D-Isosorbide; 1,4:3,6-Dianhydro-D-sorbitol; 1,4-Dianhydrosorbitol
|Molar mass||146.14 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||Highly hygroscopic white flakes|
|Density||1.30 at 25 °C|
|Melting point||62.5 to 63 °C (144.5 to 145.4 °F; 335.6 to 336.1 K)|
|Boiling point||160 °C (320 °F; 433 K) at 10 mmHg|
|in water (>850 g/L), alcohols and ketones|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
|what is: / ?)(|
Isosorbide is a heterocyclic compound that is derived from glucose. Isosorbide and its two isomers, namely isoidide and isomannide, are 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols. It is a white solid that is prepared from the double dehydration of sorbitol. Isosorbide is a non-toxic diol produced from biobased feedstocks, that is biodegradable and thermally stable. It is used in medicine and has been touted as a potential biofeedstock.
- (CHOH)4(CH2OH)2 → C6H10O2(OH)2 + 2 H2O
Isosorbide is used as a diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus and is also used to treat glaucoma. Other medications are derived from isosorbide, including isosorbide dinitrate and isosorbide mononitrate, are used to treat angina pectoris. Other isosorbide-based medicines are used as osmotic diuretics and for treatment of esophageal varices. Like other nitric oxide donors (see biological functions of nitric oxide), these drugs lower portal pressure by vasodilation and decreasing cardiac output. Isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine are the two components of the anti-hypertensive drug isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine (Bidil).
- M. Rose, R. Palkovits (2012). "Isosorbide as a Renewable Platform chemical for Versatile Applications—Quo Vadis?". ChemSusChem 5 (1): 167–176. doi:10.1002/cssc.201100580. PMID 22213713.
- PubChem 12597
- Bersot J.C. (2011). "Efficiency Increase of Poly (ethylene terephthalate‐co‐isosorbide terephthalate) Synthesis using Bimetallic Catalytic Systems". Macromol. Chem. Phys. 212 (19): 2114–2120. doi:10.1002/macp.201100146.