Isochorismate synthase

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Isochorismate synthase
Isochorismate Synthase.png
Ishochorismate Synthase cartoon view (2 subunits)
Identifiers
EC number5.4.4.2
CAS number37318-53-9
Databases
IntEnzIntEnz view
BRENDABRENDA entry
ExPASyNiceZyme view
KEGGKEGG entry
MetaCycmetabolic pathway
PRIAMprofile
PDB structuresRCSB PDB PDBe PDBsum

Isochorismate synthase (MenF) (EC number 5.4.4.2) catalyzes the first step in the biosynthesis of vitamin K (menaquinone) in Escherichia coli.[1]

Reaction[edit]

Isochorismate synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the irreversible conversion of chorismate to isochorismate:

Isochorismate Synthase Rxn.png

Isochorismate synthase is most active at 37 °C and at a pH between 7.5 and 8. It requires Mg2+ as a cofactor, in a concentration between 100 μM and 1 mM.[1] Inhibitors of isochorismate synthase include:

  • (4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-(1-carboxyvinyloxy)-cyclohex-1-ene carboxylate
  • (4R,5R)-4-hydroxy-5-carboxymethoxy-cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate
  • (4R,5R)-5-(2-carboxy-allyloxy)-4-hydroxy-cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate
  • (4R,5R,6S)-6-ammonio-5-[(1-carboxylatoethenyl)oxy]-4-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate
  • (4R,5R,7R)-5-(1-carboxy-ethoxy)-4-hydroxy-cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate
  • (4R,5R,7S)-5-(1-carboxy-ethoxy)-4-hydroxy-cyclohex-1-enecarboxylate
  • (4R,5S,6S)-4-ammonio-5-[(1-carboxylatoethenyl)oxy]-6-hydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate
  • (4R,5S,6S)-5-[(1-carboxylatoethenyl)oxy]-4,6-dihydroxycyclohex-1-ene-1-carboxylate[2]
  • Cu2+
  • Hg2+
  • K+
  • Mg2+ at concentrations above 1 mM
  • NEM[clarification needed]

Nomenclature[edit]

Isochorismate synthase, or MenF, belongs to the isomerase enzyme family. More specifically it is classified as an intramolecular transferase because it transfers the hydroxy group of chorismate between carbons.[3] The systematic name of this enzyme is isochorismate hydroxymutase, and the common name is isochorismate synthase. Other names for this enzyme include:

  • Isochorismate mutase
  • Menaquinone-specific isochorismate synthase
  • MenF

Vitamin K[edit]

Vitamin K contains a quinone ring that participates in redox reactions. These reactions take place in various organisms such as plants, where electrons are transferred during photosynthesis, humans, where electrons are transferred to modify certain types of proteins, and bacteria, where electrons are transferred during anaerobic respiration.[4]

Pathways[edit]

MenF is a gene that codes for the isochorismate synthase found in the menaquinone pathway in Escherichia coli, not to be mistaken for the entC gene that codes for the isochorismate synthase found in the enterobacter pathway in Escherichia coli.[1] Isochorismate synthase has several other homologs that are found in other organisms. These include:

Enzyme Genes/Enzyme Names Organisms
ICS
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Cyanidium caldarium
  • Glycine max
  • Nicotiana benthamiana
  • Populus fremontil
  • Populus angustifolia
  • Populus tremuloides
ICS1
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
ICS1 gene product
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Cyanidium caldarium
ICS2
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
Isochorismate synthase
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Cyanidium caldarium
  • Glycine max
Isochorismate synthase 1
  • Arapidopsis thaliana
Mbtl
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
PchA
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Daruwala R, Bhattacharyya DK, Kwon O, Meganathan R (May 1997). "Menaquinone (vitamin K2) biosynthesis: overexpression, purification, and characterization of a new isochorismate synthase from Escherichia coli". Journal of Bacteriology. 179 (10): 3133–8. doi:10.1128/jb.179.10.3133-3138.1997. PMC 179089. PMID 9150206.
  2. ^ Payne RJ, Bulloch EM, Toscano MM, Jones MA, Kerbarh O, Abell C (June 2009). "Synthesis and evaluation of 2,5-dihydrochorismate analogues as inhibitors of the chorismate-utilising enzymes". Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. 7 (11): 2421–9. doi:10.1039/B901694E. PMID 19462053.
  3. ^ "EC 5.4.4.2". IUBMB. Retrieved 30 November 2014.
  4. ^ van Oostende C, Wildhalm JR, Furt F, Ducluzeau AL, Basset GJ (2011). "Phylloquinone (Vitamin K2): function,enzymes and genes". Advances in Botanical Research: 229–61.