Benjamin Wegner

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Benjamin Wegner
Jb wegner.jpg
Born Jacob Benjamin Wegner
(1795-02-21)February 21, 1795
Königsberg
Died May 22, 1864(1864-05-22) (aged 69)
Bygdøy, Oslo
Residence
Citizenship
Known for Industrialist, estate owner and timber merchant; Hanseatic and Portuguese consul-general
Spouse(s) Henriette née Seyler (1805–1875)
Relatives
Signature
Signature (from the 1837 contract with his tenant farmer at Frognerseteren)

Jacob Benjamin Wegner (21 February 1795 – 22 May 1864) was a Norwegian industrialist, estate owner and timber merchant.[1]

Born in Königsberg, he moved to Berlin around 1820 and established an independent business as an agent in the British timber trade and grain trade. In 1822, he relocated to Norway, after he had bought Blaafarveværket on behalf of the Berlin banker Wilhelm Christian Benecke. From 1822 to 1849, he was Director General and one of two owners of Blaafarveværket, which he developed into Norway's largest and most successful industrial enterprise in the first half of the 19th century. He was also owner of Frogner Manor, the largest co-owner of the Hafslund estate, a co-owner of the Hassel Iron Works and a co-owner of the timber firm Juel, Wegner & Co. Most of his business activities, both in the timber, grain and cobalt segments, focused heavily on export to England, where he spent much time throughout his life.

He served as consul general to Norway of the sovereign city-republics of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen, and of the Kingdom of Portugal. He was married to Henriette Seyler (1805–75), a member of the Berenberg banking dynasty of Hamburg and the youngest daughter of Berenberg Bank's long-time head and co-owner L.E. Seyler as well as a granddaughter of one of the 18th century's greatest theatre principals, Abel Seyler. His wife was briefly a co-owner of Berenberg Bank in 1836.

Early life[edit]

His wife Henriette Seyler (1805–75), daughter of Berenberg Bank co-owner L.E. Seyler, drawn by her sister Molly in 1827

Jacob Benjamin Wegner, who went by the name of Benjamin, was born in Königsberg, an important port city on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Relatively little is known about his background, not even his parents' names. His mother remarried to the Königsberg merchant Benjamin Gutzeit. He may have had a brother named Salomon. He received a solid commercial education and joined a leading Königsberg firm as an apprentice.[2][3]

British timber and grain trade[edit]

Around 1820, he moved to Berlin where he established an independent business as an agent in the British timber trade and grain trade, i.e. in large-scale export of timber and grain from the Baltic region, bought from German and Polish estate owners, to England. He was an agent and close associate of the London firm Isaac Solly and Sons and of the Berlin firm Gebrüder Benecke and its head Wilhelm Christian Benecke, and spent much time in London. On behalf of his close friend and business associate Edward Solly, he also negotiated the agreement to sell 677 paintings—mainly Italian Trecento and Quattrocento paintings and Early Netherlandish paintings—from Solly's collection to the Prussian state in 1821, which formed an important basis of the new Gemäldegalerie.[3]

Industrialist in Norway[edit]

Blaafarveværket[edit]

Cobalt blue, made from cobalt, a precious metal that was more expensive than silver

In 1821, Modums Blaafarveværk in Norway, the world's leading producer of cobalt blue, was announced for sale. The former royal company had been pledged by the king as security for a loan during the Napoleonic Wars and taken over by the bankruptcy estate of the Swedish businessman Peter Wilhelm Berg when the state could not redeem the pledge. Edward Solly wanted to buy the company and send Wegner as his representative to complete the transaction, but as he had financial problems, the plans had to be canceled. However, in 1822, Wegner was sent by his business associate Wilhelm Christian Benecke to evaluate the profitability of the enterprise and with authorization to buy the company on Benecke's behalf if he found the company to be profitable. Wegner subsequently bought the company at a public auction on behalf of an investment group of which Benecke was the prime investor.[3]

Wegner was appointed the new Director-General of Modums Blaafarveværk and became a co-owner, and he relocated to Norway, where he initially lived on the Fossum Manor near Modums Blaafarveværk. Upon taking up residence in Norway, he automatically became a Norwegian citizen. From 1826, Benecke and Wegner were the sole owners of Modums Blaafarveværk. Under their ownership, the company became the largest in Norway, employing as much as 2,000 people, and was the dominant cobalt blue producer worldwide, producing as much as 80% of the world's cobalt pigment for use in the porcelain, glass and paper industries around the world. The main export market was England and the company's largest customer by far was the London firm Smith, Goodhall & Reeves.[3]

In its heyday, Blaafarveværket generated an annual income of around 10,000 Norwegian speciedaler for Wegner, partially as dividend and partially as tantième (in comparison, a well salaried, experienced miner at Blaafarveværket earned around 70 speciedaler annually, the chief engineer earned 250 and Wegner's immediate subordinate, the director of the mines, earned around 1,100).[4]

As a consequence of the economic crisis following the revolutions of 1848 and also of the invention of the synthetic ultramarine colour, Modums Blaafarveværk went bankrupt in 1849.[5][6][3]

Other enterprises and activities[edit]

Together with Benecke, Wegner owned the Hassel Iron Works from 1835 to 1854, each with half of the shares. He was also a co-owner, eventually the largest co-owner, of the major estate Hafslund with large forests in eastern Norway and the country's largest sawmill, from 1835 to 1864. His co-owners included Benecke and Herman Wedel Jarlsberg, and subsequently Thorvald Meyer and Westye Egeberg. In 1856, he co-founded the timber firm Juel, Wegner & Co. with Iver Albert Juel.[3][7]

In 1836, he bought Frogner Manor, where he lived with his family until 1849. The family then sold Frogner Manor and moved to Christiania (now the inner city). Wegner however retained a part of the Frogner property, Frognerseteren with a part of the Nordmarka forests, until his death. Frogner Manor is today best known as the site of Frogner Park.[2][3][8]

Wegner was also the Consul-General to Norway of the northern German city-states of Hamburg, Lübeck and Bremen, as well as the Kingdom of Portugal. He died at his country home, Dronninghavn, at Ladegaardsøen (Bygdøy), in 1864.[2]

Family[edit]

His wife Henriette Seyler (1805–75), drawn by her sister Molly in 1822

On 15 May 1824, Benjamin Wegner married Henriette Seyler (1805–1875) in St. Nicholas' Church, Hamburg.[3] She was a member of the Berenberg banking dynasty of Hamburg, one of the city's most prominent Hanseatic families, and was the daughter of the banker L.E. Seyler (1758–1836) and Anna Henriette Gossler (1771–1836). Her father was a co-owner of Joh. Berenberg, Gossler & Co. (Berenberg Bank), President of the Commerz-Deputation, and a member of the Hamburg Parliament, and she was a granddaughter of the Swiss-born merchant turned theatre director Abel Seyler and Sophie Elisabeth Andreae from Hanover on her father's side and of the Hamburg bankers Johann Hinrich Gossler and Elisabeth Berenberg on her mother's side. Through her paternal grandfather, she was also descended from the Calvinist theologian Friedrich Seyler and from the Burckhardt, Merian, Faesch, Socin and Meyer zum Pfeil patrician families of Basel, and through her mother from families such as Amsinck and Welser. Henriette Seyler was a niece of Hamburg senator and banker Johann Heinrich Gossler II and a first cousin of Hamburg First Mayor Hermann Gossler (1802–1877). Upon her father's death, Henriette Seyler became a co-owner of Berenberg Bank until 31 December 1836.[9]

Benjamin Wegner's grandson Harald Nørregaard, painted by Edvard Munch (1899)

Benjamin and Henriette Wegner had four sons and two daughters, all of whom were born in Norway, where they have many notable descendants.

  • Johann Ludwig Wegner (1830–1893) was a district judge (byfogd), and married Blanca Bretteville, a daughter of Prime Minister Christian Zetlitz Bretteville
  • Heinrich Benjamin Wegner (1833–1911) was a timber merchant and married Henriette Vibe, a daughter of classical philologist Ludvig Vibe.
  • Egmont Frithjof Wegner (b. 1835) died as a child
  • Elisabeth Sophie Dorothea Henriette Wegner (1838–1906), married colonel and aide-de-camp to king Charles, Hans Jacob Nørregaard
  • Anna Henriette Wegner (1841–1918), a noted teacher, editor and humanitarian and missionary leader in her own right, married the theologian, educator, author and humanitarian and missionary leader Bernhard Cathrinus Pauss
  • George Mygind Wegner (1847–1881) was a Supreme Court advocate (i.e. barrister) and unmarried. He was named for the former British consul in Christiania and family friend George Mygind (died 1844)

Benjamin Wegner was the grandfather of the lawyer, county governor and chief of police Benjamin Wegner (1868–1949), of the humanitarian and women's rights leader Olga Wegner (the wife of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Karenus Kristofer Thinn), of the internationally noted war correspondent Benjamin Wegner Nørregaard, of the noted lawyer, President of the Norwegian Bar Association and founder of the law firm Hjort Harald Nørregaard, of the wine merchant and consul in Tarragona Ludvig Paul Rudolf Nørregaard, of the surgeon and President of the Norwegian Red Cross Nikolai Nissen Paus, of the lawyer and Director at the Norwegian Employers' Confederation George Wegner Paus and of the engineer and industrial leader Augustin Paus.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Benjamin Wegner". Store norske leksikon. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. 
  2. ^ a b c Roede, Lars (2012). "Industriherren Benjamin Wegner på Frogner". Frogner hovedgård: Bondegård, herskapsgård, byens gård. Oslo: Pax forlag. pp. 148–161. ISBN 978-82-530-3496-6. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Wegner, Rolf B. (the Elder) (1963). Familien Wegner. Halden: s.n. 
  4. ^ Steinsvik, Tone Sinding (2000). The Norwegian Cobalt Mines and the Cobalt Works. Vikersund: Stiftelsen Modums Blaafarveværk. p. 55. ISBN 978-82-90734-22-5. 
  5. ^ Wig, Kjell Arnljot (1995). Eventyret om Blaafarveværket (in Norwegian). Drammen. 
  6. ^ Blaafarveværket (Cobalt Mine Works)
  7. ^ Wegner, Rolf B. (the Younger) (2011). Wegner-slektens virksomhet ved Glomma. 
  8. ^ Magnussen, Kjeld (1967). Gaarden Store Frogner. Oslo. 
  9. ^ Hamburger Nachrichten, 19 April 1837, p. 5