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Jianwen Emperor

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Jianwen Emperor
Posthumous illustration of the Jianwen Emperor, Qing dynasty
Emperor of the Ming dynasty
Reign30 June 1398 – 13 July 1402
Enthronement30 June 1398
PredecessorHongwu Emperor
SuccessorYongle Emperor
Imperial Grandson-heir of the Ming dynasty
SuccessorImperial Grandson-heir Zhu Zhanji
Born5 December 1377
Hongwu 10, 5th day of the 11th month
Yingtian Prefecture, Ming dynasty (present-day Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China)
(m. 1395; died 1402)
  • Zhu Wenkui, Crown Prince Hejian
  • Zhu Wengui, Prince of Runhuai
Zhu Yunwen (朱允炆)
Era name and dates
Jiànwén (建文): 6 February 1399 – 17 July 1402[b]
Posthumous name
Emperor Xiàomǐn[c] (孝愍皇帝)
Emperor Sìtiān Zhāngdào Chéngyì Yuāngōng Guānwén Yángwǔ Kèrén Dǔxiào Ràng[d] (嗣天章道誠懿淵功觀文揚武克仁篤孝讓皇帝)
Emperor Gōngmǐn Huì[e] (恭閔惠皇帝)
Temple name
Shenzong[f] (神宗)
Huizong[g] (惠宗)
FatherZhu Biao
MotherLady Lü
Jianwen Emperor
Literal meaning"Establishing Civility" (era name) Emperor

The Jianwen Emperor (5 December 1377 – ?), personal name Zhu Yunwen (朱允炆), also known by his temple name as the Emperor Huizong of Ming (明惠宗) and by his posthumous name as the Emperor Hui of Ming (明惠帝), was the second emperor of the Ming dynasty, reigned from 1398 to 1402. Zhu Yunwen's father was Zhu Biao, the eldest son and crown prince of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder of the Ming dynasty. Zhu Biao died at the age of 37 in 1392, after which the Hongwu Emperor named Zhu Yunwen as his successor. He ascended the throne after the Hongwu Emperor's death in June 1398.

As emperor, he surrounded himself with Confucian-educated officials who immediately began revising Hongwu's reforms. However, the most significant change was the attempt to limit or eliminate the princes, who were the sons of the Hongwu Emperor and had been the main support of the previous government. Fearing the potential power of his uncles, the Jianwen Emperor attempted to restrict their influence. One of the most dangerous uncles was Zhu Di, Prince of Yan, who was put in charge of the Beijing region and was responsible for guarding the border with the Mongols. When the emperor ordered the imprisonment of his uncle's followers, Zhu Di plotted against him. In 1399, Zhu Di rebelled under the pretext of protecting the emperor from corrupt court officials. This sparked a civil war known as the Jingnan campaign, which aimed to eliminate disorder. In 1402, Zhu Di captured the capital of Nanjing and the imperial palace was burned to the ground. It is believed that the emperor, along with his empress, mother, and eldest son, perished in the fire. However, their bodies were never found, leading to rumors of the emperor's survival and refuge in a Buddhist monastery.

After conquering Nanjing, Zhu Di ascended to the throne as the Yongle Emperor. He abolished the reforms implemented by the Jianwen Emperor and declared his predecessor illegitimate—thus, he did not grant him a temple or posthumous name and abolished the era of Jianwen, extending the era of Hongwu from 1398 to 1402.

Early life[edit]

Zhu Yunwen was born on 5 December 1377, the second son of Zhu Biao and his wife Lady Lü. Zhu Biao was the eldest son of the Hongwu Emperor, the founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty. Upon assuming the imperial title, the Hongwu Emperor named his eldest son as his heir to the throne. In 1382, after the death of his elder brother, Zhu Yunwen became the eldest son of Zhu Biao. He was described as a mature and direct child who was well-liked by the emperor.[1]

In May 1392, Zhu Biao died at the age of thirty-seven after several months of illness. As the eldest surviving son, Zhu Yunwen was named the new crown prince on 28 September 1392.[2] He spent the next six years carefully preparing for his future role as regent. Like his father, Zhu Yunwen was not physically fit and preferred scholarly pursuits. He was known for his polite demeanor and adherence to Confucian values.[1] However, the Hongwu Emperor had doubts about his grandson's ability to rule, as he believed him to lack the necessary toughness. This may have been the reason for the purges of potentially dangerous generals in the first half of the 1390s.[2][h]


The Hongwu Emperor died on 24 June 1398. Just six days later, on 30 June 1398, Zhu Yunwen took the throne. His gentle nature and adherence to Confucian principles made him acutely aware of the harshness of Hongwu's policies. As a result, he sought to bring about significant changes in the political landscape.[3] The era name of his reign, "Jianwen", means "establishing civility" and represented a sharp change in tone from "Hongwu" ("vastly martial"), the era name of the reign of his grandfather and predecessor, the Hongwu Emperor.[4]

Instead of relying on accomplished generals or members of the imperial family, he turned to Confucian scholars for guidance. His closest advisors were Huang Zicheng, Qi Tai, and Fang Xiaoru,[3] all of whom were idealistic reformers. However, they lacked practical experience in governing the country.[5]


During the reign of the Jianwen Emperor, the civilian part of the administration gained more influence, while the military commanders and the emperor's uncles saw a decrease in their power. Additionally, there was a partial revival of the position of "Chancellor" (丞相, chengxiang), the head of the civil administration. This came after the Central Secretariat was abolished in 1380, leaving no central office in the Ming administration to coordinate the work of ministries and other civil offices. Instead, all of these offices were directly under the emperor's control. The Jianwen Emperor relied on Huang Zicheng, Qi Tai, and Fang Xiaoru to lead the government, discussing policies with them and overseeing their implementation by the ministries. Although they effectively acted as chancellors, they did not hold the official title. This reform proved beneficial for the administration of the empire, but it went against the edict of the Hongwu Emperor, which strictly prohibited the restoration of the chancellery in any form.[5]

The ministers were elevated from the second rank to the first in the hierarchy of rank classes, placing them on equal footing with the highest-ranking generals (the military commissioners). The number of departments and ministry officials was altered, and the status and number of positions in the Hanlin Academy and the National University were increased. He also strengthened the academy's influence in educating princes. A series of changes were made to the powers and titles of offices, following the patterns of the Zhou dynasty.[6] However, after the Jianwen Emperor's overthrow, his reforms were criticized for deviating from the principles of the dynasty's founder and were subsequently repealed.[7]

As crown prince, he criticized some of the laws and statements of the previous emperor, the Hongwu Emperor, as being too harsh. After taking the throne, he cancelled these laws, but his successor, the Yongle Emperor, later restored them.[7] Additionally, the emperor abolished the unfair tax system of the previous era, particularly the excessive taxes imposed on Jiangnan, specifically Suzhou and Songjiang prefectures.[i] In 1400, taxes in Jiangnan were reduced to a more reasonable level. The following year, the tax exemptions for Taoist and Buddhist clergy were limited, and they were required to hand over land exceeding a certain amount to be distributed to the needy. However, it seems that the government did not have enough time to fully implement these changes before its fall. Despite this, there was still a noticeable shift towards supporting Yongle among the Buddhist community.[8]

Reduction of the princes' power[edit]

The Jianwen government aimed to reduce the influence of the emperor's uncles, the sons of the Hongwu Emperor. These uncles were granted the title of prince (, wang) and were given significant income and privileges by their father. They were stationed in various provinces and had their own personal guards, which could range from 3,000 to 15,000 men.[9] Some of them even led the Ming armies in the 1390s, particularly on the northern border. The most powerful and eldest among them was Zhu Di, who was the fourth son of the Hongwu Emperor.[10]

The policy of "reducing the feudatories" (削藩, xuefan) was supported by Qi Tai and, most notably, by Huang Zicheng, who cited past dynastic experiences, such as the Rebellion of the Seven States during the Han dynasty.[10] Princedoms were either directly suppressed or had their powers limited[10] for both real and perceived offenses.[11] The government forbade the princes from participating in public life, in direct contradiction to the laws of the late Hongwu Emperor, which stated that they were to be the backbone of the throne at the head of the government's armies.[9]

The first victim of the new order was Zhu Su, the Prince of Zhou based in Kaifeng, and a close friend of Zhu Di. In the fall of 1398, the emperor stripped him of his title and exiled him to Yunnan.[12] In February 1399, Zhu Gui (1374–1446), the Prince of Dai, was placed under house arrest in Datong. Zhu Bai (朱柏; 1371–1399), the Prince of Xiang, set fire to his palace in Jingzhou on 1 June 1399, taking his own life and that of his family.[12] In the following two months, in June and July, Zhu Fu (朱榑; 1364–1428), the Prince of Qi based in Jingzhou, and Zhu Pian (Chinese: 朱楩; 1379–1400), the Prince of Min based in Yunnan, were also stripped of their titles.[13]

The main long-term target of the government's measures and the most dangerous opponent was Zhu Di.[14] He was based in Beijing and had shown himself to be a capable military leader and energetic administrator during campaigns against the Mongols.[10] However, since 1392, when he was not named as a successor, he has considered himself unjustly neglected.[11] The princes saw the efforts of the new emperor and his government as a personal threat and a violation of the laws of the Hongwu Emperor, which everyone, including the emperor, was obliged to obey.[10]

Civil war[edit]

Conflict with Zhu Di[edit]

The government was cautious towards Zhu Di, which gave him the opportunity to prepare and gather forces.[11] However, the Nanjing government had been systematically limiting Zhu Di's power. For instance, his personal guard of 15,000 men was transferred outside of Beijing, and the generals serving in the northeast, close to Zhu Di, were gradually replaced by followers of the emperor.[15]

In June 1399, the emperor finally permitted Zhu Di's sons, who had been effectively held as hostages in Nanjing since the Hongwu Emperor's funeral, to return to Beijing.[11] This event seemed to remove Zhu Di's inhibitions, and the immediate pretext for his rebellion was the arrest of two of his lower officials for "subversive activity".[16] With the support of Beijing's provincial dignitaries, Zhu Di responded by occupying the districts and prefectures around Beijing, calling the war a campaign to clear away disorders (Jingnan campaign). He justified his rebellion in letters sent to the court in August and December 1399, as well as in a public statement.[16]

He justified his actions by claiming that he was trying to end internal political disorder and confusion, defend the Hongwu Emperor's statutes and laws defining the duties of princes, and honor his deceased father. He accused the emperor and his ministers of persecuting the princes, who were falsely accused of preparing an uprising. He presented his actions as a reasonable act of self-defense. He also stated that he had no interest in the throne, but as the eldest surviving son of the deceased founder of the dynasty, he felt obligated to restore the law and legality that had been subverted by the emperor's criminal advisers and ministers.[16]

Course of the war[edit]

At the beginning of the war, Zhu Di had a force of 100,000 men and only controlled the immediate vicinity of Beijing. In contrast, the Nanjing government had three times the number of soldiers and significantly more resources. However, the government's superiority was not as clear-cut as it seemed. Zhu Di was a decisive and exceptionally capable commander, leading elite units of the Ming armies that included a large number of Mongolian cavalry. On the other hand, the imperial party was weakened by the indecision and poor coordination of its commanders, as well as the conflicting views between those who supported aggressive tactics and those who favored a more conciliatory approach. Additionally, the emperor and his closest ministers lacked military experience.[17]

In August 1399, the emperor appointed Geng Bingwen as the commander of the troops tasked with suppressing the rebellion. Geng Bingwen led 130,000 troops to Zhengding, a city southwest of Beijing, but was ultimately defeated by Zhu Di in late September, resulting in heavy losses for the imperial army. In November 1399, the new commander of the imperial army, Li Jinglong, took advantage of Zhu Di's absence from Beijing and laid siege to the city.[17] However, Zhu Di quickly returned and forced the imperial army to retreat.[18]

In the year 1400, there were numerous rebel attacks and government army counterattacks. The Imperial forces were unable to utilize their numerical advantage or mobilize additional troops, allowing Zhu Di to strengthen his position in the north.[18] The emperor, who was dissatisfied with Li Jinglong, dismissed him and appointed Sheng Yong as the new commander of the anti-rebellion forces. Following the advice of his supporters in Nanjing, Zhu Di focused on a war of attrition starting in the autumn of 1400.[18] Through small raids, he disrupted the enemy's communications in southern Beijing and western Shandong.[19]

In January 1401, the government army used firearms and rocket weapons to kill tens of thousands of rebels at Dongchang in Shandong. During the retreat to Beijing, Zhu Di narrowly escaped capture.[19] In late February, the rebels launched an attack, and in April and May, they were successful in crushing the government armies. In response, the emperor promoted Zhu Chang and Li Jinglong, who were leaders of the "peace party" at court. However, Zhu Di rejected their offer for peace negotiations. Throughout the summer, the insurgents continued to raid the enemy's supply lines, while the front in Shandong and southern Beijing moved back and forth.[19]

In January 1402, Zhu Di launched an offensive. On the advice of the Nanjing eunuchs, he chose to advance westward instead of through the fortified cities along the Grand Canal. This strategic decision proved successful as the government forces in the west were weaker, allowing the rebels to disrupt their lines.[20] Despite the government's attempt to stop the rebel advance by sending General Xu Huizu to the north, they were unable to do so. The rebels continued their march south and by the beginning of March, they had captured Xuzhou in the north of Zhili. As a result, the government was forced to withdraw its troops from Beijing and Shandong provinces to defend Zhili.[20]

From April to June 1402, the rebel army engaged in fierce battles and successfully advanced from Xuzhou to the banks of the Yangtze River. The commander of the government fleet defected to the rebels, giving them an open road to Nanjing.[20] The emperor, who was gathering forces to defend the capital, was unable to stop the rebels. Taking advantage of the chaos, members of the "peace party" in the government opened the gates of Nanjing to the rebels on 13 July 1402. In the ensuing clashes, the imperial palace was burned down. Three bodies found at the cremation site were later identified as those of the emperor, empress, and their eldest son.[21] Beginning in the Jiajing era (1522–1567), non-state historians who were sympathetic to the Jianwen Emperor propagated a folk legend in their writings that he lived in anonymity as a Buddhist monk.[22]

On 17 July, Zhu Di ascended the imperial throne as the successor of the Hongwu Emperor. He denied legitimacy to his overthrown nephew, canceled his reforms, and attempted to erase them from history.[21] The Jianwen Emperor's younger son, Zhu Wengui, and other relatives spent the rest of their lives in prison.[23] (Zhu Wengui was released in 1457 by Emperor Yingzong, who himself lived under house arrest from 1450 to 1457 out of compassion. However, Zhu Wengui did not enjoy his freedom for long; he died after a few days.)[24] The followers of the deceased emperor were punished, and his closest advisers were executed. Although the Yongle Emperor hoped that Fang Xiaoru, known for his integrity and honesty, would join his side and bring confidence to the new government, he was resolutely rejected. As punishment, the emperor not only executed his relatives but also his pupils. The purges, executions, imprisonments, and exiles affected tens of thousands of people.[23]


Shortly after the Jianwen Emperor ascended the throne, he re-elected the officials of the six ministries, many of whom had died in the Jingnan campaign; had died in battle, refused to cooperate with the Prince of Yan Zhu Di and committed suicide or died unyielding, including Minister of Rites Chen Di (陳廸), Ministers of War Qi Tai and Tie Xuan, Ministers of Justice Bao Zhao (暴昭) and Hou Tai (侯泰), Left Censor-in-Chief Jing Qing (景清), Right Censor-in-Chief Lian Zining (練子寧), Fang Xiaoru of the Hanlin Academy, etc.[citation needed]

Year Minister of Personnel Minister of Revenue Minister of Rites Minister of War Minister of Justice Minister of Works Censor-in-Chief
1399 Zhang Dan (張紞) Yu Xin (郁新)
Wang Dun (王鈍)
Chen Di (陳迪) Qi Tai
Ru Chang (茹瑺)[25]
Hou Tai (侯泰)
Bao Zhao (暴昭)[26]
Zheng Ci (鄭賜)
Yan Zhenzhi (嚴震直)
Jing Qing (景清) Left Censor-in-Chief[27]
Lian Zining (練子寧) Right Censor-in-Chief[28]
1400 Zhang Dan Yu Xin
Wang Dun
Chen Di Ru Chang
Tie Xuan[29]
Hou Tai
Bao Zhao
Zheng Ci
Yan Zhenzhi
Jing Qing Left Censor-in-Chief
Lian Zining Right Censor-in-Chief
1401 Zhang Dan Yu Xin
Wang Dun
Chen Di Qi Tai[30]
Ru Chang
Tie Xuan
Hou Tai
Bao Zhao
Zheng Ci
Yan Zhenzhi
Jing Qing Left Censor-in-Chief
Lian Zining Right Censor-in-Chief
1402 Zhang Dan[31] Yu Xin[32]
Wang Dun[33]
Chen Di[34] Qi Tai[35]
Ru Chang[36]
Tie Xuan[37]
Hou Tai[35]
Bao Zhao[38]
Zheng Ci[39]
Yan Zhenzhi[40]
Jing Qing Left Censor-in-Chief[41]
Lian Zining Right Censor-in-Chief[42]


In an attempt to erase the memory of the defeated emperor, the era of Jianwen was retroactively cancelled and the era of Hongwu was extended from 1399 to 1402.[2][43] Many official documents from his government were destroyed, and private notes were also eliminated. Historians' views of the Jianwen Emperor were closely tied to their opinions of the legitimacy of the Yongle Emperor's rule.[44] The official history of the Hongwu Emperor's reign, known as Taizu Silu (太祖實錄; Veritable Records of Emperor Taizu, i.e. the Hongwu Emperor), was compiled from 1399 to 1402, but was rewritten in 1402–1403 and again in 1411–1418. The Yongle Emperor's historians portrayed the Jianwen Emperor as a weak and immoral ruler who showed little interest in governing and was surrounded by corrupt and treacherous ministers. However, later versions of the history paint the Jianwen Emperor as an honest and benevolent leader who followed the advice of devoted Confucians and worked to correct the cruelties of his predecessor.[44]

His reign was restored to the official history of the dynasty by the decision of the Wanli Emperor in October 1595. However, he was not given a posthumous temple name until July 1644, when Zhu Yousong gave him the temple name Huizong (惠宗; 'Magnanimous Ancestor') and the posthumous name Emperor Rang (讓皇帝; 'Abdicated Emperor', the name related to the legend of his abdication and the anonymous life of a Buddhist monk). However, Zhu Yousong was not recognized by the Qing as legitimate and his decisions were not considered valid. It was not until September 1736 that the Jianwen Emperor was given the posthumous name Emperor Gongmin Hui (恭閔惠皇帝) by the Qianlong Emperor.[2][43]


Consorts and Issue:

  • Empress Xiaominrang, of the Ma clan (孝愍讓皇后 馬氏; 1378–1402)
    • Zhu Wenkui, Crown Prince Hejian (和簡皇太子 朱文奎; 30 November 1396 – 1402), first son
    • Zhu Wengui, Prince of Runhuai (潤懷王 朱文圭; 1401–1457), second son


Zhu Shizhen (1281–1344)
Hongwu Emperor (1328–1398)
Empress Chun (1286–1344)
Zhu Biao (1355–1392)
Empress Xiaocigao (1332–1382)
Lady Zheng
Jianwen Emperor (b. 1377)
Lü Ben (d. 1382)
Crown Princess Yiwen (1359–1412)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ The Jianwen Emperor disappeared on 13 July 1402, the date Imperial Palace was burned and the Jianwen Emperor's supposed death date proposed by the Yongle Emperor. However, it is widely believed that he survived and lived undercover for many more years as a Buddhist monk.
  2. ^ On 18 July 1402 the Jianwen era was officially abolished by the Yongle Emperor, and the former Hongwu era was reestablished until the beginning of Chinese New Year in 1403 when the Yongle era officially started.
  3. ^ Conferred by Mei Yin
  4. ^ Conferred by the Hongguang Emperor in 1644
  5. ^ Conferred by the Qianlong Emperor in 1736
  6. ^ Conferred by Mei Yin
  7. ^ Conferred by the Hongguang Emperor in 1644
  8. ^ The first was Lan Yu, executed in 1393, and the second the additional accusations linking him to Hu Weiyong, executed in 1380.
  9. ^ After several tax reductions during the 14th century, Suzhou prefecture, which accounted for 1.36% of the empire's land, was able to contribute 2.81 million ton of grain in 1393, which was 9.5% of the total tax revenue of the empire—29.4 million ton.[8]



  1. ^ a b Chan (1988), pp. 184–185.
  2. ^ a b c d Goodrich & Fang (1976), p. 397.
  3. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 186.
  4. ^ Dardess, John. Ming China, 1368–1644: A Concise History of a Resilient Empire. Rowman & Littlefield, 2011. ISBN 1442204915, ISBN 9781442204911. Accessed 14 October 2012.
  5. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 187.
  6. ^ Chan (1988), p. 188.
  7. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 189.
  8. ^ a b Chan (1988), pp. 190–191.
  9. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 191.
  10. ^ a b c d e Chan (1988), p. 193.
  11. ^ a b c d Chan (1988), p. 194.
  12. ^ a b Tsai 2002, p. 61.
  13. ^ Chan (2007), p. 86.
  14. ^ Chan (1988), p. 192.
  15. ^ Tsai (2002), p. 62.
  16. ^ a b c Chan (1988), p. 195.
  17. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 196.
  18. ^ a b c Chan (1988), p. 198.
  19. ^ a b c Chan (1988), p. 199.
  20. ^ a b c Chan (1988), p. 200.
  21. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 201.
  22. ^ Chan (2005), p. 67.
  23. ^ a b Chan (1988), pp. 201–202.
  24. ^ Heer (1986), p. 60.
  25. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 茹瑺十一月復任。
  26. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 昭七月出掌平燕布政司事。
  27. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 景清二月任左。
  28. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 練子寧二月任右。
  29. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 十二月任督軍。
  30. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 齊泰正月復,閏三月又謫。
  31. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 紞七月自經死。
  32. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 新六月歸附,仍任。
  33. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 鈍六月歸附。七月致仕。
  34. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 迪六月殉難。
  35. ^ a b History of Ming, Volume 111: 泰六月殉難。
  36. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 瑺六月迎降。九月封忠誠伯,仍任。
  37. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 鉉八月死難。
  38. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 昭六月殉難。
  39. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 賜六月歸附。七月改刑部。
  40. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 震直六月歸附。七月同致仕戶部尚書王鈍巡視中原。九月卒。
  41. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 清六月殉難。
  42. ^ History of Ming, Volume 111: 子寧六月殉難。
  43. ^ a b Chan (2005), p. 60.
  44. ^ a b Chan (1988), p. 185.

Works cited[edit]

  • Chan, Hok-lam (1988). "The Chien-wen, Yung-lo, Hung-hsi, and Hsüan-te Reigns". In Mote, Frederick W.; Twitchett, Denis C (eds.). The Cambridge History of China. Vol. 7: The Ming Dynasty, 1368–1644, Part 1. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521243327.
  • Goodrich, L. Carington; Fang, Chaoying (1976). Dictionary of Ming Biography, 1368-1644. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-03801-1.
  • Tsai, Shih-shan Henry (2002). Perpetual Happiness: The Ming Emperor Yongle. Seattle: University of Washington Press; Combined Academic. ISBN 0295981245.
  • Chan, Hok-lam (2007). "Legitimating Usurpation: Historical Revisions under the Ming Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424)". In Leung, Philip Yuen-sang (ed.). The Legitimation of New Orders: Case Studies in World History. Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong. pp. 75–158. ISBN 978-962-996-239-5.
  • Chan, Hok-lam (2005). "Xie Jin (1369-1415) as Imperial Propagandist: His Role in the Revisions of the "Ming Taizu Shilu"". T'oung Pao. 91 (Second Series) (1/3): 58–124. doi:10.1163/1568532054905142.
  • Heer, Philip de (1986). The Care-taker Emperor: Aspects of the Imperial Institution in Fifteenth-Century China as Reflected in the Political History of the Reign of Chu Chʾi-yü. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004078983.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Jianwen Emperor
Born: 5 December 1377
Regnal titles
Preceded by Emperor of China
Succeeded by