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Guam flying fox

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Guam flying fox
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Pteropodidae
Genus: Pteropus
P. tokudae
Binomial name
Pteropus tokudae
Tate, 1934

The Guam flying fox (Pteropus tokudae), also known as the little Marianas fruit bat, was a small megabat endemic to Guam in the Marianas Islands in Micronesia that was confirmed extinct due to hunting or habitat changes.[1] It was first recorded in 1931 and was observed roosting with the larger and much more common Mariana fruit bat. The last specimen was a female found roosting at Tarague cliff in March 1967, but it escaped capture. An unconfirmed sighting took place sometime during the 1970s, and no other individuals have been sighted since then.[1]



The Guam flying fox had a length of about 15 cm (6 in), a wingspan of about 70 cm (28 in), and a body weight of 152 g (5.4 oz). It was very similar in appearance to the Chuuk flying fox (Pteropus insularis). The top of the head was greyish, while its back, throat, and underparts were brown or dark brown, and the side of the neck was golden-brown.[6]



Little is known about the behaviour of this flying fox, but it is likely that it fed on the fruits, flowers, and foliage of evergreen shrubs and trees that are characteristic of the limestone forests found in the northern part of Guam. Similarly, not much is known about its reproductive habits, but an incident in 1968, where a female was shot, revealed that she was accompanied by an immature individual. This suggests the possibility of ongoing parental care.[6]



There are no confirmed records of sightings of this bat since the 1970s and the IUCN lists it as being "Extinct". When it was more plentiful, it was hunted by humans for food, which may have contributed to its extinction. Another factor may have been the introduction, into the island, of the predatory brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis).[1] In September 2021, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service proposed declaring the species extinct, and it was delisted effective November 2023 in accordance with the Endangered Species Act.[7][8]


  1. ^ a b c d Bonaccorso, F.J.; Helgen, K.; Allison, A.; Wiles, G. (2020). "Pteropus tokudae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2020: e.T18763A22088402. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2020-3.RLTS.T18763A22088402.en. Retrieved 11 November 2021.
  2. ^ "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of 23 Extinct Species From the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants". www.regulations.gov. Retrieved 2022-06-13.
  3. ^ "Little Mariana fruit Bat (Pteropus tokudae)". Environmental Conservation Online System. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Retrieved 2024-07-09.
  4. ^ Poulos, Peter G.; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (27 August 1984). "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Seven Birds and Two Bats of Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands". Federal Register. 49 (167): 33881–33885. 49 FR 33881
  5. ^ Branch of Delisting and Foreign Species, Ecological Services Program; Ecological Services Field Office Staff, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (17 October 2023). "Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of 21 Species From the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife". Federal Register. 88 (199): 71644–71682. 88 FR 71644
  6. ^ a b Jeffery Rebitzke (2002). "Pteropus tokudae: Guam flying fox". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
  7. ^ "U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Proposes Delisting 23 Species from Endangered Species Act Due to Extinction". United States Fish and Wildlife Service. September 30, 2021. Retrieved September 30, 2021.
  8. ^ "21 Species Delisted from the Endangered Species Act due to Extinction | U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service". FWS.gov. 2023-10-16. Retrieved 2024-07-09.


  • Flannery, Tim and Peter Schouten (2001). A Gap in Nature. Published by William Heinemann