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Homeosis is the transformation of one organ into another, arising from mutation in or misexpression of specific developmentally critical genes. In animals, these developmental genes specifically control the development of organs on their anteroposterior axis.[1] In plants, however, the developmental genes affected by homeosis may control anything from the development of a stamen or petals to the development of chlorophyll.[2] Homeosis may be caused by mutations in Hox genes, found in animals, or others such as the MADS-box family in plants. Homeosis is a characteristic that has helped insects become as successful and diverse as they are.[3]

Homeotic mutations work by changing segment identity during development. For example, the Ultrabithorax genotype gives a phenotype wherein metathoracic and first abdominal segments become mesothoracic segments.[4] Another well-known example is Antennapedia: a gain-of-function allele causes legs to develop in the place of antennae.[5]

In botany, Rolf Sattler has revised the concept of homeosis (replacement) by his emphasis of partial homeosis in addition to complete homeosis, which is commonly accepted.[6]

Homeotic mutants in angiosperms are thought to be rare in the wild: in the annual plant Clarkia, (Onagraceae), homeotic mutants are known where the petals are replaced by a second whorl of sepal like organs, originating via a mutation governed by a single recessive gene.[7] The absence of lethal or deleterious consequences in floral mutants resulting in distinct morphological expressions has been a factor in the evolution of Clarkia, and perhaps also in many other plant groups.[8]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Hombría, James Castelli-Gair; Lovegrove, Bridget (2003-10-01). "Beyond homeosis—HOX function in morphogenesis and organogenesis". Differentiation 71 (8): 461–476. doi:10.1046/j.1432-0436.2003.7108004.x. ISSN 1432-0436. 
  2. ^ Sattler, Rolf (October 1998). "Homeostasis in Plants". American Journal of Botany 75: 1606–1617. doi:10.2307/2444710. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 
  3. ^ Lodish et al., 2003. Molecular Cell Biology, 5th Edition. W.H. Freeman and Company, New York.[page needed]
  4. ^ Nüsslein-Volhard, Christiane; Wieschaus, Eric (1980). "Mutations affecting segment number and polarity in Drosophila". Nature 287 (5785): 795–801. doi:10.1038/287795a0. PMID 6776413. 
  5. ^ Schneuwly, Stephan; Klemenz, Roman; Gehring, Walter J. (1987). "Redesigning the body plan of Drosophilaby ectopic expression of the homoeotic gene Antennapedia". Nature 325 (6107): 816–818. doi:10.1038/325816a0. PMID 3821869. 
  6. ^ Sattler, R. (1988). "Homeosis in Plants". American Journal of Botany 75 (10): 1606–1617. doi:10.2307/2444710. JSTOR 2444710. 
  7. ^ Ford, V. S.; Gottlieb, L. D. (1992). "Bicalyx is a natural homeotic floral variant". Nature 358 (6388): 671–673. doi:10.1038/358671a0. 
  8. ^ Gottlieb, L. D. (1984). "Genetics and Morphological Evolution in Plants". The American Naturalist 123 (5): 681–709. doi:10.1086/284231. JSTOR 2461245.