Hyatt Regency walkway collapse

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Hyatt Regency walkway collapse
Hyatt Regency collapse end view.PNG
Locations of the second- and fourth-story walkways, which both collapsed into the lobby of the Hyatt Regency hotel.
Date17 July 1981 (1981-07-17)
Time19:05 (CDT) (UTC−5)
LocationKansas City, Missouri, U.S.
CauseStructural overload resulting from design flaws[1]
Non-fatal injuries216

The Hyatt Regency walkway collapse took place at the Hyatt Regency Kansas City hotel in Kansas City, Missouri, on July 17, 1981. Two walkways, one directly above the other, collapsed onto a tea dance being held in the hotel's lobby. The falling walkways killed 114 and injured 216.[2] It was the deadliest structural collapse in U.S. history[3] until the collapse of the World Trade Center towers 20 years later.


The construction of the 40-story Hyatt Regency Kansas City began in May 1978. Despite delays and setbacks, including an incident on October 14, 1979, when 2,700 square feet (250 m2) of the atrium roof collapsed due to the failure of one of the connections at its northern end, the hotel officially opened on July 1, 1980.

One of the defining features of the hotel was its lobby, which incorporated a multistory atrium spanned by elevated walkways suspended from the ceiling. These steel, glass and concrete crossings connected the second, third and fourth floors between the north and south wings. The walkways were approximately 120 ft (37 m) long[4] and weighed approximately 64,000 lb (29,000 kg).[5] The fourth level walkway aligned directly above the second level walkway.


View of the lobby floor, during the first day of the investigation
The landing of the concrete 4th floor walkway, atop the crowded 2nd floor walkway
Aftermath of the walkway collapse

On the evening of Friday, July 17, 1981, approximately 1,600 people gathered in the atrium to participate in and watch a tea dance.[6] At 7:05 p.m. local time (00:05 UTC; July 18) the second-level walkway held approximately 40 people with more on the third and an additional 16 to 20 on the fourth level who watched the activities of the crowd in the lobby below.[4] The fourth-floor bridge was suspended directly over the second-floor bridge, with the third-floor walkway offset several meters from the others. Construction difficulties resulted in a subtle but flawed design change that doubled the load on the connection between the fourth-floor walkway support beams and the tie rods carrying the weight of both walkways. This new design was barely adequate to support the dead load weight of the structure itself, much less the added weight of the spectators. According to the National Geographic documentary programme Seconds From Disaster, many of the survivors reported hearing popping noises coming from above them shortly before the collapse. Only moments later, the fourth-floor walkway suddenly dropped several inches under the spectators, before falling completely onto the second-floor walkway. Both walkways later crashed to the lobby floor below, resulting in 111 deaths at the scene and 219 injuries. Three additional victims died after being transported to hospitals, bringing the total number of deaths to 114.[7]

The rescue operation lasted fourteen hours[8] and was performed by many emergency personnel, including crews from 34 fire trucks and EMS units and doctors from five local hospitals. Trapped survivors were buried beneath more than 60 tons of steel, concrete and glass, which neither the Hyatt's forklifts nor the fire department's most powerful jacks could move. Additional volunteers from surrounding areas responded to the fire department's requests for help, including construction companies and building-supply stores, bringing hydraulic jacks, acetylene torches, compressors, jackhammers, concrete saws and generators.[9] Kansas City's natural disaster response team, known as "Operation Bulldozer", was also summoned to the scene with earthmoving equipment, but was quickly sent away to make room for cranes that would lift the sections of walkway off the trapped survivors. Dr. Joseph Waeckerle, former chief of Kansas City's emergency medical system, directed the rescue effort [2] establishing a makeshift morgue in a ground floor exhibition area,[10] using the hotel's driveway and front lawn as a triage area and helping to organize the wounded by greatest need for medical care.[11] Those people who could walk were instructed to leave the hotel to simplify the rescue effort; those mortally injured were told they were going to die and given morphine.[7][12] Often, rescuers had to dismember bodies to reach survivors among the wreckage.[7] One victim's right leg was trapped under an I-beam and had to be amputated by a surgeon, a task which was completed with a chainsaw.[13]

One challenge to the rescue operation was the hotel's sprinkler system, which had been severed by falling debris, flooding the lobby and putting trapped survivors at risk of drowning. As the pipes were connected to water tanks, not a public source, the flow could not be stopped. Mark Williams, the last person rescued alive from the rubble, spent more than nine and a half hours pinned underneath the lower skywalk with both of his legs pulled out of their sockets.[14] Williams nearly drowned before Kansas City's fire chief realized that the hotel's front doors were trapping the water in the lobby. On his orders, a bulldozer was sent to break through the doors, which allowed the water to pour out of the lobby and thus eliminated the danger to those trapped. A fire hose was then placed over the broken pipe, redirecting the water outside the hotel. Additionally, the lobby was filled with concrete dust, and visibility was poor as the emergency workers had cut the power to prevent fires.[15]

Twenty-nine people were rescued from the rubble.[16]


A diagram showing the difference between the design and construction of the walkway support system. According to the diagram, in the actual construction, there was one more nut.
view of a cross-section of the 4th floor support beam which fell, together with the 2nd floor support rod passing through its left and right halves vertically.
Investigators found that changes to the design of the walkway's steel tie rods were the cause of its failure.

Three days after the disaster, Wayne G. Lischka,[17] an architectural engineer hired by The Kansas City Star newspaper, discovered a significant change to the original design of the walkways. Reportage of the event later earned the Star and its associated publication the Kansas City Times a Pulitzer Prize for local news reporting in 1982.[18] Radio station KJLA would later earn a National Associated Press award for its reporting on the night of the disaster.

The two walkways were suspended from a set of 1.25 in (32 mm) diameter[19] steel tie rods, with the second floor walkway hanging directly under the fourth floor walkway. The fourth floor walkway platform was supported on three cross-beams suspended by steel rods retained by nuts. The cross-beams were box girders made from C-channel strips welded together lengthwise, with a hollow space between them. The original design by Jack D. Gillum and Associates specified three pairs of rods running from the second floor to the ceiling. Investigators determined eventually that this design supported only 60% of the minimum load required by Kansas City building codes.[20]

Havens Steel Company, the contractor responsible for manufacturing the rods, objected to the original plan, since it required the whole of the rod below the fourth floor to be screw threaded in order to screw on the nuts to hold the fourth floor walkway in place. Indeed, these threads would probably have been damaged and rendered unusable as the structure for the fourth floor was hoisted into position with the rods in place. Havens therefore proposed an alternative plan in which two separate—and offset—sets of tie rods would be used: one connecting the fourth floor walkway to the ceiling, and the other connecting the second floor walkway to the fourth floor walkway.[21]

This design change proved fatal. In the original design, the beams of the fourth floor walkway had to support only the weight of the fourth floor walkway, with the weight of the second floor walkway supported completely by the rods. In the revised design, however, the fourth floor beams were required to support both the fourth floor walkway and the second floor walkway hanging from it.

The serious flaws of the revised design were compounded by the fact that both designs placed the bolts directly through a welded joint connecting two C-channels, the weakest structural point in the box beams. The original design was for the welds to be on the sides of the box beams, rather than on the top and bottom. Photographs of the wreckage show excessive deformations of the cross-section.[22] During the failure, the box beams split along the weld and the nut supporting them slipped through the resulting gap between the two C-channels which had been welded together, which contributed to the survivors' reports of the upper walkway falling several inches as the nut was held only by the upper side of the box beams, before it too failed, allowing the entire walkway to fall.

Investigators concluded that the basic problem was a lack of proper communication between Jack D. Gillum and Associates and Havens Steel. In particular, the drawings prepared by Jack D. Gillum and Associates were only preliminary sketches but were interpreted by Havens as finalized drawings. Jack D. Gillum and Associates failed to review the initial design thoroughly, and accepted Havens' proposed plan without performing basic calculations or viewing sketches that would have revealed its serious intrinsic flaws — in particular, the doubling of the load on the fourth-floor beams.[20] It was later revealed that when Havens called Jack D. Gillum and Associates to propose the new design, the engineer they spoke with simply approved the changes over the phone.[23]

In his book To Engineer Is Human (1985), Henry Petroski points out that the original design was under-designed and only met about 60% of the Kansas City building code. The atrium roof collapsed during construction and some things were re-checked, but not the connections of the walkways to the suspension poles [and although Petroski doesn't say so, the collapse of the roof probably increased pressure to finish the project without further delays]. In addition, workers during the construction phase found the walkways unsteady for heavy wheelbarrows. And instead of healthy communication in which concerns and issues can be raised and taken seriously, the construction traffic was simply rerouted. Petroski states that with the modified connections of walkways to suspension poles, there was a safety factor not much more than 1, meaning no margin of error. And therefore, no additional margin "for people walking, running, jumping, or dancing on the walkways" (page 102). [24]


The engineers employed by Jack D. Gillum and Associates who had "approved" the final drawings were found culpable of gross negligence, misconduct and unprofessional conduct in the practice of engineering by the Missouri Board of Architects, Professional Engineers, and Land Surveyors. Even though they were acquitted of all crimes that they were initially charged with, they all lost their respective engineering licenses in the states of Missouri, Kansas and Texas and their membership with ASCE.[22] Although the company of Jack D. Gillum and Associates was discharged of criminal negligence, it lost its licenses to be an engineering firm in Missouri and Kansas.[20][25]

At least $140 million was awarded to victims and their families in both judgments and settlements in subsequent civil lawsuits; a large amount of this money was from Crown Center Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Hallmark Cards which was the owner of the hotel real estate. As is the practice of many hoteliers, Hyatt operated the hotel for a fee as a management company, and did not own the building. Life and health insurance companies are likely to have absorbed even larger uncompensated losses in policy payouts.[26][27]

The Hyatt collapse remains a classic model for the study of engineering ethics and errors, as well as disaster management.[28] As an engineer of record for the Hyatt project, Jack D. Gillum (1928–2012)[29] occasionally shared his experiences at engineering conferences in the hope of preventing future mistakes.[30]

After the disaster, the lobby was reconstructed with only one crossing on the second floor. Unlike the previous walkways, the new bridge is supported by several columns underneath it rather than being suspended from the ceiling. As a result, the third floor of the hotel now has disconnected sections on opposite sides of the atrium, so it is necessary to go to the second floor to get to the other side.

Several rescuers suffered considerable stress due to their experience, and later relied upon each other in an informal support group.[8] Jackhammer operator "Country" Bill Allman died by suicide.[31]

The hotel was renamed the Hyatt Regency Crown Center in 1987, and again the Sheraton Kansas City at Crown Center in 2011. It has been renovated numerous times since, though the lobby retains the same layout and design. The hotel's owner announced a $13-million renovation as part of its re-flagging to the Sheraton brand completed in 2012.


In 2008, the Skywalk Memorial Foundation announced a fundraising campaign to build a garden and a fountain commemorating the event in Washington Square Park, about a block from the hotel. Hallmark Cards pledged $25,000 and the city offered $200,000. A Korean War memorial was subsequently planned for the park and in May 2009 city officials said they were considering locating the memorial in Hospital Hill Park at 22nd Street and Gillham Road, across the street from the Sheraton. On July 17, 2011 (the 30th anniversary of the collapse), the Skywalk Memorial Foundation unveiled the design for a memorial to be built in Hospital Hill Park. Hyatt and Hallmark had given official permission to erect the memorial. However Hyatt Hotels later informed the Skywalk Memorial Foundation that it would not contribute to the memorial fund because the hotel is no longer managed by Hyatt and has become a Sheraton hotel. Sheraton and its parent company, Starwood Hotels and Resorts, donated $5,000 toward the cost of the memorial, saying in a statement: "Sheraton and Starwood are very aware and respectful of Kansas City's deep ties to this hotel and want to be a part of the effort to honor the victims, survivors, first responders and family members of the 1981 tragedy." After a 10-year fundraising effort, the Skywalk Memorial Foundation announced plans to break ground for the memorial. On June 15, 2015, the Overland Park City Council voted to approve a $25,000 grant to help build it. Construction began on July 17, 2015, the 34th anniversary of the tragedy. The completed memorial was presented in a dedication ceremony on November 12, 2015.[32]

As of the 36th anniversary on July 17, 2017, almost two years following the dedication and revealing of the memorial in November 2015, there are 4 known victims on the memorial with names spelled incorrectly.[33]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ *Marshall, Richard D.; et al. (May 1982). Investigation of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse. Building Science Series. 143. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  2. ^ a b David Martin (September 14, 2011). "Former Chiefs doctor Joseph Waeckerle--a veteran of the NFL's concussion wars--is on a mission to protect young players". The Pitch. Kansas City. Archived from the original on 2012-09-26. Retrieved January 15, 2011. After he finished exercising, Waeckerle heard what everyone else would soon hear: that a fourth-floor walkway had collapsed on a tea dance at the Hyatt Regency. The director of Kansas City's emergency medical system from 1976 to 1979, Waeckerle learned that his replacement was out of town. He rushed to the scene.
  3. ^ Petroski, Henry (1992). To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Structural Design. Vintage. ISBN 978-0-679-73416-1.
  4. ^ a b National Bureau of Standards (May 1982). "Investigation of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency Walkways Collapse". US Department of Commerce. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  5. ^ "Hotel Horror". Kansas City Public Library. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  6. ^ Ramroth, William (2007). Planning for disaster: how natural and man-made disasters shape the built environment. Kaplan Business. p. 177. ISBN 978-1-4195-9373-4.
  7. ^ a b c Friedman, Mark (2002). Everyday crisis management: how to think like an emergency physician. First Decision Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-9718452-0-6. Archived from the original on 2014-01-03.
  8. ^ a b "Lives forever changed by skywalk collapse". Lawrence Journal World. Lawrence, Kansas: Associated Press. July 15, 2001. Archived from the original on 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2011-01-28.
  9. ^ D'Aulairey, Emily; Per Ola D'Aulairey (July 1982). "There Wasn't Time To Scream". The Reader's Digest: 49–56. They said 'take what you want'" recalls Deputy Fire Chief Arnett Williams, who directed the department's operation that night. "I don't know if all those people got their equipment back. But no one has ever asked for an accounting and no one has ever submitted a bill.
  10. ^ The Associated Press Library of Disasters: Nuclear and Industrial Disasters. Grolier Academic Reference. Associated Press. 1997. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-7172-9176-2.
  11. ^ Waeckerle, Joseph F.; Waeckerle, Joseph F. (March 21, 1991). "Disaster Planning and Response". New England Journal of Medicine. 324 (324): 815–821. doi:10.1056/nejm199103213241206.
  12. ^ O'Reilly, Kevin (2 January 2012). "Disaster medicine dilemmas examined". American Medical News. 55 (1). Retrieved 9 August 2013.
  13. ^ "Disaster made heroes of the helpers". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  14. ^ Murphy, Kevin (July 9, 2011). "Hyatt skywalks collapse changed lives forever". Kansas City Star. Retrieved 27 July 2011.
  15. ^ McGuire, Donna. "20 years later: Fatal disaster remains impossible to forget". Kansas City Star. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 3 December 2011.
  16. ^ Incident Command System for Structural Collapse Incidents; ICSSCI-Student Manual (FEMA P-702 ed.). FEMA. 2006. pp. SM 1–7. Retrieved 10 October 2011. Twenty-nive live victims were removed from under the debris during the rescue operations
  17. ^
  18. ^ "The Pulitzer Prizes – Local General or Spot News Reporting". Retrieved 2010-07-30.
  19. ^ Baura, Gail (2006). Engineering ethics: an industrial perspective. Academic Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-12-088531-2.
  20. ^ a b c "Hyatt Regency Walkway Collapse". School of Engineering, University of Alabama. Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. Retrieved 2017-01-29.
  21. ^ Whitbeck, Caroline (1998). Ethics in Engineering Practice and Research. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-521-47944-4.
  22. ^ a b "Hyatt Regency Walkway Collapse". 2006-10-24. Retrieved 2006-06-01.
  23. ^ Rick Montgomery (July 15, 2001). "20 years later: Many are continuing to learn from skywalk collapse". Kansas City Star. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  24. ^ To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Successful Design, Henry Petroski, St. Martin's Press, 1985. See especially pages 85-93 in his chapter "Accidents Waiting To Happen." Some of Petroski's material appeared previously in Technology and Culture, Technology Review, and the Washington Post.
  25. ^ Rick Montgomery (July 15, 2001). "20 years later: Many are continuing to learn from skywalk collapse". Kansas City Star. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  26. ^ "Hyatt Regency Disaster | ThinkReliability, Case Studies". ThinkReliability.
  27. ^ "The Hyatt Regency disaster 20 years later".
  28. ^ Auf der Heide, Erik (1989). Disaster Response: Principles of Preparation and Coordination. St. Louis MO: C.V. Mosby Company. pp. 3, 72, 76, 82. ISBN 0-8016-0385-4.
  29. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-17. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
  30. ^ Rick Montgomery (July 15, 2001). "20 years later: Many are continuing to learn from skywalk collapse". Kansas City Star. p. A1. Archived from the original on January 8, 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2017.
  31. ^ Murphy, Kevin; Rick Alm and Carol Powers (2011). The last dance : the skywalks disaster and a city changed : in memory, 30 years later. Kansas City Star Books (1st ed.). Kansas City, Mo. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-61169-012-5.
  32. ^ Campbell, Matt (November 12, 2015). "Memorial to Kansas City skywalk disaster finally a reality". Kansas City Star. Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  33. ^ News report on

Further reading[edit]

  • Petroski, Henry. To Engineer Is Human: The Role of Failure in Structural Design, New York: Random House, 1985. See esp. pages 85–93 in the chapter "Accidents Waiting To Happen." For example, page 89: "After the walkways were up there were reports that construction workers found the elevated shortcuts over the atrium unsteady under heavy wheelbarrows, but the construction traffic was simply rerouted and the designs were apparently still not checked or found wanting."
  • Marshall, Richard D.; et al. (May 1982). Investigation of the Kansas City Hyatt Regency walkways collapse. Building Science Series. 143. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards. Retrieved 2018-02-17.
  • Levey, M.; Salvadori, M.; Woest, K. (1994). Why Buildings Fall Down: How Structures Fail. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 978-0-393-31152-5.
  • Murphy, Kevin; Rick Alm and Carol Powers. The Last Dance : The Skywalks Disaster and a City Changed : In Memory, 30 Years Later. Kansas City Star Books (1st ed.). Kansas City, Mo. ISBN 978-1-61169-012-5. – (All author royalties of this book are being donated to the memorial project)

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 39°05′06″N 94°34′48″W / 39.085°N 94.580°W / 39.085; -94.580