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Nefer in hieroglyphs

The Egyptian hieroglyph for "good, pleasant, well, beautiful" in Gardiner's sign list is numbered F35; its phonetic value is nfr, with a reconstructed pronunciation of IPA: [nafir][2] and a conventional Egyptological vocalization of nefer.

Hieroglyphs and Symbolism[edit]

The triliteral Egyptian hieroglyph F35 ('nfr') has sometimes been explained as a representation of a lute; however, Egyptologists today no longer consider this hypothesis likely. Rather than a lute, the hieroglyph is actually a representation of the heart and trachea.[1] It originally may have been the esophagus and heart. The striations of the windpipe only appear in the hieroglyph following the Old Kingdom. The lower part of the sign has always clearly been the heart, for the markings clearly follow the form of a sheep's heart.[3]


The term nfr has been incorporated into many names in Ancient Egypt. Examples include Nefertiti, Nefererini, Nefertari, and Neferhotep.

The term was consecutively extremely positive that it was used to refer to the crown of Upper Egypt.


Nefer was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh who ruled for two years, one month, and a day, from 2197–2193 BCE, according to the Turin Canon, though he reigned during the reign of Pepi II Neferkare.[4]


  1. ^ a b Erman, Adolf, and Hermann Grapow, eds. 1926–1953. Wörterbuch der aegyptischen Sprache im Auftrage der deutschen Akademien. 6 vols. Leipzig: J. C. Hinrichs'schen Buchhandlungen. (Reprinted Berlin: Akademie-Verlag GmbH, 1971).
  2. ^ Loprieno, Antonio. Ancient Egyptian: A linguistic introduction. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Turin King List". The Ancient Egypt Site. Jacques Kinnaer. 25 July 2009. Retrieved 27 August 2009.  IV,10: Nefer.