They bear yellow or orange daisy-like composite flowers. A number of these species (particularly Helenium autumnale) have the common name sneezeweed, based on the former use of their dried leaves in making snuff. It was inhaled to cause sneezing that would supposedly rid the body of evil spirits. Larger species may grow up to 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall.
Genus level properties: most conspicuously globe-like disk-shaped flowers, rays three-lobed at tip.
- Helenium amarum (Raf.) H.Rock - eastern + south-central United States, California, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Cuba, Dominican Republic
- Helenium apterum (S.F.Blake) Bierner - Durango
- Helenium argentinum Ariza - Argentina
- Helenium arizonicum S.F.Blake - Arizona
- Helenium aromaticum (Hook.) L.H.Bailey - Chile, Peru
- Helenium atacamense Cabrera - Chile, Peru
- Helenium autumnale L. - much of United States + Canada
- Helenium bigelovii A.Gray - California, Oregon, Arizona
- Helenium bolanderi A.Gray - California, Oregon
- Helenium brevifolium (Nutt.) Alph.Wood - southeastern United States
- Helenium campestre Small - Arkansas, Louisiana
- Helenium chihuahuense Bierner - Chihuahua, Durango
- Helenium donianum (Hook. & Arn.) Seckt - Argentina
- Helenium drummondii H.Rock - Texas, Louisiana
- Helenium elegans DC. - United States (southern Great Plains), northeastern Mexico
- Helenium fimbriatum (Michx.) A.Gray - southeastern United States
- Helenium flexuosum Raf. - eastern + central United States + Canada
- Helenium glaucum (Cav.) Stuntz - Chile
- Helenium insulare (Phil.) Cabrera - Chile
- Helenium integrifolium - Guatemala, Mexico
- Helenium laciniatum A.Gray - Sonora, Sinaloa
- Helenium linifolium Rydb. - southern Texas
- Helenium longiaristatum Cuatrec. - Argentina
- Helenium mexicanum Kunth - Mexico, Central America
- Helenium microcephalum DC. - southwestern United States, northeastern Mexico
- Helenium ovallense Bierner - Chile
- Helenium pinnatifidum (Schwein. ex Nutt.) Rydb. - southeastern United States
- Helenium polyphyllum Small - central Mississippi Valley
- Helenium puberulum DC. - Baja California, California, Oregon
- Helenium quadridentatum Labill. - southeastern United States, Mexico, Cuba, Belize
- Helenium radiatum (Less.) Seckt - Uruguay, Argentina
- Helenium scaposum Britton - Cuba
- Helenium scorzonerifolium (DC.) A.Gray - Mexico, Guatemala
- Helenium thurberi A.Gray - Baja California Sur, Sinaloa, Nayarit, Chihuahua, Arizona
- Helenium tinctorium (Molina) J.F.Macbr. - Chile
- Helenium urmenetae (Phil.) Cabrera - Chile
- Helenium vallenariense (Phil.) Bierner - Chile
- Helenium vernale Walter - southeastern United States
- Helenium virginicum S.F.Blake - Virginia, Missouri
Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use - mainly from H. autumnale and H. bigelovii. They are useful for late summer and fall bloom, usually in less formal compositions. They are appropriate for native gardens in areas where they are indigenous, and they look wonderfully in bouquets. Annual species are easily grown from seed, and perennials should be divided every year in order to retain their vigor. The soil should be fertile with a generous amount of organic manner in the form of compost, manure or other decayed organic matter in addition to, perhaps, an application of a complete fertilizer in spring. Heleniums should be grown in full sun average to moist soil with good drainage. They are drought tolerant, but should be watered on planting and regularly until established. The following have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:-
Helenium Hybrid has brilliant yellow petals surrounding spherical brown cones covered with golden pollen. It grows to 0.9 metres (3 ft) tall and takes up about 0.6 metres (2 ft) of space, the hardiness zone rating is 4-9. Its Flowers appear for six weeks from mid to late summer and attract butterflies in droves. It provides a splash of colour when many other perennials are starting to fade, it may accompany ornamental grasses, Phlox and Liatris.
- Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
- Tropicos, search for Helenium
- Linnaeus, Carl von. 1753. Species Plantarum 2: 886 in Latin
- Tropicos, Helenium L
- Hughes-Jones 2012, p. 38
- Flora of North America Vol. 21 Page 426 Sneezeweed Helenium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 886. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 377. 1754.
- Homer. Circa 760–710 BCE. Iliad.
- Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
- Turner, B. L. 2013. The comps of Mexico. A systematic account of the family Asteraceae (chapter 11: tribe Helenieae). Phytologia Memoirs 16: 1–100
- "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 43. Retrieved 3 March 2018.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Baudirektor Linne'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Blütentisch'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Butterpat'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Feuersiegel'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Gartensonne'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Karneol'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Moerheim Beauty'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Ring of Fire'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Rubinzwerg'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Sahin's Early Flowerer'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Waltraut'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Helenium 'Wesergold'". Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- Welcome to Chester & Cheshire, Helenium National Collection Weekend
- Special Perennials, National Collections of Helenium and Centaurea, Hankelow, Cheshire, United Kingdom
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