Ibrahim Tuqan

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Ibrahim Tuqan
Portrait
Portrait
Born1905
Nablus, Ottoman Empire
DiedMay 2, 1941(1941-05-02) (aged 35–36)
Jerusalem, Palestine
OccupationPoet and college professor
NationalityPalestinian Arab
Period1923–1941
GenreNationalist
ChildrenJa'afar Tuqan and Ureib Tuqan Al-Bukhari

Ibrahim Abd al-Fattah Tuqan (Arabic: إبراهيم طوقان, 1905–May 2, 1941) was a Palestinian nationalist poet whose work rallied Arabs during their revolt against the British mandate. Tuqan was born in Nablus, Palestine during Ottoman empire.[1] He was the brother of poet Fadwa Tuqan and he tutored and influenced her to write poetry.[2][3] Ibrahim belonged to the prominent Tuqan family that governed Nablus during the 18th and 19th centuries.

Biography[edit]

Tuqan at an early age

He attended the al-Rashadiyya al-Gharbiyya School in western Nablus for his primary education,[3] then St. George's School in Jerusalem for his secondary education. He continued his studies at the American University in Beirut from 1923 to 1929.[3] After graduating with a bachelor's degree in literature, Tuqan worked as a professor of Arabic literature at An-Najah National University in Nablus.[1][4] He spent one year in AN-Najah University in 1929 when Palestine witnessed the massive uprising. This event influencded Tuqan to write nationalist poems. He later worked in two jobs as a professor at the American University in Beirut and a sub-director of the Arabic Programme Section of the Jerusalem-based Palestine Broadcasting Station.[5]

In 1937, he go married to Samia Abd al-Hadi, and they had one son, Ja'afar, and one daughter, Ureib.[4] Tuqan suffered from stomach problems throughout his life and in 1941 he died at the age of 36 from a peptic ulcer in the French Hospital in Jerusalem.[3][4]

Poetry[edit]

Tuqan's career as a poet began during his adolescence. He was greatly influenced by his grandfather who wrote zajal, as well as his mother who was fond of "heroic" Arabic literature. As he was encouraged by his father, Tuqan was highly interested Qur'an and used to read it every Ramadan. Tuqan published his first poem in 1923 while in Beirut. There, he found that the Lebanese press encouraged him greatly to publish his work.[3]

Most of his poems dealt with the Arab struggle against the British Mandate that controlled Palestine since 1922.[2][3] His poems gained fame in the Arab world during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.[1] According to author Salma Khadra Jayyusi, Tuqan's poetry is marked by "sincerity and emotional veracity. His verse clear and direct, the diction simple and well-chosen, and the phrases powerful and often terse."[3]

Here is an excerpt from one of his notable poems, Mawtini, which he wrote during the Arab revolt:[1]

The poem is the de facto national anthem of the Palestinian National Authority and in 2003, Iraq adopted the poem as its official national anthem.[6][7][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Poems: Ibrahim Tukan Nablus Municipal Website.
  2. ^ a b Obituary: Fadwa Tuqan Joffe, Lawrence. The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited 15 December 2003.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Jayyusi, Salma Khadra; Christopher Tingley (1997). Trends and Movements in Modern Arabic Poetry. BRILL. pp. 285–287. ISBN 90-04-04920-7.
  4. ^ a b c Ibrahim Touqan Nablus the Culture.
  5. ^ Palestinian Personalities - T Palestinian Academic Society for the Study of International Affairs (PASSIA).
  6. ^ Iraq: Mawtini (My Homeland) National Anthems.
  7. ^ Mawtini (My Homeland) (The Palestinian National Anthem 1936-) Ayyad Central.
  8. ^ National Anthem of Iraq