Angolar Creole

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(Redirected from ISO 639:aoa)
Angolar Creole
Native toSão Tomé and Príncipe
Native speakers
8,000 (2019)[1]
Portuguese Creole
  • Lower Guinea
    • Angolar Creole
Language codes
ISO 639-3aoa

Angolar Creole (Angolar: n'golá) is a minority Portuguese-based creole language of São Tomé and Príncipe, spoken in the southernmost towns of São Tomé Island and sparsely along the coast, especially by Angolar people. It is also called n'golá by its native speakers. It is a creole language with a majority Portuguese lexicon and a heavy substrate of a dialect of Kimbundu (port. Quimbundo), a Bantu language from inland Angola, where many had come from prior to being enslaved. It is rather different from Sãotomense, the other creole language spoken on the island.


It is a Portuguese-based creole language different from other Portuguese-based creole languages in Africa. The main difference is the substrate form Kimbundu and Kikongo from Angola.[2]


In the middle of the 16th century, a slave ship from Angola sunk before the southern coast of São Tomé. The surviving people aboard settled the coast as free fishermen. Their language was different from other creole language on the island. Today, between 10% and 20% of its linguistic elements are still of African origin.[3]

European Portuguese is mostly spoken in formal situations, in the media, business, education, judicial system and legislature, while Angolar and Sao Tomean Portuguese are preferred for informal situations as a vernacular language in day-to-day life and daily activities, and code switching even occurs between Angolar, standard European Portuguese, and São Tomean Portuguese in informal speech.


  1. ^ Angolar Creole at Ethnologue (25th ed., 2022) Closed access icon
  2. ^ Lorenzino, Gerardo A. (1998). The Angolar Creole Portuguese of São Tomé : its grammar and sociolinguistic history. München: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 978-3895865459.
  3. ^ Christóvão, Fernando, ed. (2005). Dicionário temático da Lusofonia (1 ed.). Lissabon/Luanda/Praia/Maputo: ACLUS. p. 614. ISBN 972-47-2935-4.

Further reading[edit]

  • Maurer, Philippe (1995). L'angolar: Un créole afro-portugais parlé à São Tomé [Angolar: An Afro-Portuguese creole spoken in São Tomé] (in French). Hamburg: Buske.
  • Lorenzino, Gerardo (1998). The Angolar Creole Portuguese of São Tomé: Its Grammar and Sociolinguistic History. Munich: Lincom Europa.

External links[edit]