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|Classification and external resources|
In 2013 4.8 million people died from injuries up from 4.3 million in 1990. More than 30% of these deaths were transport related injuries. In 2013 367,000 children less than five died from injuries down from 766,000 in 1990. Injuries are the cause of 9% of all death and are the sixth leading cause of death in the world.
The World Health Organization (WHO) developed the International Classification of External Causes of Injury (ICECI). Under this system, injuries are classified by
- mechanism of injury,
- objects/substances producing injury,
- place of occurrence,
- activity when injured,
- the role of human intent,
and additional modules. These codes allow the identification of distributions of injuries in specific populations and case identification for more detailed research on causes and preventive efforts.
- part of body affected,
- source and secondary source, and
- event or exposure.
The OIICS was first published in 1992 and has been updated several times since.
The Orchard Sports Injury Classification System (OSICS) is used to classify injuries to enable research into specific sports injuries.
- Intentional injury
- Traumatic injury, a body wound or shock produced by sudden physical collision or movement
- Repetitive strain injury or other strain injury
- Other injuries from external physical causes, such as radiation poisoning, burn, or frostbite
- Injury from toxin or as adverse effect of a pharmaceutical drug (e.g., vaccine injury)
- Injury from internal causes such as reperfusion injury
- Wound, an injury in which skin is torn, cut or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
- Brain injury
- Nerve injury
- Soft tissue injury
- Cell damage, including direct DNA damage
- Lisfranc injury
- Tracheobronchial injury
- Eye injury
- Acute kidney injury
- Knee injury
- Back injury
- Hand injury
- Liver injury
- Head injury
- Musculoskeletal injury
- Acute lung injury
- Pancreatic injury
- Thoracic aorta injury
- Biliary injury
- Chest injury
- Sports injury
- Occupational injury
- Ventilator-associated lung injury
- Sea urchin injury
- Transfusion-related acute lung injury
- Illness and injuries during spaceflight
Injury severity score
The injury severity score (ISS) is a medical score to assess trauma severity. It correlates with mortality, morbidity and hospitalization time after trauma. It is used to define the term major trauma. A major trauma (or polytrauma) is defined as the ISS being greater than 15. The AIS Committee of the Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine (AAAM) designed and improves upon the scale.
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