Gardiner's sign list

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Gardiner's Sign List is a list of common Egyptian hieroglyphs compiled by Sir Alan Gardiner. It is considered a standard reference in the study of Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs.

Gardiner lists only the common forms of Egyptian hieroglyphs, but he includes extensive subcategories, and also both vertical and horizontal forms for many hieroglyphs. He includes size-variation forms to aid with the reading of hieroglyphs in running blocks of text. In contrast, for example, the Budge Reference has about 1000 hieroglyphs listed in 50 pages, but with no size variations.

Gardiner does not cross-index signs; once put on the list, other significant uses may be overlooked. One example of this is G16, nbtỉ, the ideogram for The Two Ladies, goddesses Wadjet as the cobra and Nekhbet as the white vulture. These are the protective and patron goddesses of the separate Egyptian kingdoms that joined into Ancient Egypt, who were both then displayed on the uraeus of Wadjet when the unification occurred and afterward considered jointly to be the protectors of Egypt and the pharaohs. This ideogram is listed only on the bird list as G16, and overlooked on the deity list and the reptile list.

Other subcategories included by Gardiner are abbreviations and personalized forms, and also a complete subset, used on papyrus, specifically for the Book of the Dead.

List of hieroglyphs[edit]

A. Man and his occupations[edit]

56 signs in Gardiner (1957:242–247), with A59 "man threatening with stick" inserted after A25 "man striking with left hand hanging behind back", and two variants A14* "blood interpreted as ax" of A14 "man with blood streaming from his head" and A17* "child sitting with arms hanging down" of A17 "child sitting with hand to mouth".

A1
A1
A2
A2
A3
A3
A4
A4
A5
A5
A6
A6
A7
A7
A8
A8
A9
A9
A10
A10
A11
A11
A12
A12
A13
A13
A14
A14
A15
A15
A16
A16
A17
A17
A18
A18
A19
A19
A20
A20
A21
A21
A22
A22
A23
A23
A24
A24
A25
A25
A26
A26
A27
A27
A28
A28
A29
A29
A30
A30
A31
A31
A32
A32
A33
A33
A34
A34
A35
A35
A36
A36
A37
A37
A38
A38
A39
A39
A40
A40
A41
A41
A42
A42
A43
A43
A44
A44
A45
A45
A46
A46
A47
A47
A48
A48
A49
A49
A50
A50
A51
A51
A52
A52
A53
A53
A54
A54
A55
A55
A56
A56
A57
A57
A58
A58
A59
A59
A60
A60

B. Woman and her occupations[edit]

7 signs in Gardiner (1957:448).

B1
B1
B2
B2
B3
B3
B4
B4
B5
B5
B6
B6
B7
B7
B8
B8
B9
B9
B10
B10
B11
B11
B12
B12

C. Anthropomorphic deities[edit]

Further information: Egyptian pantheon

11 signs in Gardiner (1957:448f.) with the addition of five 19th Dynasty signs, C12 Amun, C17 Mont, C18 Tjanen, C19 and C20 Ptah.

C1
C1
C2
C2
C3
C3
C4
C4
C5
C5
C6
C6
C7
C7
C8
C8
C9
C9
C10
C10
C11
C11
C12
C12
C17
C17
C18
C18
C19
C19
C20
C20

D. Parts of the human body[edit]

Expected quantity: 63

D1
D1
D2
D2
D3
D3
D4
D4
D5
D5
D6
D6
D7
D7
D8
D8
D9
D9
D10
D10
D11
D11
D12
D12
D13
D13
D14
D14
D15
D15
D16
D16
D17
D17
D18
D18
D19
D19
D20
D20
D21
D21
D22
D22
D23
D23
D24
D24
D25
D25
D26
D26
D27
D27
D28
D28
D29
D29
D30
D30
D31
D31
D32
D32
D33
D33
D34
D34
D35
D35
D36
D36
D37
D37
D38
D38
D39
D39
D40
D40
D41
D41
D42
D42
D43
D43
D44
D44
D45
D45
D46
D46
D47
D47
D48
D48
D49
D49
D50
D50
D51
D51
D52
D52
D53
D53
D54
D54
D55
D55
D56
D56
D57
D57
D58
D58
D59
D59
D60
D60
D61
D61
D62
D62
D63
D63
D64
D64
D65
D65
D66
D66
D67
D67
D68
D68
D69
D69
D70
D70

E. Mammals[edit]

Expected quantity: 34

E1
E1
E2
E2
E3
E3
E4
E4
E5
E5
E6
E6
E7
E7
E8
E8
E9
E9
E10
E10
E11
E11
E12
E12
E13
E13
E14
E14
E15
E15
E16
E16
E17
E17
E18
E18
E19
E19
E20
E20
E21
E21
E22
E22
E23
E23
E24
E24
E25
E25
E26
E26
E27
E27
E28
E28
E29
E29
E30
E30
E31
E31
E32
E32
E33
E33
E34
E34
E35
E35
E36
E36
E37
E37
E38
E38
E39
E39
E40
E40

F. Parts of mammals[edit]

Expected quantity: 52

F1
F1
F2
F2
F3
F3
F4
F4
F5
F5
F6
F6
F7
F7
F8
F8
F9
F9
F10
F10
F11
F11
F12
F12
F13
F13
F14
F14
F15
F15
F16
F16
F17
F17
F18
F18
F19
F19
F20
F20
F21
F21
F22
F22
F23
F23
F24
F24
F25
F25
F26
F26
F27
F27
F28
F28
F29
F29
F30
F30
F31
F31
F32
F32
F33
F33
F34
F34
F35
F35
F36
F36
F37
F37
F38
F38
F39
F39
F40
F40
F41
F41
F42
F42
F43
F43
F44
F44
F45
F45
F46
F46
F47
F47
F48
F48
F49
F49
F50
F50
F51
F51
F52
F52
F53
F53
F54
F54
F55
F55
F56
F56
F57
F57
F58
F58
F59
F59
F60
F60

G. Birds[edit]

Expected quantity: 54

G1
G1
G2
G2
G3
G3
G4
G4
G5
G5
G6
G6
G7
G7
G8
G8
G9
G9
G10
G10
G11
G11
G12
G12
G13
G13
G14
G14
G15
G15
G16
G16
G17
G17
G18
G18
G19
G19
G20
G20
G21
G21
G22
G22
G23
G23
G24
G24
G25
G25
G26
G26
G27
G27
G28
G28
G29
G29
G30
G30
G31
G31
G32
G32
G33
G33
G34
G34
G35
G35
G36
G36
G37
G37
G38
G38
G39
G39
G40
G40
G41
G41
G42
G42
G43
G43
G44
G44
G45
G45
G46
G46
G47
G47
G48
G48
G49
G49
G50
G50
G51
G51
G52
G52
G53
G53
G54
G54
G55
G55
G56
G56
G57
G57
G58
G58
G59
G59
G60
G60

H. Parts of birds[edit]

Expected quantity: 8

H1
H1
H2
H2
H3
H3
H4
H4
H5
H5
H6
H6
H7
H7
H8
H8
H9
H9
H10
H10

I. Amphibious animals, reptiles, etc.[edit]

15 signs in Gardiner (1957:475f).

No. img. Unicode phon. description usage, notes
I1
I1
𓆈 U+13188 ꜥšꜣ lizard "lizard"
I2
I2
𓆉 U+13189 freshwater turtle štjw "turtle"
I3
I3
𓆊 U+1318A ı͗t crocodile "crocodile" (ḫntj), "be greedy; lust after" (ḥnt), "voracious, angry" , (ꜣd)
I4
I4
𓆋 U+1318B crocodile on a shrine Sobek
I5
I5
𓆌 U+1318C crocodile with inward curved tail "collect, gather" (sꜣq)
I6
I6
𓆎 U+1318E km piece of crocodile-skin with spines as phonogram in kmt "Egypt", skm "grey-haired"
I7
I7
𓆏 U+1318F frog "frog" (qrr), Heqet, ideogram in wḥm-ꜥnḫ "repeating life"
I8
I8
𓆐 U+13190 ḥfn tadpole
I9
I9
𓆑 U+13191 f horned viper
I10
I10
𓆓 U+13193 cobra in repose
I11
I11
𓆕 U+13195 ḏḏ two cobras
I12
I12
𓆗 U+131197 cobra erect Uraeus (iꜥrt), Nesret
I13
I13
𓆘 U+13198 I12 + V30 "goddess"
I14
I14
𓆙 U+13199 snake "snake" (ḏdft), "serpent" (ḥfꜣw)
I15
I15
𓆚 U+1319A variant of I14

K. Fish and parts of fish[edit]

Expected quantity: 7

K1
K1
K2
K2
K3
K3
K4
K4
K5
K5
K6
K6
K7
K7
K8
K8
K9
K9
K10
K10

L. Invertebrates and lesser animals[edit]

Expected quantity: 7

L1
L1
L2
L2
L3
L3
L4
L4
L5
L5
L6
L6
L7
L7
L8
L8
L9
L9
L10
L10

M. Trees and plants[edit]

44 signs in Gardiner (1957:478–484).

M1
M1
M2
M2
M3
M3
M4
M4
M5
M5
M6
M6
M7
M7
M8
M8
M9
M9
M10
M10
M11
M11
M12
M12
M13
M13
M14
M14
M15
M15
M16
M16
M17
M17
M18
M18
M19
M19
M20
M20
M21
M21
M22
M22
M23
M23
M24
M24
M25
M25
M26
M26
M27
M27
M28
M28
M29
M29
M30
M30
M31
M31
M32
M32
M33
M33
M34
M34
M35
M35
M36
M36
M37
M37
M38
M38
M39
M39
M40
M40
M41
M41
M42
M42
M43
M43
M44
M44

N. Sky, earth, water[edit]

42 signs in Gardiner (1957:485–492). N3 is an Old Kingdom variant of N2. N11 "moon" has vertical (increscent and decrescent) variants, N12 is a 19th-Dynasty variant of N11.

No. img. Unicode phon. description usage, notes
N1
N1
𓇯 U+131EF pt sky
N2
N2
𓇰 U+131F0 grḥ sky with sceptre det. for "darkness"
N3
N3
𓇱 U+131F1 as N2 variant of N2 Old Kingdom variant of N2
N4
N4
𓇲 U+131F2 moisture falling from the sky "dew", "rain"
N5
N5
𓇳 U+131F3 rꜥ sun
Main article: Ra
N6
N6
𓇴 U+131F4 rꜥ sun with uraeus 19th Dynasty
N7
N7
𓇵 U+131F5 N5 + T28 ẖrt-hrw "day-time"
N8
N8
𓇶 U+131F6 wbn sunshine
N9
N9
𓇷 U+131F7 psḏ moon with its lower half obscured 18th Dynasty
N10
N10
𓇸 U+131F8 as N9 variant of N9 18th Dynasty
N11
N11
𓇹 U+131F9 crescent moon
N12
N12
𓇺 U+131FA variant of N11 18th Dynasty
N13
N13
𓇻 U+131FB half of N11 + N14 "half-month festival"
N14
N14
𓇼 U+131FC star
N15
N15
𓇽 U+131FD star in circle
N16
N16
𓇾 U+131FE N18 + 3 x N33 "earth, land" (flat alluvial land with grains of sand)
N17
N17
𓇿 U+131FF variant of N16 as N16
N18
N18
𓈀 U+13200 ı͗ sandy tract "island"
N19
N19
𓈃 U+13203 2 x N18 in ḥr-ꜣḫty "Horus-of-the-Horizon"
N20
N20
𓈄 U+13204 tongue of land "sand bank, shore"
N21
N21
𓈅 U+13205 tongue of land "bank, region" (in "two banks" = "Egypt")
N22
N22
𓈆 U+13206 tongue of land Old Kingdom predecessor of both N20 and N21
N23
N23
𓈇 U+13207 irrigation canal differentiation of N36
N24
N24
𓈈 U+13208 land with irrigation runnels "district, nome"
N25
N25
𓈉 U+13209 hills "hill-country, foreign land"
N26
N26
𓈋 U+1320B ḏw mountain
N27
N27
𓈌 U+1320C sun rising over mountain "horizon"
N28
N28
𓈍 U+1320D ḫꜥ sun rising over hill
N29
N29
𓈎 U+1320E q sandy hill-slope
N30
N30
𓈏 U+1320F mound with shrubs "mound"
N31
N31
𓈐 U+13210 road bordered by shrubs "road"
N32
N32
𓈑 U+13211 lump of clay or dung Old Kingdom
N33
N33
𓈒 U+13212 grain of sand
N34
N34
𓈔 U+13214 metal ingot
N35
N35
𓈖 U+13216 n ripple of water variant "three ripples" 𓈗 U+13217
N36
N36
𓈘 U+13218 water channel
N37
N37
𓈙 U+13219 pool "pool"
N38
N38
𓈛 U+1321B variant of N37 more detailed drawing of N37
N39
N39
𓈜 U+1321C garden pool full of water variant of N37
N40
N40
𓈝 U+1321D N37 + D54 "go"
N41
N41
𓈞 U+1321E bı͗ꜣ well full of water "well"
N42
N42
𓈟 U+1321F variant of N41 as N41

O. Buildings, parts of buildings, etc.[edit]

51 signs (with variants, U+13250–1329A).

O1
O1
O2
O2
O3
O3
O4
O4
O5
O5
O6
O6
O7
O7
O8
O8
O9
O9
O10
O10
O11
O11
O12
O12
O13
O13
O14
O14
O15
O15
O16
O16
O17
O17
O18
O18
O19
O19
O20
O20
O21
O21
O22
O22
O23
O23
O24
O24
O25
O25
O26
O26
O27
O27
O28
O28
O29
O29
O30
O30
O31
O31
O32
O32
O33
O33
O34
O34
O35
O35
O36
O36
O37
O37
O38
O38
O39
O39
O40
O40
O41
O41
O42
O42
O43
O43
O44
O44
O45
O45
O46
O46
O47
O47
O48
O48
O49
O49
O50
O50
O51
O51

P. Ships and parts of ships[edit]

Expected quantity: 11

P1
P1
P2
P2
P3
P3
P4
P4
P5
P5
P6
P6
P7
P7
P8
P8
P9
P9
P10
P10
P11
P11
P12
P12
P13
P13
P14
P14
P15
P15
P16
P16
P17
P17
P18
P18
P19
P19
P20
P20

Q. Domestics and funerary furniture[edit]

Expected quantity: 7

Q1
Q1
Q2
Q2
Q3
Q3
Q4
Q4
Q5
Q5
Q6
Q6
Q7
Q7
Q8
Q8
Q9
Q9
Q10
Q10

R. Temple furniture and sacred emblems[edit]

Expected quantity: 25

R1
R1
R2
R2
R3
R3
R4
R4
R5
R5
R6
R6
R7
R7
R8
R8
R9
R9
R10
R10
R11
R11
R12
R12
R13
R13
R14
R14
R15
R15
R16
R16
R17
R17
R18
R18
R19
R19
R20
R20
R21
R21
R22
R22
R23
R23
R24
R24
R25
R25
R26
R26
R27
R27
R28
R28
R29
R29
R30
R30

S. Crowns, dress, staves, etc.[edit]

Expected quantity: 45

S1
S1
S2
S2
S3
S3
S4
S4
S5
S5
S6
S6
S7
S7
S8
S8
S9
S9
S10
S10
S11
S11
S12
S12
S13
S13
S14
S14
S15
S15
S16
S16
S17
S17
S18
S18
S19
S19
S20
S20
S21
S21
S22
S22
S23
S23
S24
S24
S25
S25
S26
S26
S27
S27
S28
S28
S29
S29
S30
S30
S31
S31
S32
S32
S33
S33
S34
S34
S35
S35
S36
S36
S37
S37
S38
S38
S39
S39
S40
S40
S41
S41
S42
S42
S43
S43
S44
S44
S45
S45
S46
S46
S47
S47
S48
S48
S49
S49
S50
S50

T. Warfare, hunting, and butchery[edit]

Expected quantity: 35

T1
T1
T2
T2
T3
T3
T4
T4
T5
T5
T6
T6
T7
T7
T8
T8
T9
T9
T10
T10
T11
T11
T12
T12
T13
T13
T14
T14
T15
T15
T16
T16
T17
T17
T18
T18
T19
T19
T20
T20
T21
T21
T22
T22
T23
T23
T24
T24
T25
T25
T26
T26
T27
T27
T28
T28
T29
T29
T30
T30
T31
T31
T32
T32
T33
T33
T34
T34
T35
T35
T36
T36
T37
T37
T38
T38
T39
T39
T40
T40

U. Agriculture, crafts, and professions[edit]

41 signs.

U1
U1
U2
U2
U3
U3
U4
U4
U5
U5
U6
U6
U7
U7
U8
U8
U9
U9
U10
U10
U11
U11
U12
U12
U13
U13
U14
U14
U15
U15
U16
U16
U17
U17
U18
U18
U19
U19
U20
U20
U21
U21
U22
U22
U23
U23
U24
U24
U25
U25
U26
U26
U27
U27
U28
U28
U29
U29
U30
U30
U31
U31
U32
U32
U33
U33
U34
U34
U35
U35
U36
U36
U37
U37
U38
U38
U39
U39
U40
U40
U41
U41

V. Rope, fiber, baskets, bags, etc.[edit]

40 signs (38 in Gardiner 1957). V39 is the Tyet or "Knot of Isis". V40 is the numeral 10 in dates.

V1
V1
V2
V2
V3
V3
V4
V4
V5
V5
V6
V6
V7
V7
V8
V8
V9
V9
V10
V10
V11
V11
V12
V12
V13
V13
V14
V14
V15
V15
V16
V16
V17
V17
V18
V18
V19
V19
V20
V20
V21
V21
V22
V22
V23
V23
V24
V24
V25
V25
V26
V26
V27
V27
V28
V28
V29
V29
V30
V30
V31
V31
V32
V32
V33
V33
V34
V34
V35
V35
V36
V36
V37
V37
V38
V38
V39
V39
V40
V40

W. Vessels of stone and earthenware[edit]

25 signs.

W1
W1
W2
W2
W3
W3
W4
W4
W5
W5
W6
W6
W7
W7
W8
W8
W9
W9
W10
W10
W11
W11
W12
W12
W13
W13
W14
W14
W15
W15
W16
W16
W17
W17
W18
W18
W19
W19
W20
W20
W21
W21
W22
W22
W23
W23
W24
W24
W25
W25

X. Loaves and cakes[edit]

8 signs.

X1
X1
X2
X2
X3
X3
X4
X4
X5
X5
X6
X6
X7
X7
X8
X8

Y. Writings, games, music[edit]

8 signs.

Y1
Y1
Y2
Y2
Y3
Y3
Y4
Y4
Y5
Y5
Y6
Y6
Y7
Y7
Y8
Y8

Z. Strokes, signs derived from Hieratic, geometrical figures[edit]

11 signs.

Z1
Z1
Z2
Z2
Z3
Z3
Z4
Z4
Z5
Z5
Z6
Z6
Z7
Z7
Z8
Z8
Z9
Z9
Z10
Z10
Z11
Z11

Aa. Unclassified[edit]

31 signs in Gardiner (1957).

Aa1
Aa1
Aa2
Aa2
Aa3
Aa3
Aa4
Aa4
Aa5
Aa5
Aa6
Aa6
Aa7
Aa7
Aa8
Aa8
Aa9
Aa9
Aa10
Aa10
Aa11
Aa11
Aa12
Aa12
Aa13
Aa13
Aa14
Aa14
Aa15
Aa15
Aa16
Aa16
Aa17
Aa17
Aa18
Aa18
Aa19
Aa19
Aa20
Aa20
Aa21
Aa21
Aa22
Aa22
Aa23
Aa23
Aa24
Aa24
Aa25
Aa25
Aa26
Aa26
Aa27
Aa27
Aa28
Aa28
Aa29
Aa29
Aa30
Aa30
Aa31
Aa31
Aa32
Aa32
Aa33
Aa33
Aa34
Aa34
Aa35
Aa35
Aa36
Aa36
Aa37
Aa37
Aa38
Aa38
Aa39
Aa39
Aa40
Aa40
Aa41
Aa41
Aa42
Aa42
Aa43
Aa43
Aa44
Aa44
Aa45
Aa45
Aa46
Aa46
Aa47
Aa47
Aa48
Aa48
Aa49
Aa49
Aa50
Aa50

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Budge, Sir E.A.Wallis, An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary, in Two Volumes, Sir E.A.Wallis Budge, (Dover Publications, Inc. New York), c 1920, Dover Edition, c 1978. (Large categorized listings of Hieroglyphs, Vol 1, pp. xcvii–cxlvii (97–147) (25 categories, 1000+ hieroglyphs), 50 pgs.)
  • A.H. Gardiner, Catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, from matrices owned and controlled by Dr. Alan (1928).
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1928)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 15 (1929), p. 95.
  • A.H. Gardiner, "Additions to the new hieroglyphic fount (1931)", The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 17 (1931), pp. 245–247.
  • A.H. Gardiner, Supplement to the catalogue of the Egyptian hieroglyphic printing type, showing acquisitions to December 1953 (1953).
  • A.H. Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs. 3rd Ed., pub. Griffith Institute, Oxford, 1957 (1st edition 1927), pp. 438–548 (pdf).
  • Wilkinson, Richard, Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Egyptian Painting and Sculpture, Richard H. Wilkinson, with 450 Illustrations, (Thames & Hudson Ltd, London), c 1992.

External links[edit]