Gymnema sylvestre

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Gymnema sylvestre
Gymnema sylvestre R.Br - Flickr - lalithamba.jpg
Gymnema sylvestre, at Eastern ghats, India.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Subfamily: Asclepiadoideae
Genus: Gymnema
Species: G. sylvestre
Binomial name
Gymnema sylvestre
R. Br.

Gymnema sylvestre is an herb native to the tropical forests of southern and central India and Sri Lanka. Common names include Gymnema,[1] Cowplant, Australian Cowplant, and Periploca of the woods.[2][3]

Despite the part used being the leaf, one common name of this species is Miracle Fruit,[2][3] a name shared by two other species: Synsepalum dulcificum and Thaumatococcus daniellii.[2]

Properties[edit]

Gymnema sylvestre has long been thought of as a medicinal plant in Asia.[4] The plants contain a large number of chemicals, including triterpenoids, which may have pharmacological properties.[4] The constituent saponins have the effect of suppressing the taste of sweetness.[4][5] Extracts from the plant are the subject of research into potential medicinal and industrial applications.[4]

Vernacular Indic names[edit]

    • Bengali meshashrunga - মেষশৃঙ্গ
    • Gujarati gudmar - ગુડમાર, madhunashini - મધુનાશિની
    • Hindi gurmar - गुड़मार
    • Kannada madhunashini - ಮಧುನಾಶಿನಿ
    • Konkani kawli - कौळी
    • Malayalam chakkarakolli - ചക്കരക്കൊല്ലി
    • Marathi bedakicha pala - बेडकीचा पाला, gudmar - गुडमार
    • Oriya lakshmi - ଲକ୍ଷ୍ମୀ, mendhasingia - ମେଣ୍ଢା ଶିଙ୍ଗିଆ, nagapushpi - ନାଗପୁଷ୍ପୀ
    • Sanskrit madhunaashini - मधुनाशिनी, meshasringa - मेषशृंग
    • Sinhala මස්බැද්ද - Masbaedda
    • Tamil sirukurinjan - சிறுகுறிஞ்சா, kokilam, கோகிலம்
    • Telagu Podapatri - పొడపత్రి
    • Urdu gurmar - گڑمار [6]

Etymology[edit]

Gymnema sylvestre

Gymnema derives from the Greek words "gymnos" (γυμνὀς) and "nēma" (νῆμα) meaning "naked" and "thread" respectively; the species epitheton sylvestre means "of the forest" in Latin.[7]

The Hindi name Gurmar, Sanskrit Madhunashini, Urdu Gurmar , Malayalam Chakkarakolli and Telugu Podapatri, literally mean "sugar destroyer". (Sanskrit) Meshasringa translates as "ram's horn", a name given to the plant due to the shape of its fruits.

Uses[edit]

1. Diabetes. Early research suggests when a specific gymnema extract (GS4) is taken orally along with insulin or diabetes medications, blood sugar reduction in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes is enhanced.

2. Weight loss. Early research suggests that taking a specific combination of gymnema extract, hydroxycitric acid, and niacin-bound chromium by mouth for 8 weeks might reduce body weight in people who are overweight or obese.

3. Stimulating digestion.

4. As a laxative and diuretic.

Further evidence and research is needed to validate gymnema for these uses.[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Duke, James A., ed. (2002). Handbook of medicinal herbs (2nd ed.). CRC Press. p. 855. ISBN 0-8493-1284-1. 
  2. ^ a b c Wiersema, John Harry; León, Blanca (1999). World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference. CRC Press. p. 661. ISBN 0-8493-2119-0. 
  3. ^ a b Rehm, Sigmund, ed. (1994). Multilingual dictionary of agronomic plants. Springer. p. 91. ISBN 0-7923-2970-8. 
  4. ^ a b c d Fabio GD, Romanucci V, De Marco A, Zarrelli A (2014). "Triterpenoids from Gymnema sylvestre and their pharmacological activities". Molecules (Review). 19 (8): 10956–81. doi:10.3390/molecules190810956. PMID 25072200. 
  5. ^ "Miracle Berry". Retrieved 14 May 2016. 
  6. ^ Gurmar entry on Flowers of India. Accessed 24.10.2016.
  7. ^ Wikisource:The New International Encyclopædia/Gymnema
  8. ^ "Gymnema - Uses and Effectiveness". WebMD. Retrieved 2 June 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Ambasta, S. P. (1986). The useful plants of India. New Delhi: Publications & Information Directorate, Council of Scientific & Industrial Research. ISBN 978-81-85038-02-5. 

External links[edit]