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|Phosphate group chemical structure|
|Classification and external resources|
Hyperphosphatemia is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is an abnormally elevated level of phosphate in the blood. Often, calcium levels are lowered (hypocalcemia) due to precipitation of phosphate with the calcium in tissues. Average phosphorus levels should be between 0.81 mmol/L and 1.45 mmol/L.
Signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms include ectopic calcification, secondary hyperparathyroidism, and renal osteodystrophy. Abnormalities in phosphate metabolism such as hyperphosphatemia are included in the definition of the new chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD).
|Impaired renal phosphate excretion||
|Massive extracellular fluid phosphate loads|
Hypoparathyroidism: In this situation, there are low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). PTH normally inhibits reabsorption of phosphate by the kidney. Therefore, without enough PTH there is more reabsorption of the phosphate leading to a high phosphate level in the blood.
Chronic renal failure: When the kidneys are not working well, there will be increased phosphate retention.
Drugs: hyperphosphatemia can also be caused by taking oral sodium phosphate solutions prescribed for bowel preparation for colonoscopy in children.
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High phosphate levels can be avoided with phosphate binders and dietary restriction of phosphate.
- "Hyperphosphataemia at The Free Dictionary" Retrieved on 09 June 2016
- "KDIGO Guideline for Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD)". Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Longo et al., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th ed., p.3089