Gustav Eisen

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Gustav Eisen
Born (1847-08-02)August 2, 1847
Stockholm, Sweden
Died 1940
Alma mater University of Uppsala
Known for Studies of worms; Cultivation of raisins and figs
Scientific career
Fields Zoology Horticulture
Institutions California Academy of Sciences

Gustav Eisen was a Swedish-American polymath. He became a member of California Academy of Sciences in 1874 and a Life Member in 1883. In 1893, he became the 'Curator of Archaeology, Ethnology, and Lower Animals' at the Academy. He later changed titles to 'Curator of Marine Invertebrates'. In 1938, he was appointed as an 'Honorary Member', which is considered the highest honor from the Academy.[1]

Biography[edit]

He was known to have diverse interests, including "art and art history, archeology and anthropology, agronomy and horticulture, history of science, geography and cartography, cytology, and protozoology, as well as marine invertebrate zoology" [2]

A 2012 article in the San Francisco Chronicle describes him as, "One of those 19th century polymaths, Eisen also studied malaria-vector mosquitoes, founded a vineyard in Fresno, introduced avocados and Smyrna figs to California, campaigned to save the giant sequoias, and wrote a multivolume book about the Holy Grail." [3]

He is perhaps best known for his studies of oligochete worms and many species were named after him including those in the genus Eisenia Eisenia (annelid). In addition, he is considered to have been responsible for the introduction of the avocado and the smyrna fig to California and he wrote a detailed history of figs [4]

He was a correspondent of Charles Darwin and his work was referenced by Darwin in The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms [5]

Mt. Eisen, in the Sierra Nevada in California, was named after him.[6]

World renown[edit]

Eisen's opinions were sought on the practicalities of new horticulture crops in Australia. His advice was valued in fig cultivation[7] and in processing grapes into raisins.[8]

Organisms named after him[edit]

Worms

Red algae

Vascular Plants

Mosquitoes

Publications[edit]

  1. Eisen, G.A. 1888. On the anatomy of Sutroa rostrata, a new annelid of the sub-family Lumbriculina. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 2(1):1–9.
  2. Eisen, G.A. 1890. The raisin industry. A practical treatise on the raisin grapes, their history, culture and curing. Available online at https://archive.org/details/raisinindustrypr00eise.
  3. Eisen, G.A. 1893. Anatomical studies on new species of Ocnerodrilus. Proceedings of the California Academy
  4. of Sciences, ser. 2, 3:228–290.
  5. Eisen, G.A. 1894. On California Eudrilidae. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 2(3):21–62.
  6. Eisen, G.A. 1895. Pacific Coast Oligochaeta I. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 2(4):63–122.
  7. Eisen, G.A. 1896. Pacific Coast Oligochaeta II. Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 2(5):123–200.
  8. Eisen, G.A. 1897. Plasmocytes; the survival of the centrosomes and archoplasm of the nucleated erythrocytes, as free and independent elements in the blood of Batrachoseps attenuatus Esch. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 3, Zoology, 1(1):1–72.
  9. Eisen, G.A. 1897. Explorations in the Cape Region of Baja California. Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York, Vol. 29, No. 3 (1897), pp. 271–280.
  10. Eisen, G.A. 1899. Notes on North-American earthworms of the genus Diplocardia. Zoological Bulletin Vol. 2, No. 4, Feb., 1899 . https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/1535422
  11. Eisen, G.A. 1900. Researches in American Oligochaeta, with especial reference to those of the Pacific coast and adjacent islands. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 3, Zoology, 2(2):85–276.
  12. Eisen, G.A. 1900. Explorations in the Cape Region of Baja California. Journal of the American Geographical Society of New York. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/197262
  13. Eisen, G.A. 1900. The Spermatogenesis of Batrachoseps. Polymorphous spermatogonia, auxocytes, and spermatocytes. Journal of Morphology. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.1050170102.
  14. Eisen, G. A. 1901. The fig: its history, culture, and curing, with a descriptive catalogue of the known varieties of figs. Available online here: https://archive.org/details/figitshistorycul00eise.
  15. Eisen, G.A. 1903. The earthquake and volcanic eruption in Guatemala in 1902. Bulletin of the American Geographical Society. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/197952.

See also[edit]

  1. A biography of Eisen is available via the California Academy of Sciences [9] http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/library/special/bios/Eisen.pdf
  2. Allan Shields wrote two articles about Gustav Eisen in "Wayward Tendrils Quarterly"
    • Gustav Eisen, Wilderness Steward: An Appraisal. v.J6 #l.
    • Gustav Eisen: A Man of Many Achievements, v.20 #1, Supplement.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gary C. Williams. 2007. History of Invertebrate Zoology at the California Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Volume 58, No. 12, pp. 197–239.
  2. ^ Gary C. Williams. 2007. History of Invertebrate Zoology at the California Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences. Volume 58, No. 12, pp. 197–239.
  3. ^ Native worms outnumbered by worldly brethren Joe Eaton, Ron Sullivan Sunday, March 18, 2012
  4. ^ Eisen, G. A. 1901. The fig: its history, culture, and curing, with a descriptive catalogue of the known varieties of figs.
  5. ^ Google Book Image of The Formation of Vegetable Mould through the Action of Worms: by Charles Darwin
  6. ^ Ann-Lisa Måneskjöld-Lower. "Mount Eisen," Sequoia National Park, California: Final resting place of Dr. Gustavus Augustus Eisen
  7. ^ "THE CALIMYRNA FIG". The Mildura Cultivator (Vic. : 1888 - 1920). Vic.: National Library of Australia. 14 March 1903. p. 4. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  8. ^ "HOW THE GRAPES ARE DIPPED IN DENIA". The Mildura Cultivator (Vic. : 1888 - 1920). Vic.: National Library of Australia. 8 December 1894. p. 9 Edition: TWELVE-PAGE EDITION. Retrieved 11 April 2012. 
  9. ^ Gustav Eisen (1847-1947) Biographical Sketch by Jane Radcliffe, Archives Volunteer and Christina V. Fidler.