Independent Order of Odd Fellows
|Named after||Odd Fellows|
|Formation||April 26, 1819|
|Founded at||Washington Lodge No. 1, Seven Stars Tavern, Baltimore, Maryland, United States|
|52-0363509 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)|
|Legal status||501(c)(8) fraternal benefit society|
|Purpose||"Visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan"|
|Headquarters||Sovereign Grand Lodge|
in 26 countries
|Douglas E. Pittman|
Deputy Sovereign Grand Master
|E. Wesley Nelson|
Sovereign Grand Warden
|Charles E. Lusk|
|Affiliations||"Inter-fraternally": Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity|
(parent organisation 1819–1842)
International Association of Rebekah Assemblies
|$1,780,337 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)|
|Expenses (2014)||$1,478,384 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)|
|14 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)|
|Part of a series on|
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) is a non-political and non-sectarian international fraternal order of Odd Fellowship. It was founded in 1819 by Thomas Wildey in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. Evolving from the Order of Odd Fellows founded in England during the 18th century, the IOOF was originally chartered by the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England but has operated as an independent organization since 1842, although it maintains an inter-fraternal relationship with the English Order. The order is also known as the Triple Link Fraternity, referring to the order's "Triple Links" symbol, alluding to its motto "Friendship, Love and Truth".
While several unofficial Odd Fellows Lodges had existed in New York City circa 1806–1818, because of its charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded with Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey along with some associates who assembled in response to an advertisement in the New Republic. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges. Previously, Wildey had joined the Grand United Order of Oddfellows (1798-) in 1804 but followed through with the split of Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity (1810–) before immigrating to the United States in 1817.
In 1842, after an elementary dispute on authority, the American Lodges formed a governing system separate from the English Order, and in 1843 assumed the name Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
Like countless other fraternities, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows began by limiting their membership to white men only. Some years later, the IOOF became the first fraternity in the United States to include (white) women when it adopted the "Beautiful Rebekah Degree" on September 20, 1851, by initiative of Schuyler Colfax, later Vice-President of the United States.
Beyond fraternal and recreational activities, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows promotes the ethic of reciprocity and charity, by implied inspiration of Judeo-Christian ethics. The largest Sovereign Grand Lodge of all fraternal orders of Odd Fellows since the 19th century, it enrolls some 600,000 members divided in approximately 10,000 lodges into 26 countries, inter-fraternally recognized by the second largest, the British-seated Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity.
Odd Fellows lodges were first documented in 1730 in England from which many organizations emerged.
While several unofficial Odd Fellows lodges had existed in New York City sometime in the period 1806 to 1818, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded with Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey along with some associates who assembled in response to a newspaper advertisement. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity was granted the authority to institute new lodges. Wildey had joined the Grand United Order of Oddfellows in 1804, then joined its splinter order, Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity, before immigrating to the United States in 1817.
In 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, in a split along racial lines, some American Lodges formed with exclusively whites-only membership and a separate governing system from the English Order. In 1843, they changed the name of their organization to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.
In the following years, lodges were instituted all over the country, first in the east and later in the west. Also in 1842, the English Oddfellow Grand Lodges issued a warrant to an African American sailor named Peter Ogden from New York City; unlike Wildey and the IOOF, Ogden and the African American Odd Fellows lodges never separated from the English order, and they remain part of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF), still headquartered in Philadelphia.
On September 20, 1851, IOOF became the first national fraternity to accept both men and women when it formed the Daughters of Rebekah. Schuyler Colfax (Vice President of the United States (1869–1873) under President Ulysses S. Grant) was the force behind the movement. Both the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs have appendant branches known as Encampments and Patriarchs Militant.
The American Civil War (1861–1865) shattered the IOOF in America; membership decreased and many lodges were unable to continue their work, especially in the southern States. After the Civil War, with the beginning of industrialization, the deteriorating social circumstances brought large numbers of people to the IOOF and the lodges rallied.
Over the next half-century, also known as the "Golden age of fraternalism" in America, the Odd Fellows became the largest among all fraternal organizations, (at the time, even larger than Freemasonry). By 1889, the IOOF had lodges in every American state. Compared to Masonic lodges, membership in the Odd Fellows lodges tended to be more common among the lower middle class and skilled workers and less common among the wealthy white collar workers and professionals.
In 1896, the World Almanac showed the Odd Fellows as the largest among all fraternal organizations.
By the late nineteenth century, the Order had spread to most of the rest of the world, establishing lodges in the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. According to the Journal of the Annual Communication of the Sovereign Grand Lodge 1922, page 426, there were a reported 2,676,582 members. While this data from 1921 may not be the exact zenith of its membership, the organization experienced a loss in membership of 23.5% between 1920 and 1930, explained in large part by the development of the commercial insurance industry, and has continually declined.
The Great Depression and the introduction of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal brought a decline in membership. During the depression, people could not afford Odd Fellows membership fees, and when the New Deal's social reforms started to take effect, the need for the social work of the Odd Fellows declined.
In 1971 the IOOF changed its constitution, removing its whites only clause. In 1979 the Order had 243,000 members.
Some branches of the order (i.e., some countries) have allowed women to join the Odd Fellows itself, leading to the Rebekahs' decline in importance. Also, the appendant branches and their degrees are, in some countries, becoming regarded as less important or too time-consuming, and are gradually being abandoned.
Although there was a decline in membership in fraternal organizations in general during the 20th century, membership in the 21st century started to increase.
This section contains content that is written like an advertisement. (April 2021)
The IOOF continues in the 21st century with lodges around the world, and is claimed to be the "largest united international fraternal order in the world under one head", with every lodge working with the Sovereign Grand Lodge located in the United States. Also, the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity and the IOOF have recognized each other inter-fraternally; members of the Manchester Unity and the IOOF can visit each other's lodges, and are welcome as brothers and sisters. Currently, there are about 12,000 lodges with nearly 600,000 members.
Units of the Order in the United States include:
- Odd Fellows Lodge
- Rebekahs Lodge
- Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA)
- Patriarchs Militant
- Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM)
- Junior Odd Fellows Lodge
- Theta Rho Girls Club
- United Youth Groups
- Zeta Lambda Tau
As an organization, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows aims to provide a framework that promotes personal and social development. Lodge degrees and activities aim to improve and elevate every person to a higher, nobler plane; to extend sympathy and aid to those in need, making their burdens lighter, relieving the darkness of despair; to war against vice in every form, and to be a great moral power and influence for the good of humanity. Teachings in the Order are conducted through the exemplification of the Degrees of membership. The Degrees are conferred on the candidate by their Lodge, and are teachings of principles and truths by ceremonies and symbols. The Degrees are presented largely by means of allegory and drama. For Odd Fellows, the degrees in Odd Fellowship emphasize a leaving of the old life and the start of a better one, of welcoming travelers, and of helping those in need. Lodges also provide an international social network of members in 26 countries. The command of the IOOF is to "visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan". Specifically, IOOF has stated the following purposes:
- To improve and elevate the character of mankind by promoting the principles of friendship, love, truth, faith, hope, charity and universal justice.
- To help make the world a better place to live by aiding each other in times of need and by organizing charitable projects and activities that would benefit the less fortunate, the youth, the elderly, the environment and the community in every way possible.
- To promote good will and harmony amongst peoples and nations through the principle of universal fraternity, holding the belief that all men and women regardless of race, nationality, religion, social status, gender, rank and station are brothers and sisters.
- To promote a wholesome fraternal experience without violence, vices and discrimination of every form.
There was one Odd Fellows Lodge in the country, Buenos Ayres Lodge no.1 instituted on January 1, 1903, with 32 members. The most recent report from the lodge was received by the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1912.
A lodge of the Order of Loyal and Independent Odd Fellows was in existence in the state of New South Wales on February 24, 1836. The lodge was established in New Zealand in 1843. An Australian Supreme Grand Lodge was established in Victoria sometime in the year 1850 and this body made negotiations for affiliation with the Grand Lodge of the United States in 1861. It is also noted that an Ancient Independent Order of Odd Fellows was in existence from 1861 to 1954 in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Austria was first formed as a club in 1911. After WWI, conditions changed and the club was instituted as Friedens Lodge no.1 on June 4, 1922, in Vienna followed by Ikarius Lodge no.2, Pestalozzi Lodge no.3 and Fridtjof Nansen Lodge no.4. Mozart Lager Encampment no.1 was also instituted on June 3, 1932.
The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Belgia Lodge no.1, was instituted on June 13, 1911, in Antwerp. On March 15, 1975, Aurora Rebekah Lodge no.1 was instituted in Antwerp. Two more Odd Fellows Lodges were opened in the country.
The first I.O.O.F store in Brazil was established on February 16, 2020. It was a historic date for the country. A special delegation was sent to the country with 3 people, Edward Johnson, Michelle Heckart and Hank Dupray to assist in the foundation. Brazil Lodge N 01. was opened with 18 founding members and the first Noble Grand in Brazil was Gabriel Boni Sutil. Brazil Lodge N 01 remains open and members are working on the growth of the IOOF in the country.
Two lodges under the Manchester Unity of Independent Order of Odd Fellows known as Royal Wellington Lodge no.1 and Loyal Bon Accorde Lodge no.2 existed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as early as 1815. The IOOF in Canada has 7 Grand Lodges, namely: Grand Lodge of Alberta, Grand Lodge of Atlantic Provinces, Grand Lodge of British Columbia, Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Grand Lodge of Ontario, Grand Lodge of Quebec and Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan.
The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Valparaiso Lodge No.1, was instituted by Dr. Cornelius Logan, Grand Sire, on April 15, 1874. Four additional lodges were instituted in the following years, and a Grand Lodge of Chile was instituted on November 18, 1875. However, due to the political situation in the country, the lodges in the country were reduced to 3 active lodges in 1888 and the charter of the Grand Lodge was surrendered. In September 2012, there were 3 Odd Fellows Lodges and 3 Rebekahs Lodges in the country.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Cuba when Porvenir Lodge no.1 was instituted in Havana on August 26, 1883. More lodges were then instituted the following years. In 2012 there were about 116 Odd Fellows Lodges, 50 Rebekahs Lodges, 33 Encampments, 12 cantons and 2 Junior Lodges, totaling to about 15,000 members in Cuba.
- Czech Republic
The first attempt to establish the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in what later became the Czech Republic was in 1905 through the formation of Friendship Lodge No. 8 in Saxony. But the unstable political and social condition of the country hampered development. The actual development of the IOOF began after the creation of Czechoslovakia. However, Lodges were banned and cancelled during WWII. The IOOF began to re-activate lodges in 1989, building the first Odd Fellows Hall in the Czech Republic in 1996. In 2010, Martel Rebekah Lodge No.4 was founded as the lodge for women.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in the Kingdom of Denmark in 1878 and the Rebekahs in 1881. In September 2012, IOOF had over 112 Odd Fellow Lodges and 94 Rebekah Lodges, with a total membership of 14,500 in Denmark. The IOOF Grand Lodge headquarters of the Kingdom of Denmark is located at the Odd Fellow Palace in Copenhagen.
- Dominican Republic
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in the Dominican Republic when Dr. Joaquin Balaguer Lodge no.1 was founded on February 24, 2007, in the City of San Cristobal.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in Estonia when 1 Odd Fellows Lodge was founded by the Grand Lodge of Finland in 1993 and a Rebekah lodge in 1995.
After the Independent Order of Odd Fellows Grand Lodge of Sweden was established in 1895, the interest in Odd Fellowship was awakened in Finland. After Finland had declared independence in 1917, the idea of an Odd Fellows Lodge in Finland was raised again. A few interested people from the town Vaasa in Ostrobothnia province were able to join the Swedish Odd Fellow lodges until the Sovereign Grand Lodge finally permitted the Grand Lodge of Sweden to officially establish the IOOF in Finland in 1925. The first lodge established was named Wasa Lodge no.1 in the coastal town of Vaasa. Additional lodges were then formed in Helsinki in 1927 and a third lodge in Turku in 1931. Odd Fellows in Finland encountered great difficulties in the 1930s and during the wartime. Especially the question of premises was quite difficult for many years. However, all three lodges which had been established before the war continued their activities almost without interruption. Only after the war, in the year 1951 was the next lodge established. Since then, the development has been steady and quite rapid. In the beginning of the 1980s, the number of brother lodges was 35 and the number of sister lodges 19 leading to the institution of the Grand Lodge of Finland on June 2, 1984. In the year 2008, there were 57 Odd Fellows lodges and 48 Rebekah lodges in Finland with about 8,200 members.
The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established on December 1, 1870, in Württemberg, Germany, by Dr. John F. Morse, a Past Grand Master in California and a member of California Odd Fellows Lodge No. 1 of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. After the institution of Württemberg Lodge, other lodges were instituted including Germania Lodge No. 1 in Berlin on March 30, 1871; Helvetia Lodge No. 1 in Zurich, Switzerland on April 2, 1871; Saxonia Lodge No. 1 in Dresden on June 6, 1871; and Schiller Lodge No. 3 in Stuttgart on May 25, 1872. During the first decades, many lodges were instituted including 56 lodges in the 1870s, 20 lodges in the 1880s, 41 lodges in the 1890s, and the membership totaled almost 4,000 brothers. The formal establishment of the IOOF Grand Lodge of the German Empire was on December 28, 1872.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Iceland was founded in August 1897 under the Jurisdiction of the IOOF Grand Lodge of Kingdom of Denmark, until it established the Grand Lodge of Iceland on January 31, 1948. In December 2017, there were 28 Odd Fellows Lodges, 18 Rebekah Lodges, 6 Odd Fellow Encampments and 5 Rebekah Encampments – about 3,900 members.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first introduced in the country when Colombo Lodge no.1 was instituted in Naples in 1895.
The first lodge in Mexico under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Ridgely Lodge no.1, was instituted on August 5, 1882. Several Lodges were opened the following years reaching up to 5 Lodges in 1895. However, the political situation affected their progress. In 2012, there was one Odd Fellows Lodge and one Rebekah Lodge re-instituted in 1996.
Paradijs Loge nr. 1 (Paradise Lodge No. 1) was founded in Amsterdam on March 19, 1877, by L. Elkan and G.E. van Erpen, former members of an Odd Fellows lodge in the United States. This initiative commenced in 1876, but initially the Dutch Government was not pleased. It subsequently stopped its resistance later in the same year. The translation of the rituals was the next problem, combined with the recognition by the Soeverine Loge (Sovereign Grand Lodge). Eventually the founder of the German Order, Ostheim, was appointed Gedeputeerd Groot Sire voor Nederland and installed the first Dutch board. In 1899, lodges were established in The Hague and Groningen. Also in 1899, the first Nederlandse Grootorde (Grand Lodge of Netherlands) was founded. On September 2, 1911, the first Belgian Lodge, Belgia Loge nr. 201, was established in Antwerp, and the Order changed its name to Orde in Nederland en België.
Various orders of Odd Fellows have existed in Nigeria since the 1800s. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows re-established lodges in the country in 2008. In January 2012, there were four Odd Fellow lodges in the country.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Norway in 1898 and is one of the strongest jurisdictions in terms of membership. In January 2010, there were 151 Odd Fellow Lodges and 125 Rebekah Lodges and about 23,414 members in the country.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Isthmian Canal Lodge No. 1, was instituted at Gorgona, September 17, 1907, in Panama. The charter was secured upon the application of named petitioners. Officers were installed. A special meeting was announced to institute a class of 25 on October 5, 1907.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Poland in Poznan in 1876 and in Wroclaw (then Breslau) in 1879. A Regional Grand Lodge of Silesia and Poznan was established in 1885, which opened lodges in Bydgoszcz in 1895, Gniezno in 1896, Torun in 1898, Gdansk in 1899, Pila 1899 and Grudziadz in 1901. After World War I, six Odd Fellows lodges worked in the Polish lands: in Poznań "Kosmos-Loge" in Inowroclaw "Astrea-Loge" in Bydgoszcz "Emanuel Schweizer Gedächnits Loge" in Gniezno "Friedens-Loge" in Torun "Coppernicus -Loge" and Grudziadz "Ostheim-Loge." Moreover, in Gdansk Gedania-Loge "and the camp" Vistula-Lager" existed. In addition to the above-mentioned, there were 18 IOOF lodges in the Lower Silesia, including as many as five in Wroclaw, "Morse", "Moltke," Phönix "Freundschaft" and "Caritas". In the years 1925 to 1926, they built a new, modern building for their headquarters. It was projected by A. Radig, and it stands in today's Hallera Street in Wroclaw.
- Puerto Rico
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in Puerto Rico when Boriken Lodge No. 1 was instituted on November 6, 1899, with the help of several members from Florida, New Jersey and New York Lodges of the IOOF. Naborias Rebekahs Lodge No. 1 was also formed in the country.
Filipinos first embraced the fraternalism of the Odd Fellows during the revolutionary era as a reaction to the perceived abuses by their Spanish colonists, and by 1898, had formed several military lodges and Odd Fellows Association in Manila. According to their own records, the early membership consisted primarily of military officers and government officials. The organization failed during World War II, and was not reformed until November 21, 2009. In 2019 there were 25 active Odd Fellows lodges, 1 Rebekah Lodge, 3 Encampments and 2 Cantons of the Patriarchs Militant located in various towns and cities in the country.
Andalucia Rebekah Lodge no.1 was established in 1995, and Costa del Sol Lodge no.1 was founded in the country by members of the IOOF from Denmark and Norway in 2002.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden was first established in Malmo, Sweden, in 1884, and a Grand Lodge of the Kingdom of Sweden was instituted in 1895. In 2012, Sweden held the strongest membership in IOOF with more than 174 Odd Fellow Lodges, 113 Rebekah Lodges, and over 40,000 members.
The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first established in Switzerland on June 19, 1871, when Helvetia Lodge no.1 was instituted in Zurich by Dr. Morse of California and Mr. Schaettle and Bernheim, members of the fraternity in Germany. The IOOF Grand Lodge of Switzerland was established on April 22, 1874.
The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Uruguay on February 9, 1966, known as Artigas Lodge no.1. The Rebekahs was also established on November 19, 1966, known as Amanecer Rebekah Lodge no.1. Additional lodges, Uruguay Lodge no.2, Horizontes Rebekah Lodge no.2 and El Ceibo Lodge have been instituted and 5 lodges meet in the same hall in Montevideo.
The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in the City of Caracas, Venezuela, on August 2, 1986, known as Pakritti Lodge no.1.
Regional grand lodges
|Regions / Jurisdictions / Countries (Date established)||Ref|
|Africa||0||Liberia (1874)*, Nigeria (2008)*,|||
|Australasia||6||Australasia, New South Wales (1836), New Zealand (1843), South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia|
|Canada||8||Canada (1843), Alberta, Atlantic Provinces, British Columbia (1864), Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec (1878), Saskatchewan|
|Europe||13||Europe (2006), Austria, Czech Republic (1877)*, Denmark (1878), Estonia (1993)*, Finland (1925), France (1884)*, Germany (1870), Iceland (1897), Netherlands & Belgium (1911), Norway (1898), Poland (1938)*, Spain*, Sweden (1895), Switzerland (1871)|
|Central America||2||Belize*, Dominican Republic*, Cuba (1883), America Latina (Cuba), Mexico (1882), Puerto Rico (1999)*,|
|South America||1||Chile (1874), Uruguay*, Venezuela,|
|United Kingdom||0||(The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity.)|
|United States of America||51||Sovereign Grand Lodge (1819), Alabama, Arizona (1884), Arkansas, California (1847), Colorado (1860), Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii (1846), Idaho, Illinois (1838), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri (1834), Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York (1806), North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma (1875), Oregon, Pennsylvania (1821), Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (1878), West Virginia, Wisconsin (1835), Wyoming|
Degrees and initiation
In the IOOF system, different degrees are conferred depending on whether one is initiated into the Daughters of Rebekah or the Oddfellows proper.
For Oddfellows, four lodge degrees; three higher, encampment degrees; and one Patriarchs Militant degree are conferred.
For Rebekahs, one lodge degree, one encampment degree, and one Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM) degree are conferred.
The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS), an IOOF appendant body, confers two degrees. The Ladies of the Orient (LOTO), an appendant body of the Daughters of Rebekahs, similarly confers two degrees.
- Initiatory (White degree)
- Friendship (First degree, Pink degree)
- "Brotherly" Love (Second degree, Blue degree)
- Truth (Third degree, Scarlet degree)
- Patriarchal (Faith degree)
- Golden Rule (Hope degree)
- Royal Purple (Charity degree)
Patriarchs Militant degree
- Chevalier (Patriarch Militant degree)
- Rebekah degree
Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA) degree
- LEA degree
Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM) degree
- LAPM degree
- Humility (Samaritan degree)
- Perfection (Sheikh degree)
Symbols and regalia
To fully understand the purposes and principles of Odd Fellowship, instruction in ceremonial form is divided into degrees. These degrees are dramatic in form and aim to emulate and impart the principles of the fraternity: Friendship, Love, Truth, Faith, Hope, Charity and Universal Justice. Each degree consists of symbols that aim to teach a practical moral code and encourages members to live and act upon them to act positive change upon the world. In the past, when most Odd Fellows lodges offered financial benefits for the sick and distressed members, such symbols, passwords and hand signs were used as proof of membership and to protect the lodge funds from impostors. These symbols, signs and passwords have been carried forward to modern times as a tradition. The most widely encountered symbol of the IOOF – on signs, buildings and gravemarkers – is the three-link chain ("the Chain With Three Links", the "Triple Links") with initials 'F', 'L' and 'T' signifying Friendship, Love and Truth.
The Rebekah Lodges were founded on September 20, 1851, when, after considerable debate, the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows voted to adopt the Rebekah Degree, largely due to the efforts of Schuyler Colfax. The first Rebekah Degrees were honorary awards only, conferred on wives and daughters of Odd Fellows at special lodge meetings, and recipients were known as "Daughters of Rebekah", taken from the Biblical character of Rebekah.
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The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) is an unofficial, oriental-styled auxiliary body and accepts members from all Odd Fellow OrdersCite error: A
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The Junior Lodge was established in 1921 initially under the name the Loyal Sons of the Junior Order of Odd fellows, for boys interested in odd fellowship. The ritual and ceremonies were supervised by a member of the senior order. There were 4,873 members in 1970. Membership is open to boys of age 8–21, its motto being "Honor and Fidelity", and its symbolic colours silver and dark blue.
In April 1865, a monument was erected to Wildey in Baltimore, consisting of a statue atop a Doric column that is 52 feet in height. The monument is located on 123 North Broadway at Lamley St. (between East Baltimore and East Fayette Streets).
Some notable members are:
- James Ashman, Los Angeles City Council
- Warren Austin, mayor, Senator (Vermont 1931–1946), Ambassador to the UN
- Hugo Black, politician and jurist
- Owen Brewster, lawyer, politician, Governor, Senator
- Wilber M. Brucker, Governor of Michigan (1931–1932)
- Elwood Bruner, California state legislator in the 1890s
- William Jennings Bryan, U.S. Secretary of State (1913–1915)
- Robert C. Byrd, U.S. Senator (1959–2010)
- Edwin Hubbell Chapin, Universalist minister, author, lecturer, and social reformer
- Charlie Chaplin, comedic actor and film director
- John Simpson Chisum, Cattle Baron in Texas and New Mexico (1824–1884)
- Parley P. Christensen, Utah and California politician, Esperantist
- Ernest E. Cole, Commissioner of Education for New York State (1940–1942)
- Schuyler Colfax, U.S. Vice President (1869–1873)
- Edith Howard Cook, Mummified child found during archaeological investigations in San Francisco (1873–1876)
- John J. Cornwell, Governor (WV) and Senator (MD)
- Wyatt Earp, law officer in the American Old West
- Ulysses S. Grant, 18th U.S. President (1869–1877)
- Warren Harding, 29th U.S. President (1921–1923)
- Rutherford Hayes, 19th U.S. President (1877–1881)
- Thomas Hendricks, 21st Vice President of the United States
- Orange Jacobs, Chief justice of the supreme court of The Territory of Washington (1871–1875), U.S. Congressman from the Washington Territory (1875–1879), Mayor of Seattle (1879–1880)
- Anson Jones, Last President of the Republic of Texas
- Nathan Kelley, architect of Ohio State House
- Goodwin Knight, Governor of California
- Charles Lindbergh, American aviator, author, inventor, explorer and early environmentalist
- Albert Dutton MacDade, Pennsylvania State Senator (1921–1929), Judge Pennsylvania Court of Common Pleas, Delaware County (1942–1948)
- William McKinley, 25th U.S. President (1897–1901)
- David Myers, Justice of the Indiana Supreme Court (1917-1934)
- William Marsh Rice, Founder of Rice University
- John Buchanan Robinson, U.S. Congressman from Pennsylvania's 6th congressional district (1891–1897)
- Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd U.S. President (1933–1945)
- George B. Sparkman, 19th & 22st Mayor of Tampa (1881–1883, 1887–1888)
- Levi and Matilda Stanley, considered as King and Queen of the Gypsies
- Ele Stansbury, 23rd Indiana Attorney General (1917-1921)
- David Ivar Swanson, member of the Illinois House of Representatives beginning in 1922
- Lucy Hobbs Taylor, first U.S. female dentist
- Earl Warren, U.S. Chief Justice (1953–1969)
- Albert Winn, U.S. Army general (1810–1883)
- George W. Wolff, Wisconsin politician
- "Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax". The Independent Order of Oddfellows Sovereign Grand Lodge. Guidestar. August 31, 2014.
- "About". Ioof.org. April 19, 2013. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Deutscher Odd Fellow-Orden: Geschichte des Ordens". Oddfellows.de. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Leadership". Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
- "About us". IOOF. Archived from the original on January 28, 2013. Retrieved May 11, 2013.
-  Archived March 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Volume four, p. 150, Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, ISBN 0-9693422-1-7.
- Mark A. Tabbert (2003) The Odd Fellows, Masonic Papers, first published Dec. 2003, "The Northern Light", Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, USA.
- "Deutscher Odd Fellow-Orden: Geschichte des Ordens". Oddfellows.de. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
-  Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- "The Grand United Order Of Odd Fellows In America And Jurisdiction". Guoofamerica.com. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Barry, Dan (August 26, 2007). "A Grand Gathering, but One With a Solemn Note". New York Times.
As with most matters of Odd Fellowship, nearly every aspect of the annual convention of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows must adhere to protocol. The dais for the officers’ banquet, for example, must be two-tiered and able to accommodate 50 people, important on the bottom, really important on the top. Seats for the sovereign grand master, the deputy sovereign grand master, the sovereign grand warden, the sovereign grand secretary and the sovereign grand treasurer. Seats for the leaders of the two uniformed branches, the Patriarchs Militant and its Ladies Auxiliaries. A seat for the president of the International Association of Rebekah Assemblies, established when the Odd Fellows long ago recognized “the need for a woman’s touch.”
- Patriarchs Militant & Ladies Auxiliary Association Archived July 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine: "The Patriarchs Militant are the uniformed branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), one of the oldest and largest fraternal orders in the world today. The Patriarchs Militant were established by the Sovereign Grand Lodge – the international governing body of Odd Fellowship – in 1886."
- PM Park, Clear Lake, Iowa contains a section summarizing the history of IOOF children's summer holiday camps established by the Patriarchs Militant.
- Müller, Stephanie (2008): History of the Odd Fellows, from Concept and contents of Odd Fellowship, Chapter 2 of Visit the Sick, Relieve the Distressed, Bury the Dead and Educate the Orphan: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A scientific work in the field of cultural studies, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. ISBN 978-3-86821-093-4. Retrieved on October 14, 2009.
- Burkley M. Gray (n.d.) Fraternalism in America (1860–1920), Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum, Phoenixmasonry.org. (See also Odd Fellow Service Jewels.)
- History of the IOOF in Marin County Archived January 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Illustrates the spread of Oddfellowship in California in the 19th century. Also contains a section titled: Background, History, Ritual and Emblems.
- The Morals of Odd-fellowship : a Discourse. Reproduction of the 1853 publication from the Grand Lodge of Northern New York. Demonstrates the influence of the Odd Fellows in the mid 19th century.
- Emery, George; Emery, Herbert (March 10, 1999). Young Man's Benefit: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Sickness Insurance in the United States and Canada, 1860-1929. McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-7735-6765-8. Retrieved October 25, 2021.
- Journal of Proceedings of the ... Annual Communication of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Volume 98, Part 1922. 1922. Retrieved May 26, 2017.
- Kaufman, Jason (2002)"For the Common Good? American Civic Life and the Golden Age of Fraternity" Oxford University Press, 2002. p. 166, 167
- Schmidt, Alvin J. Fraternal Organizations Westport, CT; Greenwood Press p.244-5
- Grand Lodge of California, IOOF (n.d.) A brief sketch of Odd Fellowship, RealStockCertificates.com. Retrieved on September 18, 2009
- IOOF News, Volume 12, Issue 2, March–April 2009, p. 1 Editor: Richard G. ‘Dick’ Proulx, Publisher: The Sovereign Grand Lodge, I.O.O.F., Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A. Retrieved November 11, 2009.
-  Archived February 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
- Most statements here can be found in Weinbren, D. (2010). "The Oddfellows: 200 years of making friends and helping people". United Kingdom: Carnegie Publishing
-  Archived September 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
- Rasmussen, V. (1998) "IOOF and Concordant Societies"
- Stillson, H.L. (1900) "The official history of Odd Fellowship: The Three Link Fraternity". MA: The Fraternity Publishing Company
- "IOOF Chile ....OddFellows". Ioofchile.cl. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Nová stránka 1". Oddfellow.cz. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Odd fellow, Ordenen, Orden, Palæ og Storloge i Danmark – Odd fellow Ordenen". Oddfellow.dk. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Journal of Proceedings of the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1879
- Sovereign Grand Lodge Records. Sovereign Grand Lodge Headquarters. Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A.
- Summary of the History of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Finland by Grand Sire Tapio Katajamäki
-  Archived April 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- Journal of Proceedings of the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 2009
- "Historie". oddfellow.no.
- "First Canal Zone Odd Fellow Lodge". Panama Canal Record. 1: 7. September 4, 1907. Retrieved November 13, 2014.
- "Independiente Orden de Odd Fellows – Puerto Rico". Facebook.
- Sovereign Grand Lodge Data Base, Sovereign Grand Lodge Headquarters, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A.
- Coursey, O.W. (1903). History and Geography of the Philippine Islands. Educator School Supply Company.
- Sovereign Grand Lodge (1898–1899). Journal of Proceedings. Independent Order of Odd Fellows
- Sovereign Grand Lodge (2009–2010). Journal of Proceedings. Independent Order of Odd Fellows
- "De spanske loger". Loge69.dk. Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- [dead link]
- Sovereign Grand Lodge Journal of Proceedings
- A lodge was instituted in Nigeria 2008, and a lodge was instituted in the Philippines on November 21, 2009, making a total of 29 countries with lodges.
- "Jurisdictions". Ioof.org. Winston-Salem, North Carolina: The Sovereign Grand Lodge Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2006.
- "World portal Grand Lodges I.O.O.F." Oddfellows.nl. Grootloge voor Nederland en België (Grand Lodge of The Netherlands and Belgium). Archived from the original on April 14, 2009. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- "International Jurisdictional Websites". Ioofbc.org. Esquimalt, British Columbia: IOOF Grand Lodge of British Columbia. May 29, 2010. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved June 28, 2010.
- There are no Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodges in the United Kingdom under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge of the IOOF. The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity IOOF. The U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge's web site makes no mention of the United Kingdom on its jurisdiction pages.
- Note: Grand Lodges marked '*' do not (yet) appear on the Sovereign Grand Lodge "Jurisdictions" web page.
- IOOF in Nigeria. There are four Odd Fellows lodges in Nigeria.
- "Republic of the Philippines Watchdog Lodge no.1 is a subordinate lodge, not a Grand Lodge. There are currently (May 2012) 5 regular lodges in the Philippines and some interest groups soon to be lodges". Ioofmindsnaonlodge.webs.com. Archived from the original on March 13, 2012. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- "Independent Order of Odd Fellows Philippines : Homepage". Ioofphilippines.yolasite.com. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- BORIKEN No. 1 LODGE of PUERTO RICO is a subordinate lodge, not a Grand Lodge.
- "IOOF Chile". Ioofchile.cl. Archived from the original on October 11, 2015. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Membership Manual of Odd Fellowship
- In passed years, there were no telephones, and communication was very slow. It was through these passwords, handshakes and symbols that a member from another lodge can prove his membership to the lodge he is visiting, and may be qualified to ask for any financial assistance.
- "Our Rebekah History". Official website. Rebekah Assembly of Idaho. Retrieved April 11, 2010.
- Schmidt p.245
- "Youth". Ioof.org. January 12, 2014. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Howard, George Washington (1873). The Monumental City, Its Past History and Present Resources. Baltimore: J. D. Ehrlers & Co. pp. 70–1, 349.
- "Grand Encampment, I.O.O.F.," Los Angeles Herald, October 18, 1897, page 2
- Odd Fellow politicians from Vermont, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Odd Fellow politicians from Alabama, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Odd Fellow politicians from Maine, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Odd Fellow politicians from Michigan, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
- References are in the Bruner article.
- Stephanie Müller (2008): Famous Odd Fellows, Chapter 5 of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. Retrieved on September 18, 2009.
- Odd Fellow politicians from North Carolina, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Edwin Chapin Archived January 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, The Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography, www25.uua.org
- "News & Culture | The New Fraternals". Metroactive.com. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
- Harwood P. Hinton, Chisum, John Simpson, Texas History On Line. Retrieved on May 4, 2019.
- "Death Takes Ex-Councilman Christensen, 84," February 11, 1954, page 26 – Library card required
- Odd Fellow politicians from New York, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Mystery Child Identified as Edith Howard Cook, Retrieved on August 24, 2021
- Odd Fellow politicians from West Virginia, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Odd Fellow politicians from Maryland, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 1, 2010.
- Wyatt Earp – Oddfellows Member Archived January 2, 2015, at the Wayback Machine, oddfellows.co.uk. Retrieved on January 3, 2015.
- Odd Fellow politicians from Indiana, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
- Anson Jones, pp. 311–312 in William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J Part One, Kessinger Publishing's Rare Reprints, 2004, ISBN 1-4179-7578-4, ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5 Retrieved on September 20, 2009.
- Eastman, Frank Marshall (1922). Courts and Lawyers of Pennsylvania: A History, 1693–1923, Volume 4. New York: The American Historical Society, Inc. p. 358. Retrieved July 29, 2018.
- History of Decatur County, Indiana: Its People, Industries and Institutions. Whipporwill Publications. 1915. pp. 1213–1215.
- Rice, William Marsh in The Handbook of Texas History Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved: September 9, 2009.
- Jordan, John W. (1914). A History of Delaware County Pennsylvania and Its People. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. pp. 634–637. Retrieved August 19, 2018.
- "George Bascom Sparkman – 19th And 22nd Mayor Of Tampa". City of Tampa. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- Dunn, Jacob Piatt (1919). Indiana and Indianans : a history of aboriginal and territorial Indiana and the century of statehood. American Historical Society.
- Madeleine B Stern (1971). Lucy Hobbs Taylor, pp. 433–434 in Notable American Women, 1607–1950: A Biographical Dictionary, Volume 3, Eds. Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S. Boyer, Harvard University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-674-62734-2, ISBN 978-0-674-62734-5.
- Ken Knott (n.d.) Major General Albert Winn, California State Military Museum. Retrieved on September 18, 2009.
- Ross, Theodore (2003): History and Manual of Odd Fellowship. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4557-3
- Smith, Don and Roberts, Wayne (1993): The Three Link Fraternity – Odd Fellowship in California. Linden: Linden Publications.
- Coursey, Oscar William. History and Geography of the Philippine Islands. 1903. ISBN 1-151-70112-2
- Official website
- Guide to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.), Alturas Lodge No. 80, 1858–1986. California State Library, California History Room.
- I.O.O.F. Alturas Lodge No. 80 collection of regalia [realia]. California State Library, California History Room.
- I.O.O.F. Capitol Lodge No. 87, Sacramento, CA. California State Library, California History Room.
- I.O.O.F. miscellany. California State Library, California History Room.