Frontline States

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Frontline States (FLS) was an organization established to achieve majority rule in South Africa. It no longer exists. Former members included Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe.[1] United States relations with Front Line States reached their peak during the human rights push of the Carter administration.[2] During the Reagan administration's Assistant Secretary of State for Africa Chester A. Crocker, the Front Line States were engaged diplomatically to achieve landmark peace accords between South Africa, Mozambique, Angola (Lusaka Protocol), and Namibia (New York Accords).[3][4]

Other uses[edit]

The term "Frontline States" is also used for countries bordering any area of crisis in the world.[5][6][7]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Black nations seek summit with Reagan" (25 Aug 1986) The Ottawa Citizen p.A6
  2. ^ "CASTRO VERSUS CARTER: Bad news for Zimbabwe" (23 Oct 1979) The Globe and Mail p.P7, Toronto, Ontario
  3. ^ "Namibia: Will it look like Austria, Finland?" (20 Apr 1981) The Christian Science Monitor
  4. ^ "Washington's No-Apologies Approach to the Third World" (06 Sep 1981) New York Times p.A1
  5. ^ "Senate Foreign Relations Subcommittee on European Affairs Hearing" (Jul 8, 2014) Congressional Documents and Publications
  6. ^ "World Day to Combat Desertification" (18 June 2014), Washington
  7. ^ "Summary of State & Foreign Operations Bill Approved by Appropriations Subcommittee Today" (Jun 17, 2014) Congressional Documents and Publications