Instructive case

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In the Finnish language, the instructive case has the basic meaning of "by means of". It is a comparatively rarely used case, though it is found in some commonly used expressions, such as omin silmin → "with one's own eyes".

In modern Finnish, many of its instrumental uses are being superseded by the adessive case, as in "minä matkustin junalla" → "I travelled by train."

It is also used with Finnish verbal second infinitives to mean "by", e.g. "lentäen" → "by flying", "by air" ("lentää" = "to fly").

In Estonian, the instructive case (Estonian: viisiütlev) also exists, but only in some words. (f.e: "jalgsi" - "on foot", from "jalg" - foot)

In Turkish, the suffix -le is used for this purpose. Ex: Trenle geldim "I came via train".