|Series:||Iris series Sibiricae|
Iris sibirica is a species in the genus Iris. It is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial, from Europe (including France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine and northern Turkey) and Central Asia (including Armenia, Azerbaijan and Siberia (of the Russia Federation)). It has long green grass-like leaves, tall stem, 2-5 violet-blue, to blue, and occasionally white flowers. It is cultivated as an ornamental plant in temperate regions.
It has creeping rhizome (approximately 0.9–1.2 cm (0–0 in) diameter), forming a dense clumping plant. The rhizomes are covered with the brown remnants of old leaves, from previous seasons.
It has green grass-like leaves, which are ribbed and can sometimes have a pink tinge at the base of the leaf. They can grow to between 25–80 cm (10–31 in) long and 0.4–0.6 cm (0–0 in) wide, normally shorter than the flowering stems. In Autumn, the foliage turns yellow and then dies back (in winter), to re-emerge in the spring.
It has a hollow, slender, 1–3 branched stem, that grows up to between 50–120 cm (20–47 in) long. The stems bear 2-5 (normally three) flowers, at the terminal ends between late spring and early summer, between May and June.
The flowers come in a range of blue shades. From violet-blue, to blue, and occasionally white. The flowers are 6–7 cm (2–3 in) in diameter.
It has 2 pairs of petals, 3 large sepals (outer petals), known as the 'falls' and 3 inner, smaller petals (or tepals, known as the 'standards'. The drooping obovate falls, measuring 5-7.5 cm long and 2–2.5 cm wide, have a wide (or flaring) white blade or signal (central part of the petal) with dark-blue to violet veining. The white forms of the iris have a tinge of lavender and dark veining.
After the iris has flowered, it produces a short stubby seed capsule, which is roundly triangular with low ridges at angles, measuring 3-4.5 cm by 1-1.3 cm. Inside the capsule, are 2 rows of seeds, which are thin, flat, shaped like a capital D and dark brown seeds, measuring about 5 mm by 3 mm.
As most irises are diploid, having two sets of chromosomes. This can be used to identify hybrids and classification of groupings. It has been count various times; 2n=28, Sim. 1928; 2n=28, Skalinska, 1961; 2n=28, Wcislo, 1964; 2n=28 Baerji, 1970; 2n=28, Sharma, 1970; 2n=28; Lovka & Sus. 1971; 2n=28, Love in November 71, 2n=28, Pop.& Cesch. 1975,1976; 2n=28, Wetschnig, 1988; 2n=28, Malakhova & Markova, 1994. 2n=28 is the most common listed count. This means it is similar to Iris sanguinea and Iris typhifolia.
Iris sibirica is pronounced as EYE-ris sy-BEER-ah-kuh.
It has been around before the 1500s and was first called Iris augustifolia media by Carolus Clusius. It was first collected in Siberia by monks in the Middle Ages and grown in monasteries, later it was distributed around Europe,where there are now many cultivars. It has been cultivated in Britain since 1596.
Distribution and habitat
Within Europe, it is found in west France, Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Former Yugoslavia, Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Ukraine and northern Turkey.
It is listed with Iris bloudowii, Iris glaucescens, Iris humilis, Iris ruthenica, Iris tenuifolia and Iris tigridia as being found in the Altai-Sayan region (where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together).
It is found growing in damp woodland, wet meadows, grasslands or pastures, reed swamps by lakes, and beside streams. They generally gain a lot of moisture from snow-melt of mountains, flooding streams and soaking areas beside them.
Within North America, it is found in the damp ditches beside roadsides.
According to IUCN Red List criteria, it is 'Vulnerable' (VU) (in Czech Republic, Hungary, Ukraine) and it has become 'Extinct' in the Wild (EW) in Slovakia. In 2014, it was 'Vulnerable' in the Carpathian part of Slovakia. It is considered to be rare and endangered in Poland and not considered threatened in Romania.
It will tolerate temperatures down to -20 °C (-30 °F). It is hardy to USDA Zone 2-8, and Zone H1 (which means hardy to -20oC and below (-4oF) ), in Europe. It is hardy in the UK. If the plants are mulched in winter they can withstand colder temperatures.
It prefers positions in full sun, but can tolerate part shade (with some hours of sunlight). In very hot, arid regions, they will need some shade, as well as watering and mulching.
The plant needs moisture during the growing season (in spring and early summer) to create the best blooms. Although it will tolerate occasional flooding, it does not grow in standing water.
They can be used in various positions within gardens, at waterside locations beside pools, ponds or streams. Also known as ideal bog garden plants. They can also be used within a Herbaceous border. The iris can also be used in mixed plantings with grasses and other perennials to create naturalized gardens and meadows.
They are sturdy plants and do not need to be staked.
They are best propagated by division. The best time to divide plants is mid-summer to early autumn. They do not like root disturbance and should only be divided when the center of the clump dies out. When preparing divisions for transplanting, store them in a bucket of water to stop them drying out.
The new plants are planted with the top of the rhizome, 3–5 cm 1-2 inches below the soil surface. The plant position must be prepared before hand with plenty of compost (or manure) added to the soil to improve the fertility. After planting, the iris must be well watered. Seedlings are also susceptible to transplant shock, this can be lessened if a small plastic pot is placed over the newly planted plant. This protects the plant for the next 3–5 days. In some regions (especially warm areas), the transplants should be kept moist for the following 6–8 weeks.
Hybrids and cultivars
Since the 1970s, hybridizers and plant breeders have been cross-pollinating the various species in the Siberian group with Iris sibirica to create many hybrids. Whose parentage is now so complicated that the cultivars, are no longer listed with a species name. Several hundred Siberian iris cultivars are registered with the American Iris Society. The flowers of the cultivars varying in colour from white to shades of blue or deep violet-blue. Pale blue forms were originally obtained by crossing the white and the blue varieties of Iris sibirica , it also combines readily with Iris sanguinea to produce hybrids with the taller stems. The flowers of hybrids can have arched, semi-flaring, flaring or overlapped falls; some of them even have ruffled or extra falls. The newer Japanese hybrids, have six pendant falls, which make them similar in appearance to the Japanese Iris or Iris ensata.
Known Iris sibirica cultivars include; 'Acuta' ; 'Alba Grandiflora' ; 'Band of Angels'; 'Butter and Sugar' (white petals on top with yellow falls); 'Caesar's Brother'; 'Caesar's Ghost' ; 'Cambridge' (created in 1964); 'Coronation Anthem'; 'Dancing Nanou'; 'Dewful'; 'Dreaming Spires' (created in 1964); 'Ego' (a rich blue); 'Elmeney' ; 'Enid Burgoyne' ; 'Ewen'; 'Flight Of Butterflies'; 'Forward And Back' ; 'Grandis' ; 'Heavenly Blue'; ‘King of Kings’ (white blossoms); 'Lactea' ; 'Leucantha'; 'Little Blue Sparkler' ; 'Mongolius' ; ‘Mysterious Monique’; 'Navy Blue'; 'Nigrescens'; 'Niklasse'; 'Papillon' (pale blue); 'Perry's Blue' (pale blue); ‘Placid Waters’ (with lavender blue flowers); 'Prairie In Bloom' ; 'Pritiazheniye' ; 'Royal Blue'; 'Ruffled Violet'; 'Ruffles Plus'; ‘Savoir Faire’ (many deep blue flowers held above the dense narrow foliage); 'Shaker's Prayer' ; 'Sibirica Alba'; 'Sibirica Albescens'; 'Sibirica Angustifolia' ; 'Sibirica Atropurpurea' ; 'Sibirica Baxteri' ; 'Sibirica Blue Bird' ; 'Sibirica 'Compacta' ; 'Sibirica Cristata' ; 'Sibirica Flore Pleno' ; 'Sibirica Gracilis' ; 'Sibirica Mrs. Perry' ; 'Sibirica Nana' ; 'Sibirica Nana Alba' ; 'Sibirica Papillon' ; 'Sibirica Snowdrift' ; 'Silver Edge'; 'Sky Wings'; 'Snow Prince' ; ‘Snow White’:(white tinged with yellow) ‘Southcombe White’; ‘Sultan’s Ruby’ (deep magenta blooms); 'Summer Sky'; ‘Super Ego’; 'Swank'; 'U.S.O.'; ‘Violet Flare’; ‘Wing on Wing’ (white); and 'Wisley White'.
Known Iris sibirica crosses; 'Abitibi' ; 'Aindling Goldauge' ; 'Aindling Libelle' ; 'Aindling Morgenstimmung' ; 'Aindling Rohrsaenger' ; 'Banish Misfortune' ; 'Butterfly Fountain' ; 'Chaudiere' ; 'Chrysobirica' ; 'Chrysobirica Gloriosa' ; 'Chrysobirica Purpurea' ; 'Common Denominator' ; 'Cookley Blue' ; 'Foretell' ; 'Gatineau' ; 'Helicon' ; 'Hohe Warte' ; 'Kootenay' ; 'Lichterfeldius' ; 'Madawaska' ; 'Matane' ; 'Mauve Snowtop' ; 'Moonscape' ; 'Neidenstein' ; 'Ottawa' ; 'Rideau' ; 'Rimouski' ; 'Royal Californian' ; 'Pausback Sibtosa' ; 'Pembina' ; 'Pennywhistle' ; 'Pickanock' ; 'Salamander Crossing' ; 'Sarah Tiffney' ; 'Sibulleyanna' ; 'Soothsayer' ; 'Sporting Chance' ; 'Starsteps' ; 'Stilles Wasser' ; 'True Blue'; 'Vidtinky Nochi' ; 'Violet Wave' ; 'Weber's Spring Blues' and 'Zeta'.
Like many other irises, most parts of the plant are poisonous (rhizome and leaves), if mistakenly ingested can cause stomach pains and vomiting. Also handling the plant may cause a skin irritation or an allergic reaction. Although an edible starch has been extracted from the plant in China, similar to Iris ensata. The root has also been used to create an insecticide and an expectorant.
Johan Peter Falk noted that the Tara Tartars of Russia (West Siberia) coloured cloth yellow with Iris sibirica flowers and the Votyaks, Mordvins and Kalmyks derived red dye from Galium species. In 2014, it was tested for its potential to be used for dying.
Iris sibirica Cultivars
Flower in visible light, UV (showing nectar guides), and IR
- "Iris sibirica L. is an accepted name". theplantlist.org. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- Dykes, William (2009). "Handbook of Garden Irises" (pdf). beardlessiris.org (The Group for Beardless Irises). Retrieved 1 November 2014.
- Stebbings, Geoff (1997). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Irises. Newton Abbot: David and Charles. p. 45. ISBN 0715305395.
- "Iris". rslandscapedesign.blogspot.co.uk. 13 February 2010. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- "FNA Vol. 26 Page 373, 382". efloras.org (Flora of North America). Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Phillips, Roger; Rix, Martyn (1991). Perennials Vol. 1. Pan Books Ltd. p. 223. ISBN 9780330327749.
- Richard Lynch The Book of the Iris, p. 70, at Google Books
- Komarov, V.L. (1935). "Akademiya Nauk SSSR (FLORA of the U.S.S.R.) Vol. IV". archive.org. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- Mike Heger, John Whitman and Debbie Lonnee Perennials in Cold Climates&pg=PA227 l_Ftvdh539MC, p. 227, at Google Books
- "Iris sibirica". rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- James Cullen, Sabina G. Knees, H. Suzanne Cubey (Editors) The European Garden Flora Flowering Plants: A Manual for the Identification, p. 252, at Google Books
- "Beardless Irises Three". pacificbulbsociety.org. April 13, 2013. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Siberian iris". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Kramb, D. (2 October 2004). "Iris sibirica". signa.org (Species Iris Group of North America). Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Herb: Siberian Iris". naturalmedicinalherbs.net. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Cassidy, George E.; Linnegar, Sidney (1987). Growing Irises (Revised ed.). Bromley: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-88192-089-4.
- Austin, Claire. "Irises A Garden Encyclopedia" (PDF). worldtracker.org. pp. 274–275. Retrieved 29 October 2014.
- Laurin, Terry (9 October 2014). "(SPEC) Iris sibirica L.". wiki.irises.org (American Iris Society). Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- "Iris summary" (pdf). pacificbulbsociety.org. 14 April 2014. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- Craig Smith, Constance (13 April 2012). "Russian revolution: Savvy gardeners are switching to Siberian irises for guaranteed late spring colour whatever the weather". dailymail.co.uk (Daily Mail). Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Coble, John (January 2014). "Growing Siberian Iris" (PDF). cdn-iris.ca. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Stanišića, M.; Raspora, M.; Ninkovića, S.; Miloševića, S.; Ćalića, D.; Bohanecb, B.; Trifunovića, M.; Petrića, M.; Subotića, A.; Jevremovića, S. (9 September 2014). "Clonal fidelity of Iris sibirica plants regenerated by somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis in leaf-base culture — RAPD and flow cytometer analyses". South African Journal of Botany 96: 42–52. doi:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.10.014. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Kostrakiewicz, Kinga; Wróblewska, Ada (2 May 2007). "Low genetic variation in subpopulations of an endangered clonal plant Iris sibirica in southern Poland". Annales Botanici Fennici (Finnish Zoological and Botanical Publishing Board) 45 (3 (2008)): 186–194. JSTOR 23727724.
- Meyer, Chris J.; Seago Jr, James L.; Peterson, Carol A. "Environmental effects on the maturation of the endodermis and multiseriate exodermis of Iris germanica roots". Annals of Botany 103: 687–702. doi:10.1093/aob/mcn255. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Gontova, T. N.; Zatylnikova, O. A. (12 June 2013). "Comparative morphological and anatomical study of leaves and stems of Iris pseudacorus and iris sibirica" (PDF). International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (National University of Pharmacy) 5. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Löve, Áskell (November 1971). "IOPB Chromosome Number Reports XXXIV". Taxon (International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT)) 20 (5): 785–797. Retrieved 18 November 2015.
- "PlantFiles: Siberian Iris". davesgarden.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Iris sibirica (Siberian iris)". kew.org. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Taxon: Iris sibirica L.". ars-grin.gov (Germplasm Resources Information Network). 1 December 2004. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Siberian Flag Iris sibirica - 1L Pot". primrose.co.uk. Retrieved 5 January 2015.
- John H. Wiersema and Blanca León World Economic Plants: A Standard Reference, Second Edition, p. 369, at Google Books
- "Summer picks up the pace!". bristol.ac.uk. 11 June 2012. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Iris sibirica (Siberian Iris)". brc.ac.uk. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Iridaceae Iris sibirica L.". ipni.org (International Plant Names Index). Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Caroli Linnaei ... Species plantarum :exhibentes plantas rite cognitas, ad genera relatas, cum differ". biodiversitylibrary.org. Retrieved 13 December 2014.
- "Splendours of Iris sibirica". countrylife.co.uk. 25 May 2006. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Conti, Fabio; Abbate, Giovanna Abbate; Alessandrini, Alessandro; et al., eds. (May 2005). "An Annotated Checklist Of The Italian Vascular Flora" (PDF). lnx.ondeweb.net. Retrieved September 2015.
- "Biodiversity of Altai-Sayan Ecoregion". bioaltai-sayan.ru. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- Parkes, Pat. "Siberian Iris". htmbc-iris.org. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Grulich, Vít (2012). "Red List of vascular plants of the Czech Republic: 3rd edition" (PDF). Preslia 84: 631–645. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- Turis, Peter; Kliment, Ján; Feráková, Viera; Dítě, Daniel; Eliáš, Pavol; Hrivnák, Richard; Košťál, Jaroslav; Šuvada, Róbert; Mráz, Patrik; Bernátová, Dana (2014). "Red List of vascular plants of the Carpathian part of Slovakia" (PDF). Thaiszia – Journal of Botany (J. Bot.) 24 (1): 35–87. Retrieved 3 September 2015.
- "IRIS SIBIRICA: THE ELEGANT IRIS". sissinghurstcastle.wordpress.com. 5 June 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2014.
- Kaššák, Pavol; Kuli, Magdalena (September 2014). "DYEING POTENTIAL OF THE IRIS SIBIRICA L. FLOWERS". European Scientific Journal 2: 372–380. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "Plant Hardiness". theseedsite.co.uk. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
- R. L. Blackman, Victor F. Eastop Aphids on the World's Herbaceous Plants and Shrubs, p. 553, at Google Books
- Badgett, Becca. "Siberian Iris Care: Information On When To Plant Siberian Iris And Its Care". gardeningknowhow.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964.
- "Iris sibirica Summer Sky". gardenersworld.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Iris 'Butter and Sugar'". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Iris 'Cambridge'". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Iris 'Ruffled Velvet'". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- "RHS Plant Selector - Iris 'Silver Edge'". Retrieved 25 June 2013.
- Hedrick, U.P. (ed.). "Edible plants of the world" (PDF). swsbm.com. p. 360. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- David Philip Miller and Peter Hanns Reill (Editors)Visions of Empire: Voyages, Botany, and Representations of Nature (1996), p. 130, at Google Books
- Hermann Heinrich Ploss, Max Bartels and Paul BartelWoman: An Historical Gynæcological and Anthropological Compendium (1935), p. 300, at Google Books
- Raymond W. BernardThe Mysteries of Human Reproduction, p. 21, at Google Books
- "Postage stamp Poland 1967 Iris Sibirica, Medical Plant". bigstockphoto.com. Retrieved 3 January 2015.
- Aldén, B., S. Ryman & M. Hjertson. 2009. Våra kulturväxters namn - ursprung och användning. Formas, Stockholm (Handbook on Swedish cultivated and utility plants, their names and origin).
- Chinese Academy of Sciences. 1959–. Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae.
- Czerepanov, S. K. 1995. Vascular plants of Russia and adjacent states (the former USSR).
- Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands.
- Erhardt, W. et al. 2008. Der große Zander: Enzyklopädie der Pflanzennamen.
- FNA Editorial Committee. 1993–. Flora of North America.
- Huxley, A., ed. 1992. The new Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening.
- Komarov, V. L. et al., eds. 1934–1964. Flora SSSR.
- Mathew, B. 1981. The Iris. 91–92.
- Stace, C. 1995. New flora of the British Isles.
- Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea.
- Walters, S. M. et al., eds. 1986–. European garden flora.
- Zhong Guo & Hua Jing. 1993. China floral encyclopaedia.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Iris sibirica.|