Hamgyong Province

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Hamgyŏng Province
Korean transcription(s)
 • Hangul 함경도
 • Hanja 咸鏡道
 • Revised Romanization Hamgyeong-do
 • McCune–Reischauer Hamgyŏng-do
Short name transcription(s)
 • Hangul 함경
 • Revised Romanization Hamgyeong
 • McCune–Reischauer Hamgyŏng
Country Korea
Region Kwanbuk (north), Kwannam (south)
Capital Hamhŭng
 • Type Province
Dialect Hamgyŏng

Hamgyong (Hamgyŏng-do; Korean pronunciation: [ham.ɡjʌŋ.do]) was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. Hamgyŏng was located in the northeast of Korea. The provincial capital was Hamhŭng.


In 1413, the northeast frontier region of Korea was organized into Yŏnggil Province (Yŏnggil-do; 영길도; 永吉道). In 1416, the province was renamed Hamgil (Hamgil-do; 함길도; 咸吉道), and in 1470, Yŏngan (Yŏngan-do; 영안도; 永安道). Finally, in 1509, the province took the name Hamgyŏng. The name "Hamgyŏng" is derived from the names of the principal cities of Hamhŭng (함흥; 咸興) and Kyŏngsŏng (경성; 鏡城).

In 1895, the province was replaced by the Districts of Kyŏngsŏng (Kyŏngsŏng-bu; 경성부; 鏡城府) in the northeast, Kapsan (Kapsan-bu; 갑산부; 甲山府) in the northwest, and Hamhŭng (Hamhŭng-bu; 함흥부; 咸興府) in the south.

In 1896, Kyŏngsŏng District was reorganized into North Hamgyŏng Province, and Kapsan and Hamhŭng Districts were reorganized into South Hamgyŏng Province. North and South Hamgyŏng Provinces are today part of North Korea.


Hamgyŏng was bounded on the west by P'yŏngan, on the south by Hwanghae and Kangwŏn, on the east by the Sea of Japan (East Sea of Korea), and on the north by China and Russia.

The province was referred to by the regional name of Kwanbuk. Kwannam was sometimes used to refer to the southern half of the province, in which case "Kwanbuk" was used to refer to the northern half.

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