Independent Order of Odd Fellows

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This article is about the fraternal order founded in 1819 in Baltimore, United States. For other uses, see Odd Fellows (disambiguation).
"IOOF" redirects here. For other uses, see IOOF (disambiguation).
Independent Order of Odd Fellows
Seal of the Souvereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.jpg
Seal of the Sovereign Grand Lodge.
Abbreviation IOOF
Named after Odd Fellows
Motto Amicitia, amor et veritas
English: Friendship, Love and Truth
Formation April 26, 1819; 197 years ago (1819-04-26)
Founder Thomas Wildey
Founded at Washington Lodge No 1, Seven Stars Tavern, Baltimore, Maryland, United States
Type Fraternal order
52-0363509 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)[1]
Legal status 501(c)(8) fraternal benefit society[1]
Purpose "Visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan"
Headquarters Grand Lodge
Location
Coordinates 36°05′56″N 80°14′46″W / 36.09881°N 80.246199°W / 36.09881; -80.246199Coordinates: 36°05′56″N 80°14′46″W / 36.09881°N 80.246199°W / 36.09881; -80.246199
Region
International
Membership
600,000 members
10,000 lodges
in 26 countries[2][3]
W. Larry Ferguson[4]
Deputy Sovereign Grand Master
John A. Miller, Sr.[4]
Sovereign Grand Warden
Douglas E. Pittman[4]
Affiliations "Inter-fraternally": Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity
(parent organisation 1819-1842)
International Association of Rebekah Assemblies
Revenue (2014)
$1,780,337 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)[1]
Expenses (2014) $1,478,384 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)[1]
Staff (2013)
14 (Sovereign Grand Lodge)[1]
Mission To improve and elevate every person to a higher, nobler plane; to extend sympathy and aid to those in need, making their burdens lighter, relieving the darkness of despair; to war against vice in every form; and to be a great moral power and influence for the good of humanity.[5]
Website ioof.org

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF) or Odd Fellows is a non-political and non-sectarian fraternal order founded in 1819 by Thomas Wildey in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. It was originally chartered by the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity in England but has operated as independent organization since 1842, although it maintains an inter-fraternal relationship with the English Order.[6] The order is also known as the Triple Link Fraternity, referring to the order's "Triple Links" symbol, alluding to its motto "Friendship, Love and Truth".[6]

While several unofficial Odd Fellows lodges had existed in New York City circa 1806-1818,[7] because of its charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded with Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern[8] on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey along with some associates[6] who assembled in response to an advertisement in the New Republic. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges. Previously, Wildey had joined the Grand United Order of Oddfellows (1798-) in 1804 but followed through with the split of Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity (1810-) before emigrating to the United States in 1817.

In 1842, after an elementary dispute on authority, the American Lodges formed a governing system separate from the English Order, and in 1843 assumed the name Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[9]

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows became the first fraternity in the United States to include both men and women when it adopted the "Beautiful Rebekah Degree" on September 20, 1851, by initiative of Schuyler Colfax, Vice-President of the United States.

Beyond fraternal and recreational activities, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows promotes the ethic of reciprocity and charity, by implied inspiration of Judeo-Christian ethics. The largest Sovereign Grand Lodge of all fraternal orders of Odd Fellows since the 19th century, it enrolls some 600,000 members divided in approximately 10,000 lodges in 26 countries,[2][10] inter-fraternally recognised by the second largest, the British-seated Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity.[11]

Name[edit]

Although chartered in 1819, in 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, the American lodges formed a governing system separate from the British Manchester Unity of Oddfellows, and in 1843 constituted themselves under the name of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[9]

Several theories aim to explain the etymological background of the fraternity; see Odd Fellows#Name.

History[edit]

British-American Thomas Wildey (1782–1861) founded the Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore in 1819, subsequently the Independent Order of Odd Fellows since 1842.

Previously, Wildey joined the Grand United Order of Oddfellows (1798-) in 1804 but followed through with the split of Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity (1810-) before emigrated to the United States in 1817.
"Past Grand Sires of the Grand Lodge of the United States IOOF" including founder Thomas Wildey

Foundation[edit]

While several unofficial Odd Fellows lodges had existed in New York City sometime in the period 1806 to 1818,[7] because of the charter relationship, the American Odd Fellows is regarded as being founded with Washington Lodge No 1 in Baltimore at the Seven Stars Tavern[8] on April 26, 1819, by Thomas Wildey along with some associates[6] who assembled in response to a newspaper advertisement. The following year, the lodge affiliated with the Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity and was granted the authority to institute new lodges.

Previously, Wildey joined the Grand United Order of Oddfellows (1798-) in 1804 but followed through with the split of Independent Order of Oddfellows Manchester Unity (1810-) before emigrated to the United States in 1817.

Secession[edit]

In 1842, after an elementary dispute on whether the American lodges were to be involved in decision-making procedures, the American Lodges formed a separate governing system from the English Order, and in 1843 changed their name to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows.[9]

19th century[edit]

In the following years, lodges were instituted all over the country, first in the east and later in the west. Also in 1842, the English Oddfellow Grand Lodges issued a warrant to an African American sailor named Peter Ogden from New York City; unlike Wildey and the IOOF, Ogden and the African American Odd Fellows lodges never separated from the English order, and they remain part of the Grand United Order of Odd Fellows (GUOOF),[12] still headquartered in Philadelphia.[9]

On September 20, 1851, IOOF became the first national fraternity to accept both men and women when it formed the Daughters of Rebekah. Schuyler Colfax, (Vice President of the United States (1869–1873) under President Ulysses S. Grant), was the force behind the movement.[13][9] Both the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs have appendant branches known as Encampments and Patriarchs Militant.[14][15]

The American Civil War (1861–1865) shattered the IOOF in America; membership decreased and many lodges were unable to continue their work, especially in the southern States.[16] After the Civil War, with the beginning of industrialization, the deteriorating social circumstances brought large numbers of people to the IOOF and the lodges rallied.

From 1860 to 1910/1920, also known as the "Golden age of fraternalism" in America,[9][17] the Odd Fellows became the largest among all fraternal organizations, (at the time, even larger than Freemasonry).[9] By 1889, the IOOF had lodges in every American state.[18][19]

In 1896, the World Almanac showed the Odd Fellows as the largest among all fraternal organizations.[17]

By the late nineteenth century, the Order had spread to most of the rest of the world, establishing lodges in the Americas, Australasia, and Europe. According to the Journal of the Annual Communication of the Sovereign Grand Lodge 1922, page 426, there were a reported 2,676,582 members.[20] While this data from 1921 may not be the exact zenith of its membership, the organization experienced a loss in membership of 23.5% between 1920-1930[21] and has continually declined.

20th century[edit]

American Odd Fellows celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (June 1919).

The Great Depression and the introduction of Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal brought a decline in membership. During the depression, people could not afford Odd Fellows membership fees, and when the New Deal's social reforms started to take effect, the need for the social work of the Odd Fellows declined.[16]

In 1971 the IOOF changed its constitution, removing its whites only clause. In 1979 the Order had 243,000 members.[22]

Some branches of the order (i.e., some countries) have allowed women to join the Odd Fellows itself, leading to the Rebekahs' decline in importance. Also, the appendant branches and their degrees are, in some countries, becoming regarded as less important or too time-consuming, and (in those countries) are gradually being abandoned.

21st century[edit]

Although there was a decline in membership in fraternal organizations in general during the 20th century, membership in the 21st century has started to increase. The IOOF continues in the 21st century with lodges around the world, and is claimed to be the "largest united international fraternal order in the world under one head",[23] with every lodge working with the Sovereign Grand Lodge located in the United States. Also, the British "Independent Order of Oddfellows, Manchester Unity", and the IOOF have recognized each other inter-fraternally; members of the Manchester Unity and the IOOF can visit each other's lodges, and are welcome as brothers and sisters.[11] Currently, there are about 12,000 lodges with nearly 600,000 members.[3]

Units of the Order in the U.S.A. include:[24]

  • Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Rebekahs Lodge
  • Encampment
  • Ladies Encampment Auxiliary (LEA)
  • Patriarchs Militant
  • Ladies Auxiliary Patriarchs Militant (LAPM)
  • Junior Odd Fellows Lodge
  • Theta Rho Girls Club
  • United Youth Groups
  • Zeta Lambda Tau

Organization[edit]

Purpose[edit]

As an organization, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows aims to provide a framework that promotes personal and social development. Lodge degrees and activities aim to improve and elevate every person to a higher, nobler plane; to extend sympathy and aid to those in need, making their burdens lighter, relieving the darkness of despair; to war against vice in every form, and to be a great moral power and influence for the good of humanity. Teachings in the Order are conducted through the exemplification of the Degrees of membership. The Degrees are conferred on the candidate by their Lodge, and are teachings of principles and truths by ceremonies and symbols. The Degrees are presented largely by means of allegory and drama.[25] For Odd Fellows, the degrees in Odd Fellowship emphasize a leaving of the old life and the start of a better one, of welcoming travelers, and of helping those in need.[26] Lodges also provide an international social network of brothers and sisters that extends to more than 26 countries worldwide. If traveling is an interest, membership can provide a valuable network that will very much welcome an international visitor, and assist in their enterprises, and certainly their travels wherever possible.[27] The command of the IOOF is to "visit the sick, relieve the distressed, bury the dead and educate the orphan". Specifically, IOOF are dedicated to the following purposes:

  • To improve and elevate the character of mankind by promoting the principles of friendship, love, truth, faith, hope, charity and universal justice.[27][28]
  • To help make the world a better place to live by aiding each other in times of need and by organizing charitable projects and activities that would benefit the less fortunate, the youth, the elderly, the environment and the community in every way possible.
  • To promote good will and harmony amongst peoples and nations through the principle of universal fraternity, holding the belief that all men and women regardless of race, nationality, religion, social status, gender, rank and station are brothers and sisters
  • To promote a wholesome fraternal experience without violence, vices and discrimination of every form.

Around the world, the Odd Fellows undertake various community and charitable projects. According to an IOOF Sovereign Grand Lodge brochure, the organization's works include:[29][30]

  • The Odd Fellows and Rebekahs spend over US$775 million in relief projects annually
  • The Educational Foundation provides substantial loans and grants to students
  • SOS Children's Village provides a caring home for orphaned children in 132 countries around the world
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provide a caring environment for the elderly
  • Living Legacy focuses on planting trees and enhancing the environment
  • The Arthritis Foundation
  • Visual Research Foundation supports vision care and research through the Wilmer Eye Institute
  • United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth sponsors a group of students for an educational trip to the United Nations
  • Annual pilgrimages to the "Tomb of the Unknowns" (Arlington National Cemetery, USA), Canadian War Memorial, Ottawa, ON, and other Tombs of the Unknown Soldier.[31]
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah Homes provides a caring environment for the elderly and orphans
  • Odd Fellow and Rebekah camps and parks provide recreation for the youth and for families

The stated goals of Oddfellowship include:[32]

  • One of the strongest fraternal societies in the world.[33]
  • A great worldwide united brotherhood.
  • A fraternity founded on the basis of universal brotherhood.
  • Founded on the North American continent in 1819.
  • Based upon the purest principles of equality.
  • Non-political and non-sectarian.
  • A source of comfort in times of trouble and adversity.
  • A world-wide force that stands for all that is noblest and highest.
  • An everyday guide for conduct, a mantle that should be worn always.
  • An organization that favors no person for their wealth and frowns on none for their poverty.
  • An ideal that exists in the heart and mind of every genuine Odd Fellow or Rebekah.
  • Fulfilling a mission in the world which no other institution has successfully attempted.
  • A vitalizing, sympathetic, and actuating influence in the lives of all its real members.
  • A ministering spirit succoring the needy, cheering the despondent and protecting the helpless.
  • The handmaid of virtue and religion.
  • Founded on the inspired word of God as revealed to man in the Holy scriptures.

Lodges, officers, positions and degrees[edit]

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the US has three levels of "Lodge": the Lodge,[34] the Encampment, and the Patriarchs Militant. In addition, there is a private club named The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS). In Australia, this system has been implemented in a slightly different, but largely similar manner.[35]

The Lodge is assigned to new initiates.[36] The initials of the subordinate lodge are "FLT" which stands for Friendship, Love and Truth as the basic guides to live by as an Odd Fellow. Once a member has made their way through all the degrees and has had the 3rd degree (truth) bestowed upon them, they are entitled to hold an officer position in their lodge, and are also eligible to go on further in Odd Fellowship through the higher degree branches such as the Encampment and the Patriarchs Militant (aka the Canton).

Lodge Officer Positions[37]
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Noble Grand Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of lodge to outside persons and organizations and see that the lodge program is planned in advance
Vice Grand Elected Exercise power to assist Noble Grand in Presiding Meetings. Assume the duties and responsibilities of the NG in times of absence or if necessary
Past Grand Elected Assist Noble Grand and lodge officers in every way possible. May act as NG or VG when legally called thereto
Secretary Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Financial Secretary Elected Notify and collect to members their dues and financial obligations
Treasurer Elected Keeps an accurate file of all finances and receipts of the lodge and writes all checks ordered
Warden Appointed Responsible for the general welfare of the applicant, examines all present before the lodge is opened, give charge of office during initiations, in-charge of regalia and lodge room property and will place regalia in the lodge room before and removing it on closing
Conductor Appointed Receives the candidates when they enter the lodge room, perform all duties assigned in conferring the degrees and assist the Warden while in the lodge
Chaplain Appointed Leads the opening the closing ceremonies and performs all functions assigned during conferral of degrees
Right Supporter of Noble Grand Appointed Supports the NG in keeping order, execute commands, open and close the lodge in due form, see that signs are given correctly and occupy chair of NG when vacated temporarily during lodge hours.
Left Supporter of Noble Grand Appointed See that members who enter the room are in proper regalia and give the signs correctly and to officiate for the Right Supporter when absent
Right Supporter of Vice Grand Appointed Observe that members give the signs correctly, report to the Noble Grand members that do not conduct themselves according to the regulations of the Order.
Left Supporter of Vice Grand Appointed Assist the Right Supporter and officiate for that officer when absent
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Right Scene supporter Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Left Scene Supporter Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Inner Guardian Appointed Guards the inner door
Outer Guardian Appointed Guards the outer door
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Subordinate Lodge Degrees

0 Initiatory
1 Friendship
2 Brotherly/Sisterly Love
3 Truth

Encampment[edit]

The Encampment is an appendant body in the IOOF and is open to third degree members in good standing. This branch is based on the principles of Faith, Hope and Charity. One must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the Patriarchs Militant, which is a uniformed appendant body to the IOOF.[38] Once one has accomplished the Royal Purple degree of the Encampment, one is eligible to hold an officer position in the Encampment and is also eligible for the Patriarchs Militant.

The initials of the Encampment are FHC which stands for Faith, Hope and Charity. The Encampment's seal is a purple tent with golden trim, the triple links above the tent door and crossed shepherds crooks. These symbols can be seen on the purple fez that American members of this branch wear. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within their own subordinate lodge while in the Encampment.

Encampment Officers[37]
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Chief Patriarch (male)/Chief Matriarch (female) Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of Encampment to outside persons and organizations and see that the program is planned in advance
Senior Warden Elected Exercise power to assist Chief Patriarch and High Priest in Presiding Meetings. Assume the duties and responsibilities of the CP in times of absence or if necessary
Junior Warden Elected Examine members prior to opening and assist Chief Patriarch and High Priest
High Priest Elected Provide counsel to members
Scribe Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Financial Scribe Elected Notify and collect to members their dues and financial obligations
Treasurer Elected Keeps an accurate file of all finances and receipts of the lodge and writes all checks ordered
Chaplain Appointed Leads the opening the closing ceremonies and performs all functions assigned during conferral of degrees
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Guide Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Instructor Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
First, Second, Third, Fourth Guardian of the Tent All Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
First, Second, Third, Fourth Watch All Appointed Assist at initiations and perform roles specified in the charge book
Inside Sentinel Appointed Guards the inner door
Outside Sentinel Appointed Guards the outer door
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Encampment Degrees

1 Patriarch
2 Golden Rule
3 Royal Purple

Again, in legal terminology, American Encampments are also considered U.S. I.R.S. 501(c)(8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

Patriarchs militant[edit]

Founded during the American Civil war, the Patriarchs Militant (PM) is Odd Fellowship's uniformed branch. It is purely semi-military in its character, organized for chivalric display and is admirably fulfilling its mission through the annual 'Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers' ceremony held in Washington, DC, Canada and other public ceremonies conducted in several countries such as Cuba.[39]

There is only one degree, the Chevalier degree. Upon completion of this degree, one is entitled to hold office in the Canton. Sometimes the Patriarchs Militant is referred to as "the Canton", due to the Canton being the name used in lieu of "Lodge". The seal of the PM is a gold and jeweled crown, within which is a shepherds crook crossed with a sword and the triple links of Odd Fellowship connecting the two at the bottom. One must retain their membership and remain in good standing within both the subordinate lodge and Encampment while a member of the PM.

Canton Officers
Office Elected/
Appointed
Duty
Commandant Elected Sits as Chair for Meetings, Official Representative of Canton to outside persons and organizations and see that the program is planned in advance
Lieutenant Elected
Ensign Elected Examine members prior to opening and assist Commandant and Lieutenant
Clerk/Accountant Elected Records minutes at meetings, files necessary paper work, sends and receives communications.
Chaplain Appointed Leads opening and closing prayer
Color Bearer Appointed Oversees flags and proper presentation of such
Guard Appointed
Sentinel Appointed
Picket Appointed
Musician (Optional) Appointed Play all required music and accompaniment during meetings and ceremonies.
Patriarch Militant Degree

1 Chevalier

American Cantons are also considered US IRS 501(c) (8) Mutual Benefit Corporations.

International[edit]

Argentina

There was one Odd Fellows Lodge in the country, Buenos Ayres Lodge no.1 instituted on January 1, 1903, with 32 members. The most recent report from the lodge was received by the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1912.[40]

Australasia

Because of failure to keep records, it is hard to trace the early history of Odd Fellowship in Australia. What was recorded is that a lodge of the Order of Loyal and Independent Odd Fellows was in existence in the state of New South Wales on February 24, 1836. The lodge was established in New Zealand in 1843. An Australian Supreme Grand Lodge was established in Victoria sometime in the year 1850 and this body made negotiations for affiliation with the Grand Lodge of the United States in 1861. It is also noted that an Ancient Independent Order of Odd Fellows was in existence from 1861 to 1954 in Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia.[41]

Austria

Because of the condition of the government at that time, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Austria was first formed as a club in 1911. After WWI, conditions changed and the club was instituted as Friedens Lodge no.1 on June 4, 1922, in Vienna followed by Ikarius Lodge no.2, Pestalozzi Lodge no.3 and Fridtjof Nansen Lodge no.4. Mozart Lager Encampment no.1 was also instituted on June 3, 1932.[40]

Belgium

The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Belgia Lodge no.1, was instituted on June 13, 1911, in Antwerp. On March 15, 1975, Aurora Rebekah Lodge no.1 was instituted in Antwerp. Two more Odd Fellows Lodges were opened in the country.[40]

Canada
Oddfellows' Hall in Streetsville, Mississauga, built in 1867. The building was sold in 1972.

Because many documents were not properly kept and some were destroyed, the precise date of the introduction of Odd Fellowship in Canada cannot be given. But it is known[by whom?] that two lodges under the Manchester Unity of Independent Order of Odd Fellows known as Royal Wellington Lodge no.1 and Loyal Bon Accorde Lodge no.2 existed in Halifax, Nova Scotia, as early as 1815.[citation needed] The older Order of Odd Fellows in Canada merged with the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in 1843.[citation needed] The IOOF in Canada has 7 Grand Lodges, namely: Grand Lodge of Alberta, Grand Lodge of Atlantic Provinces, Grand Lodge of British Columbia, Grand Lodge of Manitoba, Grand Lodge of Ontario, Grand Lodge of Quebec and Grand Lodge of Saskatchewan.[41]

'The Oddfellows [sic] galop' [for piano] was dedicated by permission to the Worthy Grand Master and members of the I.O.O.F., Ontario by George Buckley Sippi (1847–1915), professor of music, Hellmuth College, London, Ont. The sheet music, which was published in London, Ont. by A. & S. Nordheimer, c. 1875, was illustrated with a drawing of Oddfellow's Hall, London, Ont. with I.O.O.F. insignias in each corner.[42]

Chile

The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Valparaiso Lodge No.1, was instituted by Dr. Cornelius Logan, Grand Sire, on April 15, 1874. Four additional lodges were instituted in the following years, and a Grand Lodge of Chile was instituted on November 18, 1875. However, due to the political situation in the country, the lodges in the country were reduced to 3 active lodges in 1888 and the charter of the Grand Lodge was surrendered. In September 2012, there were 3 Odd Fellows Lodges and 3 Rebekahs Lodges in the country.[43]

Cuba

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Cuba when Porvenir Lodge no.1 was instituted in Havana on August 26, 1883. More lodges were then instituted the following years.[41] In 2012 there were about 116 Odd Fellows Lodges, 50 Rebekahs Lodges, 33 Encampments, 12 cantons and 2 Junior Lodges, totaling to about 15,000 members in Cuba.[44]

Czech Republic

The first attempt to establish the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the Czech Republic was in 1905 through the formation of Friendship Lodge No. 8 in Saxony. But the unstable political and social condition of the country hampered the development. The actual development of the IOOF began after the creation of Czechoslovakia. However, Lodges were banned and cancelled during WWII. The IOOF began to re-activate lodges in 1989, building the first Odd Fellows Hall in the Czech Republic in 1996. In 2010, Martel Rebekah Lodge No.4 was founded as the lodge for women.[45]

Denmark

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in the Kingdom of Denmark in 1878 and the Rebekahs in 1881. In September 2012, I.O.O.F had over 112 Odd Fellow Lodges and 94 Rebekah Lodges, with a total membership of 14,500 in Denmark. The I.O.O.F Grand Lodge headquarters of the Kingdom of Denmark is located at the Odd Fellow Palace in Copenhagen.[46][47]

Dominican Republic

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in the Dominican Republic when Dr. Joaquin Balaguer Lodge no.1 was founded on February 24, 2007, in the City of San Cristobal.[48]

Estonia

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in Estonia when 1 Odd Fellows Lodge was founded by the Grand Lodge of Finland in 1993 and a Rebekah lodge in 1995.

Finland

After the Independent Order of Odd Fellows Grand Lodge of Sweden was established in 1895, the interest in Odd Fellowship was awakened in Finland. A letter from the year 1901 can be mentioned as a first sign of this interest. However, taking into consideration the political and social situation of Finland as a part of the Russian Empire at that time, the applicant was advised to abandon the whole idea. After Finland had declared independence in 1917, the idea of an Odd Fellows Lodge in Finland was raised again. A few interested people from the town Vaasa in Ostrobothnia province were able to join the Swedish Odd Fellow lodges until the Sovereign Grand Lodge finally permitted the Grand Lodge of Sweden to officially establish the IOOF in Finland in 1925. The first lodge established was named Wasa Lodge no.1 in the coastal town of Vaasa. Additional lodges were then formed in Helsinki in 1927 and a third lodge in Turku in 1931. Odd Fellows in Finland encountered great difficulties in the 1930s and during the wartime. Especially the question of premises was quite difficult for many years. However, all three lodges which had been established before the war continued their activities almost without interruption. Only after the war, in the year 1951 was the next lodge established. Since then, the development has been steady and quite rapid. In the beginning of the 1980s, the number of brother lodges was 35 and the number of sister lodges 19 leading to the institution of the Grand Lodge of Finland on June 2, 1984. In the year 2008, there were 57 Odd Fellows lodges and 48 Rebekah lodges in Finland with about 8,200 members.[49]

Germany

Dr. John F. Morse was District Deputy Grand Sire for Europe.[when?] He was instrumental in founding the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Germany and Switzerland which help spread Thomas Wildey Odd Fellowship throughout the European continent. The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established on December 1, 1870, in Württemberg, Germany, by Dr. John F. Morse, a Past Grand Master in California and a member of California Odd Fellows Lodge #1 of San Francisco, California, U.S.A. After the institution of Württemberg Lodge, other lodges were instituted including Germania Lodge No. 1 in Berlin on March 30, 1871; Helvetia Lodge No. 1 in Zurich, Switzerland on April 2, 1871; Saxonia Lodge No. 1 in Dresden on June 6, 1871; and Schiller Lodge No. 3 in Stuttgart on May 25, 1872. During the first decades, many lodges were instituted including 56 lodges in the 1870s, 20 lodges in the 1880s, 41 lodges in the 1890s, and the membership totaled almost 4,000 brothers. The formal establishment of the I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of the German Empire was on December 28, 1872.

Iceland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Iceland was founded in August 1933 under the Jurisdiction of the I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of Kingdom of Denmark, until it established the Grand Lodge of Iceland on January 31, 1948. In September 2012, there were 26 Odd Fellows Lodges, 15 Rebekah Lodges, 5 Odd Fellow Encampments and 3 Rebekah Encampments – about 3,300 members with 1 Odd Fellow lodge waiting for approval for institution.[50]

Italy

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first introduced in the country when Colombo Lodge no.1 was instituted in Naples in 1895.[41]

Mexico

The first lodge in Mexico under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, known as Ridgely Lodge no.1, was instituted on August 5, 1882. Several Lodges were opened the following years reaching up to 5 Lodges in 1895. However, the political situation affected their progress. In 2012, there was one Odd Fellows Lodge and one Rebekah Lodge re-instituted in 1996.[41]

Netherlands

Paradijs Loge nr. 1 (Paradise Lodge No. 1) was founded in Amsterdam on 19 March 1877 by L. Elkan and G.E. van Erpen, former members of an Odd Fellows lodge in the United States. This initiative commenced in 1876, but initially the Dutch Government was not pleased. It subsequently stopped its resistance later in the same year. The translation of the rituals was the next problem, combined with the recognition by the Soeverine Loge (Sovereign Grand Lodge). Eventually the founder of the German Order, Ostheim, was appointed Gedeputeerd Groot Sire voor Nederland and installed the first Dutch board. In 1899, lodges were established in Den Haag and Groningen. Also in 1899, the first Nederlandse Grootorde (Grand Lodge of Netherlands) was founded. On 2 September 1911, the first Belgian Lodge, Belgia Loge nr. 201, was established in Antwerp, and the Order changed its name to Orde in Nederland en België.[citation needed]

Nigeria

Different Orders of Odd Fellows have existed in Nigeria since the 1800s. The Independent Order of Odd Fellows re-established lodges in the country in 2008. In January 2012, there were four Odd Fellow lodges in the country.[51]

Norway

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Norway in 1898 and is one of the strongest jurisdictions in terms of membership. In January 2010, there were 151 Odd Fellow Lodges and 125 Rebekah Lodges and about 23,414 members in the country.[52]

Panama

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Isthmian Canal Lodge No. 1, was instituted at Gorgona, September 17, 1907 in Panama. The charter was secured upon the application of named petitioners. Officers were installed. A special meeting was announced to institute a class of 25 on October 5, 1907.[53]

Poland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Poland in Poznan in 1876 and in Wroclaw (then Breslau) in 1879. A Regional Grand Lodge of Silesia and Poznan was established in 1885, which opened lodges in Bydgoszcz in 1895, Gniezno in 1896, Torun in 1898, Gdansk in 1899, Pila 1899 and Grudziadz in 1901. After World War I, six Odd Fellows lodges worked in the Polish lands: in Poznań "Kosmos-Loge" in Inowroclaw "Astrea-Loge" in Bydgoszcz "Emanuel Schweizer Gedächnits Loge" in Gniezno "Friedens-Loge" in Torun "Coppernicus -Loge" and Grudziadz "Ostheim-Loge." Moreover, in Gdansk Gedania-Loge "and the camp" Vistula-Lager" existed. In addition to the above-mentioned, there were 18 IOOF lodges in the Lower Silesia, including as many as five in Wroclaw, "Morse", "Moltke," Phönix "Freundschaft" and "Caritas". In the years 1925 to 1926, they built a new, modern building for their headquarters. It was projected by A. Radig, and it stands in today’s Hallera Street in Wroclaw.[citation needed]

Puerto Rico

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was formally established in Puerto Rico when Boriken Lodge No. 1 was instituted on November 6, 1899, with the help of several members from Florida, New Jersey and New York Lodges of the IOOF. Naborias Rebekahs Lodge No. 1 was also formed in the country.[54][55]

Philippines

Filipinos first embraced the fraternalism of the Odd Fellows during the revolutionary era as a reaction to the perceived abuses by their Spanish colonists,[56] and by 1898, had formed several military lodges and Odd Fellows Association in Manila.[56] According to their own records, the early membership consisted primarily of military officers and government officials.[57] The organization failed during World War II, and was not reformed until November 21, 2009.[58] In 2012 there were 5 active I.O.O.F lodges located in various towns and cities in the country.

Spain

Interests about forming a lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Spain started very long ago but was unsuccessful until Andalucia Rebekah Lodge no.1 was established in 1995, and Costa del Sol Lodge no.1 was founded in the country by members of the IOOF from Denmark and Norway in 2002.[59]

Sweden

Although some ancient form of an Order of Odd Fellows may have existed in the country, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Sweden was first established in Malmo, Sweden, in 1884, and a Grand Lodge of the Kingdom of Sweden was instituted in 1895. In 2012, Sweden held the strongest membership in IOOF with more than 174 Odd Fellow Lodges, 113 Rebekah Lodges, and over 40,000 members.[60]

Switzerland

The Independent Order of Odd Fellows was first established in Switzerland on June 19, 1871, when Helvetia Lodge no.1 was instituted in Zurich by Dr. Morse of California and Mr. Schaettle and Bernheim, members of the fraternity in Germany. The I.O.O.F Grand Lodge of Switzerland was established on April 22, 1874.[41]

United Kingdom

There were many Oddfellows organizations in the United Kingdom starting in the 1700s and 1800s. The Independent Order of Oddfellows (Manchester Unity), commonly called Manchester Unity, was founded in 1810 when it separated from the Grand United Order of Oddfellows. Manchester Unity chartered the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in North America in 1820 and is the sister organization of the IOOF. In January 2012, it had about 200,000 members in the UK.[61]

Uruguay

The first Lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was established in Uruguay on February 9, 1966, known as Artigas Lodge no.1. The Rebekahs was also established on November 19, 1966, known as Amanecer Rebekah Lodge no.1. Additional lodges, Uruguay Lodge no.2, Horizontes Rebekah Lodge no.2 and El Ceibo Lodge have been instituted and 5 lodges meet in the same hall in Montevideo.[40]

Venezuela

The first lodge under the Independent Order of Odd Fellows was founded in the City of Caracas, Venezuela, on August 2, 1986, known as Pakritti Lodge no.1.[62]

Regional grand lodges[edit]

Seal of the Grand Lodge of Europe of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, chartered in 2006, instituted in June 2007 in Oslo, Norway.

There are IOOF lodges in at least 29 countries:[24][63][64][65][66][67] Each Grand Lodge has a number of subordinate lodges that report to them.

Region
Total
Grand
Lodges
Ref Regions / Jurisdictions / Countries    (Date established) Ref
Africa 0 [64]
[65]
[66]
Liberia (1874)*,[68] Nigeria (2008)*,[69] [64]
[65]
[66]
Asia 0 Philippines (1872)*[64][68][70][71]
Australasia 6 Australasia, New South Wales (1836), New Zealand (1843), South Australia, Tasmania, Western Australia
Canada 8 Canada (1843), Alberta, Atlantic Provinces, British Columbia (1864), Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec (1878), Saskatchewan
Europe 13 Europe (2006), Austria, Czech Republic (1877)*,[24][68] Denmark (1878), Estonia (1993)*,[24][68] Finland (1925), France (1884)*,[24][68] Germany (1870), Iceland (1897), Netherlands & Belgium (1911), Norway (1898), Poland (1938)*,[24][68] Spain*,[24][68] Sweden (1895), Switzerland (1871)
Central America 2 Belize*,[24][68] Dominican Republic*,[24][68] Cuba (1883), America Latina (Cuba), Mexico (1882), Puerto Rico (1999)*,[68][72]
South America 1 Chile (1874),[73] Uruguay*,[24][68] Venezuela,[24][68]
United Kingdom 0 (The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity.)[67]
United States of America 51 Sovereign Grand Lodge (1819), Alabama, Arizona (1884), Arkansas, California (1847), Colorado (1860), Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii (1846), Idaho, Illinois (1838), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri (1834), Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York (1806), North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma (1875), Oregon, Pennsylvania (1821), Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington (1878), West Virginia, Wisconsin (1835), Wyoming
Totals 81

Symbols and regalia[edit]

Seal of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, from certificate (1871).
Dr. John Morse, District Deputy Grand Sire of Europe Medallion

In order to fully understand the purposes and principles of Odd Fellowship, instruction in ceremonial form is divided into degrees. These degrees are dramatic in form and aim to emulate and impart the principles of the fraternity: Friendship, Love, Truth, Faith, Hope, Charity and Universal Justice. Each degree consists of symbols that aim to teach a practical moral code and encourages members to live and act upon them to act positive change upon the world.[74] In the past, when most Odd Fellows lodges offered financial benefits for the sick and distressed members, such symbols, passwords and hand signs were used as proof of membership and to protect the lodge funds from impostors. These symbols, signs and passwords have been carried forward to modern times as a tradition.[75] The most widely encountered symbol of the IOOF – on signs, buildings and gravemarkers – is the three-link chain ("the Chain With Three Links", the "Triple Links") with three initials, 'F', 'L' and 'T', one each inside each link, signifying Friendship, Love and Truth.

Activities[edit]

Charity[edit]

Among other things, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows and Rebekahs were the first fraternity to establish homes for senior members and for orphaned children in the United States.[6]

Auxiliaries, side-degrees and off-shoots[edit]

Main separate branches has included female fraction, junior fraction, as well as recreational and charitable activities notably under oriental themes, arguably somewhat analogous to the affiliated bodies of freemasonry such as the Shriners (1870),[76] or yet Order of Alhambra (1904) of the Catholic-themed fraternity Knights of Columbus (1882).

Female auxiliaries[edit]

The Rebekah Lodges were founded on 20 September 1851, when, after considerable debate, the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows voted to adopt the Rebekah Degree, largely due to the efforts of an odd fellow named Schuyler Colfax. The first Rebekah Degrees were honorary awards only, conferred on wives and daughters of Odd Fellows at special lodge meetings, and recipients were known as "Daughters of Rebekah",[77] taken from the Biblical character of Rebekah.

Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans[edit]

The Ancient Mystic Order of Samaritans (AMOS) is a unofficial, oriental-styled auxiliary body of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, formed in 1924 by amalgamation of several previous bodies dating back to the end of the 19th century. Only male Odd Fellows in good standing with their subordinate lodges are eligible to join. In 1950, the Sovereign Grand Lodge recognized AMOS as "The Playground of Odd Fellowship." AMOS is only presently active in the United States and Canada, though it once also existed in Cuba and the Panama Canal Zone.

Junior lodge[edit]

The Junior Lodge was established in 1921 initially under the name the Loyal Sons of the Junior Order of Odd fellows, for boys interested in odd fellowship. The ritual and ceremonies were supervised by a member of the senior order. There were 4,873 members in 1970.[78] Membership is open to boys of age 8-21, its motto being "Honor and Fidelity", and its symbolic colours silver and dark blue.[79]

Seats, premises and architectural impact[edit]

Odd Fellows Mansion, seat of Odd Fellow Ordenen in Copenhagen, Denmark.

Although in Britain the Odd Fellows tended to meet in pubs, in Australia and in the US the lodges often built their own facilities. Many of these are architecturally significant and are listed on historic registers such as the National Register of Historic Places in the US.

Baltimore monument[edit]

Stereoscopic image of the Wildey monument in Baltimore, taken circa 1875.

In April 1865, a monument was erected to Wildey in Baltimore, consisting of a statue on a Doric column that is 52 feet in height.[80] The monument is located on North Broadway Street between East Baltimore and Fayette Streets.

Notable members[edit]

Membership card of Wyatt Earp (1909).

Some notable members are:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Form 990: Return of Organization Exempt from Income Tax". The Independent Order of Oddfellows Sovereign Grand Lodge. Guidestar. August 31, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "About". Ioof.org. 2013-04-19. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  3. ^ a b "Deutscher Odd Fellow-Orden: Geschichte des Ordens". Oddfellows.de. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  4. ^ a b c "Leadership". Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  5. ^ "Mission". Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Retrieved October 8, 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e "About us". IOOF. Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  7. ^ a b [1] Archived March 17, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  8. ^ a b Volume four, p. 150, Encyclopedia of Newfoundland and Labrador, ISBN 0-9693422-1-7.
  9. ^ a b c d e f g Mark A. Tabbert (2003) The Odd Fellows, Masonic Papers, first published Dec. 2003, "The Northern Light", Scottish Rite Freemasonry, Northern Masonic Jurisdiction, USA.
  10. ^ "Deutscher Odd Fellow-Orden: Geschichte des Ordens". Oddfellows.de. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  11. ^ a b [2] Archived September 30, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ "The Grand United Order Of Odd Fellows In America And Jurisdiction". Guoofamerica.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  13. ^ Barry, Dan (August 26, 2007). "A Grand Gathering, but One With a Solemn Note". New York Times. As with most matters of Odd Fellowship, nearly every aspect of the annual convention of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows must adhere to protocol. The dais for the officers’ banquet, for example, must be two-tiered and able to accommodate 50 people, important on the bottom, really important on the top. Seats for the sovereign grand master, the deputy sovereign grand master, the sovereign grand warden, the sovereign grand secretary and the sovereign grand treasurer. Seats for the leaders of the two uniformed branches, the Patriarchs Militant and its Ladies Auxiliaries. A seat for the president of the International Association of Rebekah Assemblies, established when the Odd Fellows long ago recognized “the need for a woman’s touch.” 
  14. ^ Patriarchs Militant & Ladies Auxiliary Association: "The Patriarchs Militant are the uniformed branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows (IOOF), one of the oldest and largest fraternal orders in the world today. The Patriarchs Militant were established by the Sovereign Grand Lodge – the international governing body of Odd Fellowship – in 1886."
  15. ^ PM Park, Clear Lake, Iowa contains a section summarizing the history of IOOF children's summer holiday camps established by the Patriarchs Militant.
  16. ^ a b Müller, Stephanie (2008): History of the Odd Fellows, from Concept and contents of Odd Fellowship, Chapter 2 of Visit the Sick, Relieve the Distressed, Bury the Dead and Educate the Orphan: The Independent Order of Odd Fellows. A scientific work in the field of cultural studies, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. ISBN 978-3-86821-093-4. Retrieved on 2009-10-14.
  17. ^ a b Burkley M. Gray (n.d.) Fraternalism in America (1860–1920), Phoenixmasonry Masonic Museum, Phoenixmasonry.org. (See also Odd Fellow Service Jewels.)
  18. ^ History of the IOOF in Marin County. Illustrates the spread of Oddfellowship in California in the 19th century. Also contains a section titled: Background, History, Ritual and Emblems.
  19. ^ The Morals of Odd-fellowship : a Discourse. Reproduction of the 1853 publication from the Grand Lodge of Northern New York. Demonstrates the influence of the Odd Fellows in the mid 19th century.
  20. ^ "Google Play". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  21. ^ Kaufman, Jason (2002)"For the Common Good? American Civic Life and the Golden Age of Fraternity" Oxford University Press, 2002. p. 166
  22. ^ Schmidt, Alvin J. Fraternal Organizations Westport, CT; Greenwood Press p.244-5
  23. ^ a b c d e f g Grand Lodge of California, IOOF (n.d.) A brief sketch of Odd Fellowship, RealStockCertificates.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-18
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k IOOF News, Volume 12, Issue 2, March–April 2009, p. 1 Editor: Richard G. ‘Dick’ Proulx, Publisher: The Sovereign Grand Lodge, I.O.O.F., Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
  25. ^ [3] Archived February 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ Most statements here can be found in Weinbren, D. (2010). "The Oddfellows: 200 years of making friends and helping people". United Kingdom: Carnegie Publishing
  27. ^ a b [4] Archived September 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  28. ^ Blake, Louie (2010-10-28). "Louie Blake Sarmiento: Historical Contributions and Achievements of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows". Sirlouieblakesarmiento.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  29. ^ IOOF brochure, The Independent Order of Odd Fellows & Rebekahs. Retrieved 2009-04-29.
  30. ^ "Independent Order of Odd Fellows Philippines". Ioofphilippines.yolasite.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  31. ^ "Odd Fellows Philippines". Ioofphilippines.yolasite.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. The first Sunday of May each year has been designated for the Annual Odd Fellow Pilgrimage to the Tomb of the Unknowns. Permission for this date has been granted by the Department of the Army, official custodian of Arlington National Cemetery. The first pilgrimage was in 1934 with the purpose of not only honoring the Unknown Soldier and the Nation’s war dead, but also, the members of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows who made the supreme sacrifice during World War I. On this day each year, Odd Fellows and Rebekahs pay tribute and homage to fallen heroes who sacrificed their lives in defense of our country. A lone Army Sentinel guards the Tomb of the Unknown, day and night, the sentinel paces and guards. He stops pacing at the observance of the Odd Fellows and Rebekahs in the placing of wreaths at the Tombs. Each Unknown Soldier has been presented with the Grand Decoration of Chivalry, the highest decoration that can be bestowed on an Odd Fellow. These jewels are prominently displayed by the U.S. Army in the Hall of Trophies. On this same day, a wreath is also placed at the Canadian War Memorial in Arlington Cemetery. On the first Sunday in June, the ceremony is repeated at the Canadian War Memorial in Ottawa, Canada. 
  32. ^ "The Sovereign Grand Lodge : Independent Order of Odd Fellows". Ioof.org. Retrieved 2015-12-09.  (subscription required)
  33. ^ With over 12,000 lodges and nearly 600,000 members in more than 26 countries, the Independent Order of Odd Fellows is one of the largest and strongest fraternal organizations in the world.
  34. ^ The term subordinate lodge is no longer used and it is just lodge according to the Code of General Laws of the Sovereign Grand Lodge
  35. ^ In Australia, the system of lodges, officers, positions and degrees has been implemented in a similar but slightly different manner. For example, this page Archived September 14, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. describes the systems used in the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge of South Australia, and the Grand Lodge of Australasia.
  36. ^ The Subordinate Lodge is Odd Fellowship's equivalent of the Free Mason's Blue / Symbolic Lodge. (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  37. ^ a b Greer, J.M. (1998). Inside a magical lodge: group ritual in western the tradition. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn Publications.
  38. ^ The Encampment is the Odd Fellows' equivalent to Freemasonry's "Scottish Rite", as they both offer the most degrees outside the Subordinate Lodge. Unlike Freemasonry, where one can choose either the Scottish or York Rite branches, in Odd Fellowship one must go through the Encampment first before seeking entrance into the highest branch, the Patriarchs Militant. (Refer Tabbert (2003))
  39. ^ Every year, Odd Fellows and Rebekahs go to Washington, DC, and Canada to bestow honor to soldiers who died in war. In Cuba, Patriarchs Militants or Canton march and conduct ceremonies to honor their founding anniversary, independence and their national hero.
  40. ^ a b c d Rasmussen, V. (1998) "IOOF and Concordant Societies"
  41. ^ a b c d e f Stillson, H.L. (1900) "The official history of Odd Fellowship: The Three Link Fraternity". MA: The Fraternity Publishing Company
  42. ^ Library and Archives Canada, Sheetmusic from Canada's past AMICUS No. 5379227
  43. ^ "IOOF Chile ....OddFellows". Ioofchile.cl. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  44. ^ "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  45. ^ "Nová stránka 1". Oddfellow.cz. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  46. ^ "Odd fellow, Ordenen, Orden, Palæ og Storloge i Danmark - Odd fellow Ordenen". Oddfellow.dk. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  47. ^ Journal of Proceedings of the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 1879
  48. ^ Sovereign Grand Lodge Records. Sovereign Grand Lodge Headquarters. Winston-Salem, NC, U.S.A.
  49. ^ Summary of the History of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in Finland by Grand Sire Tapio Katajamäki
  50. ^ [5] Archived April 23, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  51. ^ Journal of Proceedings of the Sovereign Grand Lodge in 2009
  52. ^ "Historie". oddfellow.no. 
  53. ^ "First Canal Zone Odd Fellow Lodge". Panama Canal Record. 1: 7. September 4, 1907. Retrieved 13 November 2014. 
  54. ^ "Independiente Orden de Odd Fellows - Puerto Rico". Facebook. 
  55. ^ Sovereign Grand Lodge Data Base, Sovereign Grand Lodge Headquarters, Winston-Salem, North Carolina, U.S.A.
  56. ^ a b Coursey, O.W. (1903). History and Geography of the Philippine Islands. Educator School Supply Company. 
  57. ^ Sovereign Grand Lodge (1898–1899). Journal of Proceedings. Independent Order of Odd Fellows
  58. ^ Sovereign Grand Lodge (2009–2010). Journal of Proceedings. Independent Order of Odd Fellows
  59. ^ "De spanske loger". Loge69.dk. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  60. ^ [6][dead link]
  61. ^ Oddfellows. "The Oddfellows - Friendship group and advice services". The Oddfellows. 
  62. ^ Sovereign Grand Lodge Journal of Proceedings
  63. ^ A lodge was instituted in Nigeria 2008, and a lodge was instituted in the Philippines on November 21, 2009, making a total of 29 countries with lodges.
  64. ^ a b c d "Jurisdictions". Ioof.org. Winston-Salem, North Carolina: The Sovereign Grand Lodge Independent Order of Odd Fellows. 2010. Retrieved 2006-06-28. 
  65. ^ a b c "World portal Grand Lodges I.O.O.F.". Oddfellows.nl. Grootloge voor Nederland en België (Grand Lodge of The Netherlands and Belgium). Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  66. ^ a b c "International Jurisdictional Websites". Ioofbc.org. Esquimalt, British Columbia: IOOF Grand Lodge of British Columbia. 2010-05-29. Retrieved 2010-06-28. 
  67. ^ a b There are no Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodges in the United Kingdom under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge of the IOOF. The IOOF in United Kingdom is under the mother chapter, Manchester Unity IOOF. The British lodges are listed on the Odd Fellows page; none of the references to "Independent" Orders in the UK are to lodges in the jurisdiction of the U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge. The U.S. Sovereign Grand Lodge's web site makes no mention of the United Kingdom on its jurisdiction pages.
  68. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Note: Grand Lodges marked '*' do not (yet) appear on the Sovereign Grand Lodge "Jurisdictions" web page.
  69. ^ IOOF in Nigeria. There are four Odd Fellows lodges in Nigeria.
  70. ^ "Republic of the Philippines Watchdog Lodge no.1 is a subordinate lodge, not a Grand Lodge. There are currently (May 2012) 5 regular lodges in the Philippines and some interest groups soon to be lodges". Ioofmindsnaonlodge.webs.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  71. ^ "Independent Order of Odd Fellows Philippines : Homepage". Ioofphilippines.yolasite.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  72. ^ BORIKEN #1 LODGE of PUERTO RICO is a subordinate lodge, not a Grand Lodge.
  73. ^ "IOOF Chile". Ioofchile.cl. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  74. ^ Membership Manual of Odd Fellowship
  75. ^ In passed years, there were no telephones, and communication was very slow. It was through these passwords, handshakes and symbols that a member from another lodge can prove his membership to the lodge he is visiting, and may be qualified to ask for any financial assistance.[citation needed]
  76. ^ "Freemasons of California - Mill Valley Lodge #356". Millvalleymasons.com. 1920-05-16. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  77. ^ "Our Rebekah History". Official website. Rebekah Assembly of Idaho. Retrieved 11 April 2010. 
  78. ^ Schmidt p.245
  79. ^ "Youth". Ioof.org. 2014-01-12. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  80. ^ Howard, George Washington (1873). The Monumental City, Its Past History and Present Resources. Baltimore: J. D. Ehrlers & Co. pp. 70–1, 349. 
  81. ^ "Grand Encampment, I.O.O.F.," Los Angeles Herald, October 18, 1897, page 2
  82. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Vermont, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  83. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Alabama, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  84. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Maine, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  85. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Michigan, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  86. ^ References are in the Bruner article.
  87. ^ a b c d e f g h Stephanie Müller (2008): Famous Odd Fellows, Chapter 5 of Independent Order of Odd Fellows, Volume 10 of the "Cultural Studies in the Heartland of America" project, Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, Trier, Germany. Retrieved on 2009-09-18.
  88. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from North Carolina, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  89. ^ Edwin Chapin, The Dictionary of Unitarian and Universalist Biography, www25.uua.org
  90. ^ a b "News & Culture | The New Fraternals". Metroactive.com. Retrieved 2015-12-09. 
  91. ^ "Death Takes Ex-Councilman Christensen, 84," February 11, 1954, page 26 – Library card required
  92. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from New York, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  93. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from West Virginia, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  94. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Maryland, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2010-09-01.
  95. ^ Wyatt Earp - Oddfellows Member, oddfellows.co.uk. Retrieved on 2015-01-03.
  96. ^ Odd Fellow politicians from Indiana, politicalgraveyard.com. Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  97. ^ Anson Jones, pp. 311–312 in William R. Denslow, Harry S. Truman (1957). 10,000 Famous Freemasons from A to J Part One, Kessinger Publishing's Rare Reprints, 2004, ISBN 1-4179-7578-4, ISBN 978-1-4179-7578-5 Retrieved on 2009-09-20.
  98. ^ Rice, William Marsh in The Handbook of Texas History Online, Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved: 2009-09-09.
  99. ^ Madeleine B Stern (1971). Lucy Hobbs Taylor, pp. 433–434 in Notable American women, 1607–1950: a biographical dictionary, Volume 3, Eds. Edward T. James, Janet Wilson James, Paul S. Boyer, Harvard University Press, 1971, ISBN 0-674-62734-2, ISBN 978-0-674-62734-5.
  100. ^ Ken Knott (n.d.) Major General Albert Winn, California State Military Museum. Retrieved on 2009-09-18.

Further reading[edit]

  • Ross, Theodore (2003): History and Manual of Odd Fellowship. Whitefish: Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-4557-3
  • Smith, Don and Roberts, Wayne (1993): The Three Link Fraternity – Odd Fellowship in California. Linden: Linden Publications.
  • Coursey, Oscar William. History and Geography of the Philippine Islands. 1903. ISBN 1-151-70112-2

External links[edit]