The skyline of Xuzhou and Yunlong Lake (云龙湖)
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
|• Mayor||Zhou Tiegen (周铁根)|
|• CPC Committee Secretary||Zhang Jinghua (张国华)|
|• Prefecture-level city||11,259 km2 (4,347 sq mi)|
|• Urban||3,037 km2 (1,173 sq mi)|
|• Metro||2,347 km2 (906 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||8,577,225|
|• Density||760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|Postal code||221000(Urban center), 221000, 221000, 221000(Other areas)|
|GDP||¥239 billion (2009)|
|GDP per capita||¥27,514 (2009)|
|Licence plate prefixes||苏C|
"Xuzhou", as written in Chinese
Xuzhou, otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu Province, China. Its population was 8,577,225 at the 2010 census whom 2,623,066 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Quanshan, Gulou, Yunlong and Tongshan districts. It is known for its role as a transportation hub in northwestern Jiangsu, as it has expressways and railway links connecting directly to the provinces of Henan and Shandong, the neighboring port city of Lianyungang, as well as the economic hub Shanghai.
During the Xia and Shang Dynasties (c. 2200−1600 BC), Xuzhou lay in an area inhabited by the Dongyi or Huaiyi peoples who were constantly at war with the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. The Xuzhou region was called Huaiyang during the Zhou Dynasty (1600 BC−256 BC) since the Huai River crosses the area. During the Spring and Autumn Period (771 BC−426 BC), Xuzhou was a collection of small farming/fishing villages and towns and formed part of the border region between the Zhou vassal States of Chu, Wu and Qu. Both the States of Pi and Peng lay within its borders. Xuzhou was at one time a capital of the State of Xu, a vassal state exterminated by the State of Wu in 512 BC. In turn, Wu was conquered by the State of Yue a few decades later. Chu gradually expanded its influence around Xuzhou after absorbing the nearby State of Cai in 447 BC followed by the conquest of the State of Yue in 334 BC. By the Warring States period, it was firmly in the cultural and administrative sphere of Chu. The State of Chu moved to this area in 278 BC after the Qin army captured its old capital, Ying, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei.
Liu Bang, first emperor of the Han Dynasty (206 BC−AD 220), was born in Pei County, Xuzhou. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, Xuzhou became part of the Kingdom of Chu, a principality ruled by relatives of the royal Liu family. Initially, Liu Bang allowed his relatives to rule parts of the country since they were assumed to be the most trustworthy. However, the Kingdom of Chu under third generation ruler Liu Wu rebelled against the central authority during the Rebellion of the Seven Princes and was defeated. His tomb was recently excavated near Xuzhou. Historians maintain that in the ancient capital and trade center of Pengcheng (Xuzhou) one can find the "earliest reliable evidence of the presence of Buddhism in China."
After the Yellow River began to change course during the Song Dynasty (AD 960−1279), heavy silting at the Yellow River estuary forced the river to channel its flow into the lower Huai River tributary. The region became barren thereafter due to persistent flooding, nutrient depletion and salination of the once fertile soil.
The area was the site both of the Battle of Xuzhou in 1938 against the Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War and of the critical battle in the Chinese Civil War, the Huaihai Campaign in 1948-49. The capitulation of Chiang Kai-shek to Chinese communist forces at Xuzhou  led to the fall of the Nationalist Chinese capital Nanking.
The prefecture-level city of Xuzhou administers ten county-level divisions, including five districts, two county-level cities and three counties. These are further divided into 157 township-level divisions.
|Map||Subdivision||Hanzi||Pinyin||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||Density|
|Yunlong District||云龙区||Yúnlóng Qū||1,536,502||438||3,508|
|Gulou District||鼓楼区||Gúlóu Qū|
|Quanshan District||泉山区||Quánshān Qū|
|Tongshan District||铜山区||Tóngshān Qū||1,086,564||1,909||569|
|Jiawang District||贾汪区||Jiǎwāng Qū||430,712||690||624.22|
|Suining County||睢宁县||Suíníng Xiàn||1,039,315||1,767||588.01|
|Pei County||沛县||Pèi Xiàn||1,141,935||1,349||847|
|Feng County||丰县||Fēng Xiàn||963,531||1,446||666|
|Satellite cities (County-level cities)|
Geography and climate
Xuzhou is located in the southeast of the North China Plain. Xuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, dry winters, warm springs, long, hot and humid summers, and crisp autumns. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 0.4 °C (32.7 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July; the annual mean is 14.48 °C (58.1 °F). Snow may occur during winter, though rarely heavily. Precipitation is light in winter, and a majority of the annual total of 832 millimetres (32.8 in) occurs from June thru August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 44% in July to 54% in three months, the city receives 2,221 hours of bright sunshine annually.
|Climate data for Xuzhou (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||5.2
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.3
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||17.6
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||4.0||5.4||6.4||7.1||7.4||8.0||13.5||9.9||7.2||6.8||5.1||3.7||84.5|
|Average relative humidity (%)||66||64||62||62||64||67||80||81||74||70||69||66||68.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||144.8||147.5||177.0||210.5||232.7||218.6||191.9||202.8||188.3||190.8||164.2||151.8||2,220.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||46||48||48||54||54||51||44||49||51||54||53||50||50.2|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
Xuzhou is a vital hub for freight to link northern China and eastern China. It opened to foreign traders formally in 1922 without pressure. 
From 1910s to 1940s, the staple merchandise for sale were peanut, soya bean, soya bean meal, wheat, sesame, sunflower seed, daylily, live swine and pelt. Meanwhile, the ones for purchase were fabric, cotton yarn, sugar, salt, cigarettes, kerosene, etc. And the main domestic trades were occurred among Nanjing and Shanghai.
Xuzhou has about 93% of the Jiangsu coals reserves. The coals were discovered when Su shi was governor of Xuzhou. Then they were utilized to smelt Liguo’s iron ore, replaced the charcoal. He ever wrote a poem entitled “石炭” to record. It marks that the establishing of initial Xuzhou coal industry no later than 1079. In 1970, Datun mining area was put under Shanghai administration for providing Shanghai enough coals.
The most important industries in Xuzhou are machinery, energy and food production.
The construction machinery manufacturer XCMG is the largest company based in Xuzhou. It is the world's tenth-largest construction equipment maker measured by 2011 revenues, and the third-largest based in China (after Sany and Zoomlion).
Xuzhou was nearly barren of education resources compared with the Jiangnan regions until 1950s. In 1903, Tongshan public primary school of the senior grade (铜山县官绅公立高等小学堂) as the first modern school in Xuzhou was founded. There are only three colleges existed in Xuzhou before 1950th.
- Huaihai College (淮海学院, Reorganized National Government of China period)
- Jiangsu Provincial College of Jiangsu (江苏省立江苏学院,1946-1949)
- North China Theological Seminary (华北神学院,1946-1948)
In 1958, Jiangsu Normal Academy (江苏师范专科学校) relocated to Xuzhou. And Nanjing Medical College, Xuzhou was founded in July. In the next year, Xuzhou Normal Academy (徐州师范专科学校) was merged with Jiangsu Normal Academy and became the Xuzhou Normal College (徐州师范学院). In 1962, Premier Zhou Enlai gave instructions to maintain both colleges after the Great Leap Forward; meanwhile several new-founded colleges were aborted for lacking funds. In 1978, China Institute of Mining and Technology (中国矿业学院) relocated to Xuzhou from the west of China. Nowadays, Xuzhou has a high overall education level next to Nanjing in Jiangsu Province.
- Xuzhou No.1 Middle School (徐州市第一中学)
- Xuzhou No.2 Middle School (徐州市第二中学)
- Xuzhou No.3 Middle School (徐州市第三中学)
- Xuzhou Senior High School (徐州市高级中学)
- Xuzhou No.5 Middle School (徐州市第五中学)
- Xuzhou No.36 Middle School (徐州市第三十六中学)
- Xuzhou No.13 Middle School (徐州市第十三中学)
Universities and colleges
- China University of Mining and Technology (中国矿业大学)
- Jiangsu Normal University (江苏师范大学，原徐州师范大学)
- Xuzhou Medical University (徐州医科大学，原徐州医学院)
- People's Liberation Army Engineering Corps Command College (中国人民解放军工程兵指挥学院)
- People's Liberation Army Air Force Logistical College(中国人民解放军空军后勤学院)
Xuzhou cuisine is closely related to Shandong cuisine's Jinan-style. Xuzhou's most well known foods include bǎzi ròu (pork belly, and other items stewed in a thick broth), sha tang (汤), and various dog meat dishes.
Another one of Xuzhou's famous dishes is di guo (地锅) style cooking which places ingredients with a spicy sauce in a deep black skillet and cooks little pieces of flatbread on the side or top. Common staples of di guo style cooking include: chicken, fish, lamb, pork rib and eggplant.
Fu Yang Festival (伏羊节) is a traditional festival celebrated in the city. It starts on Chufu (初伏) which is around mid-July and lasts for about one month. During the festival, people eat lamb meat and drink lamb soup. This festival is very popular among all the citizens.
Tourist attractions in Xuzhou include Yunlong Mountain (Cloud Dragon Mountain) and the nearby Yunlong Lake, which are near the downtown area. There are also Xuzhou Museum and Han Dynasty Stone Carvings museum next to the Yunlong Mountain.
The most important places of interest in Xuzhou are the relics of Han Dynasty, including Terracotta Army of Han, Mausoleum of the Emperors of Han and the art of stone graving.
In 2011, a new state-of-the-art concert hall was opened. It is specifically designed to resemble a myrtle flower. The striking architecture and lakeside location have helped the theater gain landmark status locally. Among the top artists who have performed in Xuzhou concert hall are Dutch vocal ensemble 'Vocal Group Utrecht' and Canadian brass ensemble 'Brassroots'.
Xuzhou Guanyin Airport serves the area with scheduled passenger flights to major airports in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hong Kong and many other cities.
The Xuzhou Railway Station is one of the largest Chinese railway stations. Xuzhou is one of the most important railway hubs in China. It is the interchange station of Jinghu Railway, Longhai Railway and Hasan Railway. There is also a hub of express railway in the eastern suburb of Xuzhou, which will be the hub of Jinghu Express Railway and Xulan Express Railway. Xuzhou is the first city in North Jiangsu to build a subway system. The project was approved by State Council in 2013. 3 subway lines are being built and expected to be completed by 2019-2020, with total length of 67 km.
Luning oil pipeline, which from Shandong Dongying to Jiangsu Nanjing, passes through Xuzhou.
Xuzhou is headquarters of the 12th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that compose the Nanjing Military Region responsible for the defense of China's eastern coast and possible military engagement with Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army Navy also has a Type 054A frigate that shares the name of the region.
- List of twin towns and sister cities in China
- Battle of Xuzhou
- List of cities in the People's Republic of China by population
- Xuzhou dialect
- Postal romanization, See, e.g., this 1947 ROC map.
- Rosario Renaud, Süchow. Diocèse de Chine 1882-1931, Montréal, 1955.
- Canadian Missionaries, Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 208.
- Louis Hermand, Les étapes de la Mission du Kiang-nan 1842-1922 et de la Mission de Nanking 1922-1932, Shanghai, 1933.
- See: Wade-Giles.
- Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. p. 1116.
- "Battle of Suchow". Life Magazine, December 6, 1948.
- 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年） (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2010-05-27.
- "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Comprehensive Economy Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
- "Analysis: China's budding Caterpillars break new ground overseas". Reuters. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- "A research on Xuzhou's conditions and the changes of environment, economy and society(during 1882-1948)" (in Chinese). Jinan:Shandong University. Retrieved 2016-07-23.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Xuzhou.|
- Government website of Xuzhou (in Simplified Chinese)
- Xuzhou city guide with open directory (Jiangsu.NET)
Largest cities or towns in China
Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)
|10||Hong Kong||Hong Kong||7,055,071||20||Zhengzhou||Henan||3,677,000|