George IV State Diadem
The George IV State Diadem, officially the Diamond Diadem, is a type of crown that was made in 1820 for King George IV. The diadem is a part of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom, and it is worn by queens and queens consort in procession to coronations and State Openings of Parliament. The piece of jewellery has been featured in paintings and on stamps and currency.
George IV commissioned Rundell & Bridge to make the diadem in 1820 at a cost of £8,216. The fee included a hire charge of £800 for the diamonds but there is no evidence they were ever returned to the jewellers. George IV wore the diadem over his velvet cap of maintenance in the procession to his coronation at Westminster Abbey.
The gold and silver frame, measuring 7.5 centimetres (3.0 in) tall and 19 centimetres (7.5 in) in diameter, is decorated with 1,333 diamonds weighing 320 carats (64 g), including a four-carat yellow diamond in the front cross pattée, and two strings of 169 pearls in total along its base. Its design features roses, thistles and shamrocks, the floral symbols of England, Scotland and Ireland respectively, in place of the heraldic fleurs-de-lis usually seen on British crowns.
It has been worn by every queen and queen consort from Queen Adelaide, the wife of William IV, onwards. The diadem was reset with jewels from the royal collection for Queen Victoria. Queen Elizabeth II wore the diadem in the procession to her coronation in 1953, and she also wears it in the procession to and from the annual State Opening of Parliament. When not in use, the diadem is on display in the Queen's Gallery at Buckingham Palace.
In art, stamps, and currency
The iconic piece of jewellery has featured in many portraits of the Queen, including one painted by Lucian Freud in 2001 and one by Raphael Maklouf in 1984 that appears on Commonwealth coinage and Machin series stamps. It has also featured on the banknotes of most Commonwealth realms, and those of Anguilla, Bermuda, British Guyana, British Honduras, British Virgin Islands, Cyprus, Dominica, Fiji, Hong Kong, Malaya, Malta, Mauritius, North Borneo, Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Saba, Southern Rhodesia, St Kitts and Nevis and Trinidad and Tobago.
- Jerrold M. Packard (1981). The Queen & Her Court: A Guide to the British Monarchy Today. Scribner. p. 162. ISBN 978-0-684-16796-1.
- The Diamond Diadem at the Royal Collection.
- Ronald Allison; Sarah Riddell (1991). The Royal Encyclopedia. Macmillan Press. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-333-53810-4.
- The Journal of Gemmology 23. Gemmological Association of Great Britain. 1992. p. 41.
- Paul D. Van Wie (1999). Image, History and Politics: The Coinage of Modern Europe. University Press of America. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-7618-1222-7.
- Sophie McConnell (1991). Metropolitan Jewelry. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-87099-616-0.
- Don Coolican (1986). Tribute to Her Majesty. Windward/Scott. p. 273. ISBN 978-0-7112-0437-9.
- The Royal Household (25 May 2003). "50 facts about The Queen's Coronation". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 9 February 2012.
- "The Queen: Portraits of a Monarch - Lucian Freud". Royal Collection Trust. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- Country Life 196. 2002. p. 161.