Go Down Moses

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"Go Down, Moses"
Song by Fisk Jubilee Singers (earliest attested)
GenreNegro spiritual
Songwriter(s)Unknown

"Go Down Moses" is an American Negro spiritual. It describes events in the Old Testament of the Bible, specifically Exodus 8:1: "And the LORD spake unto Moses, Go unto Pharaoh, and say unto him, Thus saith the LORD, Let my people go, that they may serve me", in which God commands Moses to demand the release of the Israelites from bondage in Egypt. The opening verse as published by the Jubilee Singers in 1872:

When Israel was in Egypt's land
Let my people go
Oppress'd so hard they could not stand
Let my people go

Refrain:
Go down, Moses
Way down in Egypt's land
Tell old Pharaoh
Let my people go

In the song "Israel" represents the African-American slaves while "Egypt" and "Pharaoh" represent the slavemaster.[1] Going "down" to Egypt is derived from the Bible; the Old Testament recognizes the Nile Valley as lower than Jerusalem and the Promised Land; thus, going to Egypt means going "down"[2] while going away from Egypt is "up".[3] In the context of American slavery, this ancient sense of "down" converged with the concept of "down the river" (the Mississippi), where slaves' conditions were notoriously worse, a situation which left the idiom "sell [someone] down the river" in present-day English.[4]

"Oh! Let My People Go"[edit]

"Oh! Let My People Go"
LetMyPeopleGo1862.jpg
Sheet music cover, 1862
Song
Published1862
GenreNegro spiritual
Songwriter(s)Unknown

Although usually thought of as a spiritual, the earliest recorded use of the song was as a rallying anthem for the Contrabands at Fort Monroe sometime before July 1862. Early authorities presumed it was composed by them.[5] Sheet music was soon after published, titled "Oh! Let My People Go: The Song of the Contrabands", and arranged by Horace Waters. L.C. Lockwood, chaplain of the Contrabands, stated in the sheet music the song was from Virginia, dating from about 1853.[6] The opening verse, as recorded by Lockwood, is:

The Lord, by Moses, to Pharaoh said: Oh! let my people go
If not, I'll smite your first-born dead—Oh! let my people go
Oh! go down, Moses
Away down to Egypt's land
And tell King Pharaoh
To let my people go

Sarah Bradford's authorized biography of Harriet Tubman, Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman (1869), quotes Tubman as saying she used "Go Down Moses" as one of two code songs fugitive slaves used to communicate when fleeing Maryland.[7] Tubman began her underground railroad work in 1850 and continued until the beginning of the Civil War, so it's possible Tubman's use of the song predates the origin claimed by Lockwood.[8]

In popular culture[edit]

Films[edit]

Literature[edit]

Music[edit]

Television[edit]

  • The NBC television comedy The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air twice used the song for comedic effect. In the first instance, Will Smith's character sings the song after he and his cousin Carlton Banks are thrown into prison (Smith sings the first two lines, Banks sullenly provides the refrain, then a prisoner sings the final four lines in an operatic voice.)[17] In the second instance, Banks is preparing for an Easter service and attempts to show off his prowess by singing the last two lines of the chorus; Smith replies with his own version, in which he makes a joke about Carlton's height ("...Let my cousin grow!").[citation needed]
  • The song is sung in the miniseries The Spies of Warsaw (2013).
  • Della Reese sings it in Episode 424, "Elijah", of Touched by an Angel, which Bruce Davison sings "Eliyahu".

Recordings[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cornelius, Steven (2004). Music of the Civil War Era. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 118. ISBN 0313320810
  2. ^ For example, in Genesis 42:2 Jacob commands his sons to "go down to Egypt" to buy grain
  3. ^ In Exodus 1:10, Pharaoh expresses apprehension that the Hebrews would join Egypt's enemies and "go up [i.e. away] from the land"
  4. ^ Phrases.org.uk
  5. ^ ""Editor's Table"". The Continental Monthly. 2: 112–113. July 1862 – via Cornell University. We are indebted to Clark's School-Visitor for the following song of the Contrabands, which originated among the latter, and was first sung by them in the hearing of white people at Fortress Monroe, where it was noted down by their chaplain, Rev. L.C. Lockwood.
  6. ^ Lockwood, "Oh! Let My People Go", p. 5: "This Song has been sung for about nine years by the Slaves of Virginia."
  7. ^ Bradford, Sarah (1869). Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. Dennis Brothers & Co. pp. 26–27. Archived from the original on June 13, 2017 – via University of North Carolina: Documenting the American South.
  8. ^ "Summary of Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman". docsouth.unc.edu. Retrieved 2017-01-25.
  9. ^ "Easy A - Original Sound Tracks". IMDB.
  10. ^ Brooks, Daphne (2006-01-01). Bodies in Dissent: Spectacular Performances of Race and Freedom, 1850-1910. Duke University Press. p. 307. ISBN 0822337223.
  11. ^ Nollen, Scott Allen (2004). Louis Armstrong: The Life, Music, and Screen Career. McFarland. p. 142. ISBN 9780786418572.
  12. ^ Muhammad, Siebra. "BLACK MUSIC MOMENT: HISTORY OF "GO DOWN MOSES" ~ THE SONG USUALLY THOUGHT OF AS A SPIRITUAL". jobs.blacknews.com. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
  13. ^ "Go Down Moses". Allmusic.com.
  14. ^ An Israel Haggadah for Passover. New York: H. N. Abrams. 1970.
  15. ^ Russian Interior Ministry (MVD) Choir Recording. "Go Down Moses". YouTube.
  16. ^ "The Weight | Robbie-Robertson.com". robbie-robertson.com. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
  17. ^ NBC The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air. "Go Down Moses". YouTube.
  18. ^ Gibbs, Craig Martin (2012). Black Recording Artists, 1877–1926: An Annotated Discography. McFarland. p. 43. ISBN 1476600856.
  19. ^ The album itself!

Bibliography[edit]

  • The Continental Monthly. Vol. II (July–December, 1862). New York.
  • Lockwood, L.C. "Oh! Let My People Go: The Song of the Contrabands". New York: Horace Waters (1862).

External links[edit]