Greater omentum

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
See also: Lesser omentum
Greater omentum
Sobo 1909 564.png
The greater omentum and corresponding vasculature is visible covering the intestines (dissection image with liver held out of the way).
Label at bottom.
Latin omentum majus
Precursor Dorsal mesentery
Gray's p.1157
MeSH A01.047.025.600.573
TA A10.1.02.201
FMA 9580
Anatomical terminology

The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach. It extends from the greater curvature of the stomach, passing in front of the small intestines and reflects on itself to ascend to the transverse colon before reaching to the posterior abdominal wall. The greater omentum is larger than the lesser omentum which hangs down from the liver to the lesser curvature. The common anatomical term "epiploic" derives from "epiploon" from the Greek "epipleein" meaning to float or sail on, since the greater omentum appears to float on the surface of the intestines. It is the first structure observed when the abdominal cavity is opened anteriorly.[1]


Greater and lesser omentum

The greater omentum is the largest of the two peritoneal folds. It consists of a double sheet of peritoneum, folded on itself so that it is made up of four layers.

The two layers of the greater omentum descend from the greater curvature of the stomach and the beginning of the duodenum. They pass in front of the small intestines, sometimes as low as the pelvis; they then turn upon themselves, and ascend as far as the transverse colon, where they separate and enclose that part of the intestine.

These individual layers are easily seen in the young, but in the adult they are more or less inseparably blended.

The left border of the greater omentum is continuous with the gastrosplenic ligament; its right border extends as far as the commencement of the duodenum.

The greater omentum is usually thin, and has a perforated appearance. It contains some adipose tissue, which can accumulate considerably in obese people.


The greater omentum is often defined to encompass a variety of structures. Most sources include the following two:[2][3]

The splenorenal ligament (from the left kidney to the spleen) is occasionally considered part of the greater omentum.[4][5]

Blood supply[edit]

The right and left gastroepiploic arteries provide the sole blood supply to the greater omentum. Both are branches of the celiac trunk. The right gastroepiploic artery is a branch of the gastroduodenal artery, which is a branch of the common hepatic artery, which is a branch of the celiac trunk. The left gastroepiploic artery is the largest branch of the splenic artery, which is a branch of the celiac trunk. The right and left gastroepiploic arteries anastomose within the two layers of the anterior greater omentum along the greater curvature of the stomach.


Two of the stages in the development of the digestive tube and its mesentery. The arrow indicates the entrance to the bursa omentalis

The greater omentum develops from the dorsal mesentery that connects the stomach to the posterior abdominal wall. During its development, the stomach undergoes its first 90° rotation along the axis of the embryo, so that posterior structures are moved to the left and structures anterior to the stomach are shifted to the right. As a result, the dorsal mesentery folds over on itself, forming a pouch with its blind end on the left side of the embryo. A second approximately 90° rotation of the stomach, this time in the frontal plane, moves structures inferior if they were originally to the left of the stomach, and superior if they were originally to the stomach's right. Consequently, the blind-ended sac (also called the lesser sac) formed by the dorsal mesentery is brought inferiorly, where it assumes its final position as the greater omentum. It grows to the point that it covers the majority of the small and large intestine.


The functions of the greater omentum are:

  • Fat deposition, having varying amounts of adipose tissue[6]
  • Immune contribution, having milky spots of macrophage collections[6]
  • Infection and wound isolation; It may also physically limit the spread of intraperitoneal infections.[6] The greater omentum can often be found wrapped around areas of infection and trauma.

Clinical significance[edit]

Surgical removal[edit]

Omentectomy refers to the surgical removal of the omentum, a relatively simple procedure with no major side effects, that is performed in cases where there is concern that there may be spread of cancerous tissue into the omentum. Examples for this conditions are ovarian cancer and advanced or aggressive endometrial cancer as well as intestinal cancer and also appendix cancer. The procedure is generally done as an add-on when the primary lesion is removed.

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Drake, Richard L., et al. Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia, PA: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, 2010. Print.
  2. ^ a b Dalley, Arthur F.; Moore, Keith L. (2006). Clinically oriented anatomy. Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 237. ISBN 0-7817-3639-0. 
  3. ^ Anatomy Tables - Stomach & Spleen
  4. ^ Kyung Won, PhD. Chung (2005). Gross Anatomy (Board Review). Hagerstown, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 205. ISBN 0-7817-5309-0. 
  5. ^ "Module - Peritoneal Cavity Development". Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  6. ^ a b c The omentum: A unique organ of exceptional versatility Indian Journal of Surgery, May 1, 2006, Alagumuthu, M; Das, Bhupati; Pattanayak, Siba; Rasananda, Mangual

External links[edit]