Jeogori

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Jeogori
Korea-Busan-Beomeosa-04.jpg
A white jeogori with red goreum (ribbon)
Korean name
Hangul
저고리
Hanja
赤古里
Revised Romanizationjeogori
McCune–Reischauerchŏgori

Jeogori (Korean저고리; Hanja赤古里; Korean pronunciation: [t͡ɕʌ̹ɡo̞ɾi]) is a basic upper garment of the hanbok, a traditional Korean garment, which has been worn by both men and women.[1] Men usually wear the jeogori with a baji or pants while women wear the jeogori with chima, or skirts. It covers the arms and upper part of the wearer's body.[2][3][4]

Etymology[edit]

The jeogori has been worn since ancient times and went by a variety of names such as yu (Korean; Hanja; lit. jacket), boksam (Korean복삼; Hanja複杉), and wihae (Korean위해; Hanja尉解) in the Three Kingdoms period (57 BC – 668 AD).[5]

Although it is unknown when the term jeogori began to be used to refer to the garment, it is assumed to have appeared in the late Goryeo period around King Chungnyeol's reign. The first historical document to mention the jeogori is in the Cheongjeonui (Korean천전의; Hanja遷奠儀) of Queen Wongyeong, which was a funeral ceremony for carrying the coffin out of the palace. The document written in 1420 during the second reign of Sejong the Great records jeokgori (Korean저고리; Hanja赤古里) and danjeokgori ().[5][2] However, it is not clear whether the record is a hanja (Chinese character) transliteration of a Korean word or Mongolian influence. Before the Goryeo period, such an upper garment was referred to as wihae (Korean위해; Hanja尉解; Chinese: 尉解; pinyin: wèijiě) in Silla.[6] As the uihae was a transliteration of the Silla language, dialect forms such as uti and uchi still remain to present.[2][3][4]

Composition[edit]

Jeogori composition: 1. hwajang 2. godae 3. kkeutdong (somae buri) 4. somae 5. goreum 6. u 7. doryeon 8, 11. jindong 9. gil 10. baerae 12. git 13. dongjeong

Traditionally, a jeogori is made out of leather, woolen fabrics, silk, hemp or ramie.[7][8][9] Modern Korean designers sometimes use other materials such as lace.[7][10] There are several types of jeogori according to fabric, sewing technique, and shape.[4][5]

The basic form of a jeogori consists of gil (Korean), git (Korean), dongjeong (Korean동정), goreum (Korean고름) and sleeves somae: the gil is the large section of the garment in both front and back side and git is a band of fabric that trims the collar. The dongjeong is a removable white collar placed over the end of the git and is generally squared off. The goreum are coat strings attached to the breast part to tie the jeogori.[11] Women's jeogori may have kkeutdong (Korean끝동), a different coloured cuff placed on the end of the sleeves. The form of jeogori has been changed as time goes by.[4]

History[edit]

Previously in Korea, jeogori were worn over bottom garments.[7] The earliest known depictions of the jeogori are on Goguryeo murals.[12]

The original silhouette for Hanbok jeogori shared similarities with the clothing of the ancient nomadic people of Eurasia due to the cultural exchanges that ancient Koreans had with the Scythians.[13][14] The ancient jeogori had an open form, a collar which crossed to the left (Korean좌임; Hanja左衽), narrow sleeves, and was hip-length which were similar features found in the Scythian clothing-style.[13][15] Some ancient jeogori also had a front central closure similar to a kaftan;[1] this form of jeogori with a central closure is mostly found during the Goguryeo period and was worn by people of lower status.[16] The jeogori initially closed with the front, central closure; it then changed to left closure before changing again to right closure (Korean우임; Hanja右衽).[1] The change in collars direction from right-to-left (i.e. left closure) to left-over-right (i.e. right closure), along with the use of wide sleeves, which are found in many jackets and coats were due ancient Chinese influences; these Chinese influences on the jeogori are reflected and depicted in Goguryeo paintings.[17][18][19][3] The closure of the jeogori on the right side is an imitation of the Chinese jackets.[20] The closure to the right became an accepted standard since the sixth century AD.[1]

The jeogori of the Ruling class of Silla was influenced from Chinese fashions of Tang influence in the Silla Dynasty by Kim Chun-Chu (648CE). But the most commoners wore only a style of indigenous jeogori distinct from that of the Ruling class of Silla.[21]

During the Goryeo Period (918–1392), jeogori became shorter, with slimmer sleeves.[7]

Joseon[edit]

In the Joseon Period, jeogori lengths and style fluctuated depending on current fashion and social standing.[7]

In the 16th century, women's jeogori were long, wide, and covered the waist. The length of women's jeogori gradually shortened. A heoritti (Korean허리띠) or jorinmal (Korean졸잇말) was worn to cover the chest.[12] This was to fit in style with a large wig and skirt.[22]

Modern styles[edit]

In contemporary Korea, the sumptuary laws within different social classes were lifted and colours, decorations, and fabrics that were exclusive to the upper classes were open to all classes. This allowed for the growth of diverse traditional design elements in hanbok styles. However, in the 20th and 21st centuries, the traditional Korean clothing has not been worn every day by most people.[7] The hanbok became more reserved for special events, such as ceremonial or bridal wear, which carries onto current time.[7] During their own engagement celebrations, women may wear pink jeogori.[23] After they are married, women may wear indigo jeogori.[23] Additionally, modern silhouettes are commonly slimmer and more simplified than historical styles.[7][24]

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Lee, Samuel Songhoon (17 December 2015). Hanbok: Timeless Fashion Tradition. Seoul Selection. ISBN 9781624120565. Retrieved 2 February 2021.
  2. ^ a b c "저고리" 저고리 [Jeogori] (in Korean). Empas / EncyKorea. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  3. ^ a b c "저고리" 저고리 [Jeogori] (in Korean). Doosan Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 16 June 2022. Retrieved 2013-10-15.
  4. ^ a b c d "저고리" 저고리 [Jeogori] (in Korean). Empas / Britannica. Archived from the original on 9 May 2012. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
  5. ^ a b c Song, Mikyung. "Jeogori". Encyclopedia of Korean Folk Culture. Retrieved 2022-06-16.
  6. ^ "太平御覽 : 四夷部二·東夷二 : 新羅". ctext.org. Retrieved 2022-06-16. 禮襦曰尉解
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (2002). Levinson, David; Christensen, Karen (eds.). Encyclopedia of modern Asia. Vol. 2. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 120–121. ISBN 0-684-80617-7. OCLC 49936055.
  8. ^ "V&A · Jogakbo – traditional Korean patchwork". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  9. ^ 박, 선희 (1998) [1998]. "고대 한국의 복식 재료 : 가죽과 모직" [The Clothing Material in Ancient Korea - leather and woolen fabrics -]. Journal of the Korea Fashion & Costume Design Association. 53p: Types of leather and processed goods=83,82,20 Woolen Fabrics and processed goods=114,113,15. ISSN 1226-1548 – via KSI.
  10. ^ "Hanbok ensemble with black lace Yeonan Kim Clan jacket and cream skirt - Victoria & Albert Museum - Search the Collections". m.vam.ac.uk. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  11. ^ "Traditional clothing". KBS World. Archived from the original on 2008-03-17. Retrieved 2013-10-17.
  12. ^ a b 허 [Heo], 윤희 [Yeonhee] (2011). "조선 여인 저고리 길이 300년간 2/3나 짧아져" [The length of the Korean women's jeogori has shortened by 2/3 in 300 years.]. 조선닷컴 (in Korean). Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  13. ^ a b 김 [Kim], 문자 [Munja] (1984). "고대한국복식의 원류에 관한 연구 : 스키타이계 복식문화를 중심으로" [A Study on the Origins of Ancient Korean Clothing: Focusing on Scythian Costume Culture]. EWHA WOMANS UNIVERSITY LIBRARY. Retrieved 6 February 2021.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ Kim, So-Hee; Chae, Keum-Seok (2018). "스키타이 복식 유형 및 형태에 관한 연구,고대 한국과의 관계를 중심으로" [Scythai's clothing type and style focusing on the relationship with ancient Korea] (PDF). Journal of the Korea Fashion & Costume Design Association. 20 (1): 61–77. doi:10.30751/kfcda.2018.20.1.61.
  15. ^ Chang, Youngsoo (2020-04-30). "Empirical Review of the Scythian Origin Theory of Ancient Korean Costumes : Analysis of Commonalities and Differences Between Artifacts of the two Costume Types". Journal of the Korean Society of Costume. 70 (2): 188–208. doi:10.7233/jksc.2020.70.2.188. ISSN 1229-6880. S2CID 219652611.
  16. ^ Shim, Hwa-jin (2001). "An Analysis and Comparison of the Characteristics of Traditional Hanbok and Everyday(daily) Hanbok Focusing on the Basic Dress" (PDF). Journal of Fashion Business (패션비즈니스). 5 (5): 77–86. Archived from the original on 2001.
  17. ^ Yi, Kyŏng-ja; 李 京子 (2003). Uri ot kwa changsin'gu : Han'guk chŏnt'ong poksik, kŭ wŏnhyŏng ŭi mihak kwa silche 우리 옷 과 장신구 : 韓國 傳統 服飾, 그 原形 의 美學 과 實際. Na-yŏng Hong, Suk-hwan Chang, Mi-ryang Yi, 洪 那英., 張 淑煥., 李 美亮 (Ch'op'an ed.). Sŏul: Yŏrhwadang. ISBN 89-301-0048-1. OCLC 53475264.
  18. ^ Yi, Kyŏng-ja (2005). Traditional Korean costume. Na-yŏng Hong, Suk-hwan Chang, Mi-ryang Yi. Folkestone, Kent, UK: Global Oriental. ISBN 978-1-905246-04-5. OCLC 62864892.
  19. ^ Chae Keum-Seok (January 2005). "A Study on the Development of Jeogori's Structure and Changes of its Form -Focused on the Era of the Three Kingdoms to United Shilla Era" – via ResearchGate.
  20. ^ Costumes d'enfants : miroir des grands : Établissement public du musée des arts asiatiques Guimet, 20 octobre 2010-24 janvier 2011. Aurélie Samuel, Musée Guimet. Paris: Réunion des musées nationaux. 2010. p. 68. ISBN 978-2-7118-5759-3. OCLC 700141350.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: others (link)
  21. ^ Lee, Han-sang (2014). "신라 복식의 변천과 그 배경" [Transformations of Costume in Silla through Time and Their Background]. The Journal of the Research Institute for Silla Culture. 43: 137–171.
  22. ^ Lee, Gyungja. "저고리" [Jeogori]. Encyclopedia of Korean Culture (in Korean). Archived from the original on 29 April 2021.
  23. ^ a b "Jacket". Victoria and Albert Museum. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  24. ^ Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele. Vol. 1. Detroit, MI:Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. p82-85. Web.

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