a standardized ability test by a certified school psychologist. Other factors that indicate giftedness will also be considered for eligibility.[158][159]

Budget[edit]

Pennsylvania public school districts budget and expend funds according to procedures mandated by the General Assembly and the Pennsylvania Department of Education (PDE). An annual operating budget is prepared by school district administrative officials. A uniform form is furnished by the PDE and submitted to the board of school directors for approval prior to the beginning of each fiscal year on July 1.

Under Pennsylvania’s Taxpayer Relief Act, Act 1 of the Special Session of 2006, all school districts of the first class A, second class, third class and fourth class must adopt a preliminary budget proposal. The proposal must include estimated revenues and expenditures and the proposed tax rates. This proposed budget must be considered by the Board no later than 90 days prior to the date of the election immediately preceding the fiscal year. The preliminary budget proposal must also be printed and made available for public inspection at least 20 days prior to its adoption. The board of school directors may hold a public hearing on the budget, but are not required to do so. The board must give at least 10 days’ public notice of its intent to adopt the final budget according to Act 1 of 2006.[160]

In 2013, the Forest Hills School District employed 181 teachers with an average salary of $56,001 and a top salary of $116,699.[161][162] In 2010, the Forest Hills School District employed 166 teachers with an average salary of $56,231 and a top salary of $141,363. Forest Hills School District teacher and administrator retirement benefits are equal to at least 2.00% x Final Average Salary x Total Credited Service. (Some teachers benefits utilize a 2.50% benefit factor.)[163] After 40 years of service, a teacher can retire with 100% of the average salary of their final 3 years of employment. According to a study conducted at the American Enterprise Institute, in 2011, public school teachers’ total compensation is roughly 50 percent higher than they would likely receive in the private sector. The study found that the most generous benefits that teachers receive are not accounted for in many studies of compensation including: pension, retiree health benefits and job security.[164]

In 2009, the District reported employing 167 teachers and administrators with a median salary of $55,893 and a top salary of 135,926.[165] The teacher’s work day is 7.5 hours with 184 days in the contract year. Additionally, the teachers receive a defined benefit pension, health insurance, professional development reimbursement, paid personal days, 10 paid sick days, and other benefits.[166]

Administration spending Forest Hills School District administrative costs per pupil in 2008 was $657.65 per pupil. The lowest administrative cost per pupil in Pennsylvania was $398 per pupil.[167] The Pennsylvania School Boards Association collects and maintains statistics on salaries of public school district employees in Pennsylvania. According to the association's report, the average salary for a superintendent, for the 2007-08 school year, was $122,165. Superintendents and administrators receive a benefit package commensurate with that offered to the district's teachers' union.[168]

Per pupil spending In 2008, Forest Hills School District administration reported that per pupil spending was $10,450 which ranked 447th among Pennsylvania's then 501 public school districts. In 2010, the District’s per pupil spending had increased to $$11,406.57.[169] In 2013, the per pupil spending was reported as $11,829.03.[170] In 2011, Pennsylvania’s per pupil spending was $13,467, ranking 6th in the United States.[171] In 2007, the Pennsylvania per pupil total expenditures was reported as $12,759.[172]

Reserves In 2008, the Forest Hills School District reported a balance of $6,436,087, in its unreserved-undesignated fund. The unreserved-designated fund balance was reported as zero. [173] In 2010, Forest Hills School District Administration reported an increase to $8,167,796 in the unreserved-undesignated fund balance. The District also reported $2,620 in its unreserved-designated fund in 2010. In 2013, the District reported $9,539,311 in its unreserved-undesignated fund. Pennsylvania public school district reserve funds are divided into two categories – designated and undesignated. The undesignated funds are not committed to any planned project. Designated funds and any other funds, such as capital reserves, are allocated to specific projects. School districts are required by state law to keep 5 percent of their annual spending in the undesignated reserve funds to preserve bond ratings. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, from 2003 to 2010, as a whole, Pennsylvania school districts amassed nearly $3 billion in reserved funds.[174] In 2005, the total reserve funds held by Pennsylvania public school districts was $1.9 billion.[175] By 2013, reserves held by Pennsylvania public school districts, as a whole, had increased to over $3.8 billion.[176][177][178]

Tuition Students who live in the Forest Hills School District's attendance area may choose to attend one of Pennsylvania's 157 public charter schools. A student living in a neighboring public school district or a foreign exchange student may seek admission to Area School District. For these cases, the Pennsylvania Department of Education sets an annual tuition rate for each school district. It is the amount the public school district pays to a charter school for each resident student that attends the charter and it is the amount a nonresident student's parents must pay to attend the Forest Hills School District's schools. The 2013 tuition rates are Elementary School - $7,507, High School - $8,979.[179]

Forest Hills School District is funded by a combination of: a local earned income tax 0.5%,[180] a property tax, a real estate transfer tax 0.5%, coupled with substantial funding from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and a small amount, generally 10% of its budget from the federal government.[181] Grants can provide an opportunity to supplement school funding without raising local taxes. Interest earnings on accounts also provide nontax income to the District. In the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, pension income and Social Security income are exempted from state personal income tax and local earned income tax, regardless of the level of the individual’s personal wealth.[182] The average Pennsylvania public school teacher pension in 2011 exceeds $60,000 a year plus they receive federal Social Security benefits: both are free of Pennsylvania state income tax and local income tax which funds local public schools.[183]

State basic education funding[edit]

According to a report from Representative Todd Stephens office, Forest Hills School District receives 72.7% of its annual revenue from the state.[184] This exceeds the goal of the state providing 50% of district funding.[185]

For the 2014-15 school year, Forest Hills School District received $12,229,990 in State Basic Education funding. The District also received $203,458 in new Ready To Learn Block grant. The State’s enacted Education Budget includes $5,526,129,000 for the 2014-2015 Basic Education Funding.[186] The Education budget also includes Accountability Block Grant funding at $100 million and $241 million in new Ready to Learn funding for public schools that focus on student achievement and academic success. The State is paying $500.8 million to Social Security on the school employees behalf and another $1.16 billion to the state teachers pension system (PSERS). In total, Pennsylvania’s Education budget for K-12 public schools is $10 billion. This was a $305 million increase over 2013-2014 state spending and the greatest amount ever allotted by the Commonwealth for its public schools.[187]

In the 2013-2014 school year, Forest Hills School District received a 1.2% increase or $12,228,696 in Pennsylvania Basic Education Funding. This is $148,759 more than its 2012-13 state BEF to the District. Additionally, Forest Hills School District received $166,189 in Accountability Block Grant funding to focus on academic achievement and level funding for special education services. Among the public school districts in Cambria County, Westmont Hilltop School District received the highest percentage increase in BEF at 2.5%. The District had the option of applying for several other state and federal grants to increase revenues. The Commonwealth’s budget increased Basic Education Funding statewide by $123 million to over $5.5 billion. Most of Pennsylvania’s 500 public school districts received an increase of Basic Education Funding in a range of 0.9% to 4%. Eight public school districts received exceptionally high funding increases of 10% to 16%. The highest increase in state funding was awarded to Austin Area School District which received a 22.5% increase in Basic Education Funding.[188] The highest percent of state spending per student is in the Chester-Upland district, where roughly 78 percent comes from state coffers. In Philadelphia, it is nearly 49 percent.[189] As a part of the education budget, the state provided the PSERS (Pennsylvania school employee pension fund) with $1,017,000,000 and Social Security payments for school employees of $495 million.[190]

For the 2012-13 school year, the Forest Hills School District received $12,079,937.[191] The Governor's Executive Budget for 2012-2013 included $9.34 billion for kindergarten through 12th grade public education, including $5.4 billion in basic education funding, which was an increase of $49 million over the 2011-12 budget. In addition, the Commonwealth provided $100 million for the Accountability Block Grant (ABG) program. Forest Hills School Districts received $166,189 in ABG funds. The state also provided a $544.4 million payment for School Employees’ Social Security and $856 million for School Employees’ Retirement fund called PSERS.[192] This amount was a $21,823,000 increase (0.34%) over the 2011-2012 appropriations for Basic Education Funding, School Employees' Social Security, Pupil Transportation, Nonpublic and Charter School Pupil Transportation. Since taking office, Corbett’s first two budgets have restored more than $918 million in support of public schools, compensating for the $1 billion in federal stimulus dollars lost at the end of the 2010-11 school year.

In 2011-12 school year, Forest Hills School District received a $12,079,937 allocation of state Basic Education Funding.[193][194] Additionally, the Forest Hills School District received $166,189 in Accountability Block Grant funding. The enacted Pennsylvania state Education budget included $5,354,629,000 for the 2011-2012 Basic Education Funding appropriation. This amount was a $233,290,000 increase (4.6%) over the enacted State appropriation for 2010-2011.[195] The highest increase in state basic education funding was awarded to Duquesne City School District of Allegheny County, which got a 49% increase in state funding for 2011-12.[196] In 2010, the district reported that 787 students received free or reduced price lunches, due to the family meeting the federal poverty level.[197] Some Pennsylvania public school districts experienced a reduction of total funding due to the termination of federal stimulus funding which ended in 2011.

In the 2010-11 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 2% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $12,820,793. Among the districts in Cambria County, the highest increase went to Westmont Hilltop School District which got a 10.14% increase. One hundred fifty Pennsylvania school districts received the base 2% increase. The highest increase in 2010-11 went to Kennett Consolidated School District in Chester County, which received a 23.65% increase in state funding.[198] Fifteen (15) Pennsylvania public school districts received a BEF increase of greater than 10%. The state's hold harmless policy regarding state basic education funding continued where each district received at least the same amount as it received the prior school year, even when enrollment had significantly declined. The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward Rendell and then Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal given each February. This was the second year of Governor Rendell’s policy to fund some public school districts at a far greater rate than others.[199]

In the 2009-10 budget year, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provided a 4.05% increase in Basic Education Funding for a total of $12,569,404. Among the districts in Cambria County, the highest increase went to Westmont Hilltop School District which got an 8.22%. Ninety (90) Pennsylvania public school districts received the base 2% increase. Muhlenberg School District in Berks County received a 22.31% increase in state basic education funding in 2009.[200] The amount of increase each school district received was set by Governor Edward G. Rendell and the Secretary of Education Gerald Zahorchak, as a part of the state budget proposal.[201]

The state Basic Education Funding to the District in 2008-09 was $11,861,248. According to the Pennsylvania Department of Education, 819 district students received free or reduced- price lunches due to low family income in the 2007–2008 school year.[202]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Pennsylvania spent $7,824 Per Pupil in the year 2000. This amount increased up to $12,085 by the year 2008.[203][204]

All Pennsylvania school districts also receive additional funding from the state through several funding allocations, including: Reimbursement of Charter School Expenditures; Special Education Funding; Secondary Career & Technical Education Subsidy; PA Accountability Grants. Low achieving schools were eligible for Educational Assistance Program Funding. Plus all Pennsylvania school districts receive federal dollars for various programs including: Special Education funding and Title I funding for children from low income families. In 2010, Pennsylvania spent over $24 billion for public education - local, state and federal dollars combined.[205] By 2015, Pennsylvania is spending over $27 billion on public education (local, state and federal resources combined).[206]

Accountability Block Grants[edit]

Beginning in 2004-2005, the state launched the Accountability Block Grant school funding. This program has provided $1.5 billion to Pennsylvania’s school districts. The Accountability Block Grant program requires that its taxpayer dollars are focused on specific interventions that are most likely to increase student academic achievement. These interventions include: teacher skills training; All Day Kindergarten; lower class size in Kindergarten through 3rd grade; literacy and math coaching programs (provides teachers with individualized job-embedded professional development to improve their instruction); before or after school tutoring assistance to struggling students. For 2010-11, the District applied for and received $451,078 in addition to all other state and federal funding. Forest Hills School District used the funding to provide full-day kindergarten and to provide tutoring before/after school and on weekends.[207][208] In 2009, 100% of the kindergarteners in Forest Hills School District attended full-day kindergarten.[209]

Ready to Learn grant[edit]

Beginning in the 2014-2015 budget, the State funded a new Ready to Learn Grant for public schools. A total of $100 million is allocated through a formula to districts based on the number of students, level of poverty of community as calculated by its market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) and the number of English language learners. Ready to Learn Block Grant funds may be used by the Districts for: school safety; Ready by 3 early childhood intervention programs; individualized learning programs; and science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) programs.[210] Forest Hills School District received $316,206 in Ready to Learn Grant dollars in addition to State Basic Education funding, Special Education funding, reimbursement for Social Security payments for employees and other state grants which the district must apply to receive.

Classrooms for the Future grant[edit]

The Classroom for the Future state program provided districts with hundreds of thousands of extra state funding to buy laptop computers for each core curriculum high school class (English, Science, History, Math) and paid for teacher training to optimize the computers use. The program was funded from 2006 to 2009. The Forest Hills School District applied to participate in 2006-07 and in 2007-08, but was denied funding. The District received $97,634 in 2008-09.[211] Among the public school districts in Cambria County, the highest award was given to Greater Johnstown School District which received $463,166. The highest funding statewide was awarded to Philadelphia City School District in Philadelphia County - $9,409,073. The grant program was discontinued by Governor Edward Rendell as part of the 2009-10 state budget.

Environmental Education Grant[edit]

The Environmental Education Grant Program was established by the Environmental Education Act of 1993, which mandates that 5 percent of all pollution fines and penalties collected annually by the Department of Environmental Protection be set aside for environmental education. In 2012, Forest Hills School District was awarded $3,000.

Science It’s Elementary grant[edit]

Forest Hills Elementary School successfully applied to participate and received a Science It’s Elementary grant in 2008-09.[212] For the 2008-09 school year, the program was offered in 143 schools reaching 66,973 students across the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.[213] In 2007, the Pennsylvania Department of Education initiated an effort to improve science instruction in the Commonwealth’s public elementary schools. Called Science: It’s Elementary, the program was a hands on instruction approach for elementary science classes that develops problem-solving and critical thinking skills.[214] To encourage schools to adopt the program’s standards aligned curriculum, the state provided a grant to cover the costs of materials and extensive mandatory teacher training.[215] The district was required to develop a three-year implementation plan for the participating school. The school district administration was required to appoint a district liaison who was paid $3,000 by PDE to serve as the conduit of all information between the district and the Department and its agents along with submitting orders and distributing supplies to implementing teachers. For the 2006-07 state education budget, $10 million was allocated for the program.[216] The grant program was expanded to $14.5 million in the 2008-09 budget. The grant was discontinued in the state’s 2010-11 budget by Governor Edward G. Rendell.

Other grants[edit]

The District did not participate in: Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection's Environmental Education 2009 and 2010 grants;[217][218] Education Assistance Grants; 2012 Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy grant;[219] 2013 Safe Schools and Resource Officer grants; 2012 and 2013 Pennsylvania Hybrid Learning Grants;[220] Project 720 High School Reform grants (discontinued effective with 2011-12 budget); nor the federal 21st Century Learning grants.

Federal Stimulus grant[edit]

The Forest Hills School District received an extra $2,942,480 in American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) - Federal Stimulus money to be used in specific programs like special education and meeting the academic needs of low-income students.[221][222] The funding was limited to the 2009-2010 and 2010-2011 school years.[223] Due to the temporary nature of the funding, schools were repeatedly advised by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the Pennsylvania Senate Education Committee, the Governor and the Pennsylvania School Board Association, to use the funds for one-time expenditures like acquiring equipment, making repairs to buildings, training teachers to provide more effective instruction or purchasing books and software.

Race to the Top grant[edit]

Forest Hills School District officials did not apply for the federal Race to the Top grant which would have provided nearly one million dollars, in additional federal funding, to improve student academic achievement.[224] Participation required the administration, the school board and the local teachers' union to sign an agreement to prioritize improving student academic success. In Pennsylvania, 120 public school districts and 56 charter schools agreed to participate.[225] Pennsylvania was not approved for the grant. The failure of districts to agree to participate was cited as one reason that Pennsylvania was not approved.[226][227][228]

Common Cents state initiative[edit]

The Forest Hills School Board elected to not participate in the Pennsylvania Department of Education Common Cents program.[229] The program called for the state to audit the district, at no cost to local taxpayers, to identify ways the district could save tax dollars.[230][231] After the review of the information, the district was not required to implement the recommended cost savings changes.

Real estate taxes[edit]

Property tax rates in 2014-15 were set by the Forest Hills School Board at 48.5000 mills.[232] A mill is $1 of tax for every $1,000 of a property's assessed value. Irregular property reassessments have become a serious issue in the commonwealth as it creates a significant disparity in taxation within a community and across a region.[233] Property taxes, in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, apply only to real estate - land and buildings. The property tax is not levied on cars, business inventory, or other personal property. Certain types of property are exempt from property taxes, including: places of worship, places of burial, private social clubs, charitable and educational institutions and all government property (local, state and federal). Additionally, service related, disabled US military veterans may seek an exemption from paying property taxes. Pennsylvania school district revenues are dominated by two main sources: 1) Property tax collections, which account for the vast majority (between 75-85%) of local revenues; and 2) Act 511 tax collections, which are around 15% of revenues for school districts.[234] When a Pennsylvania public school district includes municipalities in two counties, each of which has different rates of property tax assessment, a state board equalizes the tax rates between the counties.[235] In 2010, miscalculations by the State Tax Equalization Board (STEB) were widespread in the Commonwealth and adversely impacted funding for many school districts, including those that did not cross county borders.[236]

The average yearly property tax paid by Cambria County residents amounts to about 2.4% of their yearly income. Beaver County ranked 1048th out of the 3143 United States counties for property taxes as a percentage of median income.[246] According to a report prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education, the total real estate taxes collected by all school districts in Pennsylvania rose from $6,474,133,936 in 1999-00 to $10,438,463,356 in 2008-09 and to $11,153,412,490 in 2011.[247] Property taxes in Pennsylvania are relatively high on a national scale. According to the Tax Foundation, Pennsylvania ranked 11th in the U.S. in 2008 in terms of property taxes paid as a percentage of home value (1.34%) and 12th in the country in terms of property taxes as a percentage of income (3.55%).[248] Pennsylvania's 2011 tax burden of 10.35% ranked 10th highest out of 50 states. The tax burden was above the national average of 9.8%. Pennsylvania's taxpayers paid $4,374 per capita in state and local taxes, including school taxes.[249]

Act 1 Adjusted Index[edit]

The Act 1 of 2006 Index regulates the rates at which each school district can raise property taxes in Pennsylvania. Districts are not permitted to raise property taxes above their annual Act 1 Index unless they either: allow Districts voters to approve the increase through a vote by referendum or they receive an exception from the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The base index for the school year is published by the PDE in the fall of each year. Each individual school district’s Act 1 Index can be adjusted higher, depending on a number of factors, such as local property values and the personal income of district residents. Originally, Act 1 of 2006 included 10 exceptions, including: increasing pension costs, increases in special education costs, a catastrophe like a fire or flood, increase in health insurance costs for contracts in effect in 2006 or dwindling tax bases. The base index is the average of the percentage increase in the statewide average weekly wage, as determined by the PA Department of Labor and Industry, for the preceding calendar year and the percentage increase in the Employment Cost Index for Elementary and Secondary Schools, as determined by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in the U.S. Department of Labor, for the previous 12-month period ending June 30. For a school district with a market value/personal income aid ratio (MV/PI AR) greater than 0.4000, its index equals the base index multiplied by the sum of .75 and its MV/PI AR for the current year.[250]

In June 2011, the Pennsylvania General Assembly passed legislation eliminating six of the exceptions to the Act 1 Index.[251] Several exceptions were maintained: 1) costs to pay interest and principal on indebtedness incurred prior to September 4, 2004 for Act 72 schools and prior to June 27, 2006 for non-Act 72 schools; 2) costs to pay interest and principal on electoral debt; 3) costs incurred in providing special education programs and services (beyond what is already paid by the State); and 4) costs due to increases of more than the Index in the school’s share of payments to PSERS (PA school employees pension fund) taking into account the state mandated PSERS contribution rate.[252][253] The legislature also froze the payroll amount public school districts use to calculate the pension-plan exception at the 2012 payroll levels. Further increases in payroll cannot be used to raise the district’s exception for pension payments.

A specific timeline for Act I Index decisions is published annually, by the Pennsylvania Department of Education.[254]

The School District Adjusted Index history for the Forest Hills School District:

For the 2014-15 budget year, Forest Hills School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2014-15, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 21.4% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS).[260] For the school budget 2014-15, 316 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above its Act 1 Index limit. Another 181 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeding the Index limit. Districts may apply for multiple exceptions each year. For the pension costs exception, 163 school districts received approval to exceed the Index in full, while others received a partial approval of their request. For special education costs, 104 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Seven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for the grandfathered construction debts exception.[261]

For the 2013-14 budget year, Forest Hills School Board again did not apply for exceptions to exceed their Act 1 Index limit. In 2013-14, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 16.93% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For the school budget year 2013-14, 311 Pennsylvania public school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index. Another 171 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the pension costs exception, 169 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 75 districts received approval to exceed their tax limit. Eleven Pennsylvania public school districts received an approval for grandfathered construction debts.[262]

For the 2012-13 budget year, Forest Hills School Board did not apply for exceptions to exceed the Act 1 Index. In 2012-13, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make a 12.36% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund (PSERS). For 2012-2013 budget year, 274 school districts adopted a resolution certifying that tax rates would not be increased above their index; while 223 school districts adopted a preliminary budget leaving open the option of exceeded the Index limit. For the exception for pension costs, 194 school districts received approval to exceed the Index. For special education costs, 129 districts received approval to exceed the tax limit.[263]

For the 2011-12 school year, Forest Hills School Board did not apply for an exception to exceed the Act 1 Index. In 2011-12, all Pennsylvania school districts were required to make an 8.65% of payroll payment to the teacher’s pension fund. Each year, the School Board has the option of adopting either: 1) a resolution in January certifying they will not increase taxes above their index or 2) a preliminary budget in February. A school district adopting the resolution may not apply for referendum exceptions or ask voters for a tax increase above the inflation index.

Property tax relief[edit]

In 2014, 3,947 Forest Hills School District approved homestead properties received $209.[264] The amount received by the District must be divided equally among all approved residences.[265] In 2013, 3,968 Forest Hills School District approved homestead properties received $208.

In 2009, Forest Hills School District approved 3,949 homestead properties to receive $209 in property tax relief.[266] The relief was subtracted from the total annual school property tax bill. Property owners apply for the relief through the county Treasurer's office. Farmers can qualify for a farmstead exemption on building used for agricultural purposes. The farm must be at least 10 contiguous acres (40,000 m2) and must be the primary residence of the owner. Farmers can qualify for both the homestead exemption and the farmstead exemption. The amount of property tax relief each Pennsylvania public school district receives is announced by the PDE in May of each year. The amount of tax relief is dependent on the total tax revenue collected on the casino slots in the previous year. Thirty five percent of the slots tax revenues are used for property tax relief. In Cambria County, the highest tax relief went to Ferndale Area School District which was set at $214.[267] The highest property tax relief provided, among Pennsylvania school districts, goes to the homesteads of Chester Upland School District in Delaware County which received $632 per approved homestead in 2010. Chester-Upland School District has consistently been the top recipient since the programs inception.[268] The tax relief was started by Governor Edward G. Rendell with passage of the state gaming law in 2004. Rendell promised taxpayers substantial property tax relief from legalized gambling.[269] In Cambria County, just 54% of eligible property owners applied for property tax relief in 2009. This was among the lowest participation rates in Pennsylvania.[270]

Some Forest Hills School District residents, including: low income residents aged 65 and older; widows and widowers aged 50 and older; and people with disabilities age 18 and older, can qualify for the state's Property Tax/Rent Rebate program. The income limit is $35,000 for homeowners.[271] Residents must apply annually to receive up to $650. The Property tax/rent rebate program is funded by revenues from the Pennsylvania Lottery. In 2012, these property tax rebates were increased by an additional 50 percent for senior households in the state, so long as those households have incomes under $30,000 and pay more than 15% of their income in property taxes.[272]

Wellness policy[edit]

Forest Hills School Board established a district-wide wellness policy in 2006.[273] The policy deals with nutritious meals served at school, the control of access to some foods and beverages during school hours, age appropriate nutrition education for all students, and physical education for students K-12. The policy is in response to state mandates and federal legislation (P.L. 108 – 265). The law dictates that each school district participating in a program authorized by the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq) or the Child Nutrition Act of 1966 (42 U.S.C. 1771 et seq) "shall establish a local school wellness policy by School Year 2006." Most districts identified the superintendent and school foodservice director as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation.[274]

The legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level so the individual needs of each district can be addressed. According to the requirements for the Local Wellness Policy, school districts must set goals for nutrition education, physical activity, campus food provision, and other school-based activities designed to promote student wellness. Additionally, districts were required to involve a broad group of individuals in policy development and to have a plan for measuring policy implementation. Districts were offered a choice of levels of implementation for limiting or prohibiting low nutrition foods on the school campus. In final implementation these regulations prohibit some foods and beverages on the school campus.[275] The Pennsylvania Department of Education required the district to submit a copy of the policy for approval.

Forest Hills High School offers both a free school breakfast and a free or reduced-price lunch to children in low income families. All students attending the school can eat breakfast and lunch. Children from families with incomes at or below 130 percent of the federal poverty level are provided a breakfast and lunch at no cost to the family. Children from families with incomes between 130 and 185 percent of the federal poverty level can be charged no more than 30 cents per breakfast. A foster child whose care and placement is the responsibility of the State or who is placed by a court with a caretaker household is eligible for both a free breakfast and a free lunch. Runaway, homeless and Migrant Youth are also automatically eligible for free meals.[276] The meals are partially funded with federal dollars through the United States Department of Agriculture.[277]

In 2013, the USDA issued new restrictions to foods in public schools. The rules apply to foods and beverages sold on all public school district campuses during the day. They limit vending machine snacks to a maximum of 200 calories per item. Additionally, all snack foods sold at school must meet competitive nutrient standards, meaning they must have fruits, vegetables, dairy or protein in them or contain at least 10 percent of the daily value of fiber, calcium, potassium, and Vitamin D.[278] In order to comply with the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 all US public school districts are required to raise the price of their school lunches to $2.60 regardless of the actual cost of providing the lunch.[279] The Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 mandates that Districts raise their full pay lunch prices every year until the price of non-subsidized lunches equals the amount the federal government reimburses schools for free meals. That subsidy in 2013-2014 was $2.93.

In 2014, President Obama ordered a prohibition of advertisements for unhealthy foods on public school campuses during the school day.[280] The Food and Drug Administration requires that students take milk as their beverage at lunch. In accordance with this law, any student requesting water in place of milk with their lunch must present a written request, signed by a doctor, documenting the need for water instead of milk.[281][282]

Forest Hills School District provides health services as mandated by the Commonwealth and the federal government. A nurse is available in the high school building to conduct annual health screenings (data reported to the PDE and state Department of Health) and to dispense prescribed medications to students during the school day. Students can be excluded from school unless they comply with all the State Department of Health’s extensive immunization mandates. School nurses monitor each pupil for this compliance.[283][284] Nurses also monitor each child's weight.[285]

Health eTools program

Forest Hills School District participated in Highmark Foundation’s Healthy High 5 Health eTools for Schools grant which enabled mobile data collection of pertinent health and physical fitness screening data on students K-12 in a database held by InnerLink, Inc. in Lancaster, Pennsylvania.[286] Health eTools for Schools also provided interdisciplinary research-based curriculum in nutrition, physical education and physical activity to participating districts. The program was discontinued in 2013.[287]

Highmark Healthy High 5 grant[edit]

Forest Hills School District has received multiple Highmark Healthy High 5 grants. The elementary school received $10,000 in 2009 for a rock climbing wall and StarFit system to be used in a fitness program targeting 4th–6th graders. In 2011, the elementary school received $9,973 to support the Group Fitness Project - Final Phase and Mobile Exercise Lab. In 2013, the elementary school received a $2,500 grant for childhood obesity prevention for the health of the children. In 2014, the elementary school received another $6,000 for an after-school swimming program.

Forest Hills High School received $10,000 which was used to purchase 30 mountain bikes and helmets that will be used during the lifetime sports activities physical education unit for 10th through 12th grades.[288] Beginning in 2006, Highmark Foundation engaged in a five-year, $100 million program to promote lifelong healthy behaviors in children and adolescents through local nonprofits and schools. The school also received a Healthy High 5 grant in 2010 used to fund the snowwhoeing/Grass Trekking - Project Rangers in the outdoors - $10,000.[289]

Extracurriculars[edit]

Forest Hills School District offers a wide variety of clubs, activities and an extensive, publicly funded sports program.[290] Eligibility for participation is determined by school board policy and in compliance with standards set by the Pennsylvania Interscholastic Athletic Association (PIAA).

By Pennsylvania law, all K-12 students residing in the school district, including those who attend a private nonpublic school, cyber charter school, charter school and those homeschooled, are eligible to participate in the extracurricular programs including all athletics. They must meet the same eligibility rules as the students enrolled in the district's schools.[291]

According to PA Child Abuse Recognition and Reporting Act 126 of 2014, all volunteer coaches and all those who assist in student activities, must have criminal background checks. Like all school district employees, they must also attend an anti child abuse training once every three years.[292][293][294]

Sports[edit]

Coaches receive compensation as outlined in the teachers' union contract. When athletic competition exceeds the regular season, additional compensation is paid.[295]

Article XVI-C of the Public School Code requires the disclosure of interscholastic athletic opportunities for all public secondary school entities in Pennsylvania. All school entities with grades 7-12 are required to annually collect data concerning team and financial information for all male and female athletes beginning with the 2012-13 school year and submit the information to the Pennsylvania Department of Education. Beginning with the 2013-14 school year, all non-school (booster club and alumni) contributions and purchases must also be reported to PDE.[296]

According to Pennsylvania’s Safety in Youth Sports Act, all sports coaches, paid and volunteer, are required to annually complete the Concussion Management Certification Training and present the certification before coaching.[297][298]

The District funds
Varsity

According to PIAA directory July 2015[299]

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External links[edit]