House of FitzJames
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|House of FitzJames|
Arms of the House of FitzJames
|Country||Kingdom of England, Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain|
|Ethnicity||British, Spanish, French (see details)|
|Founder||James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick|
|Current head||Jacobo Hernando FitzJames-Stuart y Gomez, 12th Duke of Berwick|
The House of FitzJames (or the House of FitzJames-Stuart) is a noble house of Scottish origin founded by James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick. He was the illegitimate son of James II & VII, King of England, Scotland and Ireland, a monarch from the House of Stuart. After the Revolution of 1688, the Duke of Berwick followed his father into exile and much of the family's history since then has been in Spain and France, with several members of the house serving in a military capacity.
The house has two main branches. The senior line, carrying the title of Duke of Berwick and residing in Spain, is the result of the 1st Duke's marriage to Honora Burke, Countess of Lucan. This line has collected many titles throughout its history, including a few grandeeships of Spain, with some activity as ambassadors and military generals.
The junior line was associated with France and derived from the 1st Duke's second marriage to an Englishwoman, Anne Bulkeley. This line carried the title of Duke of Fitz-James, but it became extinct in 1967 upon the death of Jacques de Fitz-James, 10th Duke of Fitz-James (1886–1967). Perhaps the best known member of the French line was Édouard de Fitz-James, 6th Duke of Fitz-James (1776–1838), an ultraroyalist who escaped to Italy after the French Revolution and returned to France around the time of the Bourbon Restoration, after which he became a prominent politician.
- Ruvigny, The Nobilities of Europe, 303.