Giant pika

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Giant pika
Temporal range:
Lower/Middle Pleistocene
to Early Holocene, 1.8–0.01 Ma
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Lagomorpha
Family: Ochotonidae
Genus: Ochotona
Species:
O. whartoni
Binomial name
Ochotona whartoni
Guthrie and Matthews, Jr. 1971[1][2]
Giant pika Ochotona whartoni fossil distribution.gif
Fossil distribution of Ochotona whartoni and Ochotona cf. whartoni. Cape Deceit and Old Crow River are red, other sites black.

The giant pika[n 1] or Wharton's pika[n 2] (Ochotona whartoni) is an extinct mammal species in the family Ochotonidae.[1] It lived during the Pleistocene and early Holocene in northern parts of North America (Alaska, US and Canada).[2][n 3][4] Very similar forms have also been found also in Siberia.[8][9]

Distribution[edit]

The giant pika has been found in Alaska[1][2][6][7] (United States), Yukon[2][6] (O. whartoni[10] and O cf. whartoni,[3][11] large number of locations), Alberta[5] and Ontario (Canada).[4] A close relative O. whartoni (O. cf. whartoni) is also known from Eastern Siberia and Kolyma.[8][9]

The ancestors of these pikas migrated from Eurasia to North America during the Early Pleistocene via the Bering Land Bridge, along with another group of small pikas close to the "O. pusilla group". This migration was separate from that of O. spanglei,[8] which entered North America approximately three million earlier at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary.[9]

Detailed fossil distribution[edit]

The large form of Ochotona was found in 2 of 5 localities in eastern North America.[4][6]

Biology[edit]

The giant pika is much larger than other North American pikas, but is of a similar size to the extinct early and middle Pleistocene O. complicidens and extant O. koslowi (Koslov's pika), both from China, and may belong to one of them.[7] Unlike the American pika (O. princeps), which inhabits scree slopes, the giant pika's habitat was largely tundra and steppe, similar to Eurasian pikas.[7]

Occurrence and extinction[edit]

The giant pika has been found in North America from the Irvingtonian (1.8–0.3 Ma, LowerMiddle Pleistocene)[1][6][11] throughout Middle Pleistocene[6][10] to Late Pleistocene (0.1–0.0Ma)[3][5] locations.[2]

The last occurrence of the giant pika is known from early the Holocene of eastern North America (a cave at Elba in the Niagara Escarpment, Ontario[6]) and its radiometric date is 8670±220 years BP (14C age) or 10251-9140 BP (calibrated date).[6][12] It is possible that it survived in the rocky areas along the Niagara Escarpment as a relict population.[4][6]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Common name: giant pika - i.e. Harington 1978,[3] Harington 2003,[4] Mead 1987,[5] according to Harington 2003[4] also Mead 1996.[6]
  2. ^ Common name: Wharton's pika - Kurten 1980.[7]
  3. ^ a b Ochotona whartoni in the Paleobiology Database.[2][pdb 1][pdb 2][pdb 3][pdb 4][pdb 5][pdb 6][pdb 7]
  4. ^ The Paleobiology Database collections: Old Crow River Lower OCR 11 (Pleistocene of Canada)[pdb 8][pdb 2] and Lower OCR 12 (Pleistocene of Canada).[pdb 9][pdb 2]
  5. ^ The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River site 14N (Pleistocene of Canada).[pdb 10][pdb 6]
  6. ^ The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River Locality 44 (Pleistocene of Canada).[pdb 11][pdb 3][pdb 4]
  7. ^ The Paleobiology Database collection: Thistle Creek (Pleistocene of Canada).[pdb 12][pdb 5]
  8. ^ The Paleobiology Database collection: Cape Deceit (Pleistocene of the United States).[pdb 13][pdb 1]"

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Guthrie, R.D.; Matthews, John V. Jr. (1971). "The Cape Deceit fauna—Early pleistocene mammalian assemblage from the Alaskan arctic". Quaternary Research. 1 (4): 474–510. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(71)90060-3.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "The Paleobiology Database. †Ochotona whartoni Guthrie and Matthews, Jr. 1971 (pika)". Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d Harington, Charles Richard (1978). Quaternary vertebrate faunas of Canada and Alaska and their suggested chronological sequence. Syllogeus, no. 15. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Harington, Charles Richard (2003). Annotated Bibliography of Quaternary Vertebrates of Northern North America: With Radiocarbon Dates. Ottawa: University of Toronto Press. pp. 228–229. ISBN 978-0802048172. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Mead, Jim I. (1987-06-01). "Quaternary records of pika, Ochotona, in North America". Boreas. 16: 165–171. doi:10.1006/qres.1996.0009. ISSN 0300-9483.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Mead, Jim I. (January 1996). "Ochotona (Lagomorpha) from Late Quaternary Cave Deposits in Eastern North America". Quaternary Research. 45 (1): 93–101. doi:10.1006/qres.1996.0009.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Kurtén, Björn (1980). Pleistocene Mammals of North America. Photographs by Elaine Anderson. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 275–276. ISBN 978-0231037334. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Erbajeva, Margarita A.; Mead, Jim I.; Swift, Sandra L. (2003). "Evolution and development of Asian and North American ochotonids" (PDF). Occasional Papers in Earth Sciences No. 5: 33–34. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 31, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2014. 3rd INTERNATIONAL MAMMOTH CONFERENCE, 2003: PROGRAM AND ABSTRACTS, Edited by John E. Storer
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Erbajeva, Margarita A.; Mead, Jim I.; Alexeeva, Nadezhda V.; Angelone, Chiara; Swift, Sandra L. (2011). "Taxonomic diversity of Late Cenozoic Asian and North American ochotonids (an overview)" (PDF). Palaeontologia Electronica: 1–9. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  10. ^ a b c Storer, J. E. (2004). "A Middle Pleistocene (late Irvingtonian) mammalian fauna from Thistle Creek, Klondike Goldfields region of Yukon Territory, Canada". Paludicola. 4 (4): 137–150.
  11. ^ a b c Jopling, A. V.; Irving, W. N.; Beebe, B. F. (1981). "Stratigraphic, Sedimentological and Faunal Evidence for the Occurrence of Pre-Sangamonian in Northern Yukon". Arctic. 34 (1): 3–33. doi:10.14430/arctic2499. Retrieved April 13, 2014.
  12. ^ a b Turvey, Samuel T. (May 28, 2009). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199535095. Retrieved 2014-04-11.

Additional references of the Paleobiology Database[edit]

  1. ^ a b Guthrie, R. D.; Matthews, Jr., J. V. (1971). "The Cape Deceit fauna—Early pleistocene mammalian assemblage from the Alaskan arctic". Quaternary Research. 1 (4): 474–510. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(71)90060-3. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
  2. ^ a b c A. V. Jopling et al. (1981). "Stratigraphic, Sedimentological and Faunal Evidence for the Occurrence of Pre-Sangamonian Artefacts in Northern Yukon". Arctic. 34 (1). doi:10.14430/arctic2499.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
  3. ^ a b Harington, C. R. (1978). "Quaternary vertebrate faunas of Canada and Alaska and their suggested chronological sequence". Syllogeus. 15. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
  4. ^ a b Harington, C. R. (1990). "Vertebrates of the last interglaciation in Canada: A review". Geographie Physique et Quaternaire. 44 (3): 375. doi:10.7202/032837ar. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy/M. Uhen]
  5. ^ a b Storer, J. E. (2004). "A Middle Pleistocene (late Irvingtonian) mammalian fauna from Thistle Creek, Klondike Goldfields region of Yukon Territory, Canada". Paludicola. 4 (4): 137–150. [J. Alroy/J. Alroy]
  6. ^ a b Tedford, R. H.; Wang, X; Taylor, B. E. (2009). "Phylogenetic Systematics of the North American Fossil Caninae (Carnivora: Canidae)" (PDF). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 325: 1–218. doi:10.1206/574.1. hdl:2246/5999. [J. Marcot/J. Marcot]
  7. ^ Additional contributors to utilized records of Paleobiology Database (authorizers supplying these records) include John Alroy, Jonathan Marcot.
  8. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River (Lower OCR 11) (Pleistocene of Canada)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by John Alroy
  9. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River (Lower OCR 12) (Pleistocene of Canada)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by John Alroy
  10. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River site 14N (Pleistocene of Canada)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by Jonathan Marcot
  11. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Old Crow River Locality 44 (Pleistocene of Canada)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by John Alroy
  12. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Thistle Creek (Pleistocene of Canada)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by John Alroy
  13. ^ "The Paleobiology Database collection: Cape Deceit (Pleistocene of the United States)". Retrieved 2015-03-14. authorized by John Alroy