Xuzhou

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This article is about the modern city. For the ancient administrative division, see Xuzhou (ancient China). For other uses, see Xuzhou (disambiguation).
Xuzhou
徐州市
Prefecture-level city
The skyline of Xuzhou and Yunlong Lake (云龙湖)
The skyline of Xuzhou and Yunlong Lake (云龙湖)
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Location of Xuzhou City jurisdiction in Jiangsu
Xuzhou is located in China
Xuzhou
Xuzhou
Location in China
Coordinates: 34°16′N 117°13′E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21Coordinates: 34°16′N 117°13′E / 34.26°N 117.21°E / 34.26; 117.21
Country China
Province Jiangsu
County-level divisions 11
Township-level divisions 157
Government
 • Mayor Zhou Tiegen (周铁根)
 • CPC Committee Secretary Zhang Guohua (张国华)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 11,259 km2 (4,347 sq mi)
 • Urban 3,037 km2 (1,173 sq mi)
 • Metro 2,347 km2 (906 sq mi)
Population (2010 census)
 • Prefecture-level city 8,577,225
 • Density 760/km2 (2,000/sq mi)
 • Urban 3,053,778
 • Urban density 1,000/km2 (2,600/sq mi)
 • Metro 2,623,066
 • Metro density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 221000(Urban center), 221000, 221000, 221000(Other areas)
Area code(s) 0516
GDP ¥ 532 billion (2015)
GDP per capita ¥27,514 (2009)
Major Nationalities Han
Licence plate prefixes C
Website xz.gov.cn
Xuzhou
XZ name.svg
"Xuzhou", as written in Chinese
Chinese 徐州
Postal Suchow
Pengcheng
Chinese 彭城

Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu Province, China. Its population was 8,577,225 at the 2010 census whom 2,623,066 lived in the built-up (or metro) area made of Quanshan, Gulou, Yunlong and Tongshan districts.[1] It is known for its role as a transportation hub in northwestern Jiangsu, as it has expressways and railway links connecting directly to the provinces of Henan and Shandong, the neighboring port city of Lianyungang, as well as the economic hub Shanghai.

Before the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was typically romanized as Suchow[2] or Süchow,[3][4] though it also appeared as Siu Tcheou [Fou],[5] Hsu-chou,[6] Hsuchow,[7] and Hsü-chow.[4]

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

During the Xia and Shang Dynasties (c. 2200−1600 BC), Xuzhou lay in an area inhabited by the Dongyi or Huaiyi peoples who were constantly at war with the Shang and Zhou Dynasties. The Xuzhou region was called Huaiyang during the Zhou Dynasty (1600 BC−256 BC) since the Huai River crosses the area. During the Spring and Autumn period (771 BC−426 BC), Xuzhou was a collection of small farming/fishing villages and towns and formed part of the border region between the Zhou vassal States of Chu, Wu and Qu. Both the States of Pi and Peng lay within its borders. Xuzhou was at one time a capital of the State of Xu, a vassal state exterminated by the State of Wu in 512 BC. In turn, Wu was conquered by the State of Yue a few decades later. Chu gradually expanded its influence around Xuzhou after absorbing the nearby State of Cai in 447 BC followed by the conquest of the State of Yue in 334 BC. By the Warring States period, it was firmly in the cultural and administrative sphere of Chu. The State of Chu moved to this area in 278 BC after the Qin army captured its old capital, Ying, in modern Jingzhou, Hubei.

Imperial China[edit]

Liu Bang, first emperor of the Han Dynasty (206 BC−AD 220), was born in Pei County, Xuzhou. At the beginning of the Han Dynasty, Xuzhou became part of the Kingdom of Chu, a principality ruled by relatives of the royal Liu family. Initially, Liu Bang allowed his relatives to rule parts of the country since they were assumed to be the most trustworthy. However, the Kingdom of Chu under third generation ruler Liu Wu rebelled against the central authority during the Rebellion of the Seven Princes and was defeated. His tomb was recently excavated near Xuzhou. Historians maintain that in the ancient capital and trade center of Pengcheng (Xuzhou) one can find the "earliest reliable evidence of the presence of Buddhism in China." Liu Ying,the Prince of Chu when Emperor Ming of Han reigned, had both Daoist and Buddhist faith. He supported some monks and even kept them around him. According to a Emperor's letter to Ying which was quoted in the Book of the Later Han :

楚王誦黃老之微言,尚浮屠之仁祠,潔齋三月,與神為誓,何嫌何疑,當有悔吝?其還贖以助伊蒲塞桑門之盛饌。

The letter was wrote in 65 AD, before Buddhism was introduced formally in 68.

In 193, Cao Cao attacked Pengcheng and the others cites of Xu Province. Then Cao Cao and his enemies controlled Xuzhou alternately until Cao defeated Liu Bei in 200.

The uprisings and invasions of the Wu Hu (the "Five Barbarians") posed a great threat to the residents of Xuzhou. Considerable households migrated to the south of the Yangtze River from the 3rd to the 5th century, and the government set up the lodging administrative divisions (侨州郡县) inculding South Xuzhou or South Xu Province (南徐州), which located in Jingkou (京口) namely Zhenjiang nowadays to reign. Meanwhile, the capital of Xu Province moved from Xiapi to Pengcheng. The exact time is disputed, but it should not be later than Liu Song on the basis of the Book of Song.[8]

In 416, Emperor Wu of Liu Song ordered to rebuild the ramparts of Xuzhou by bricks instead of clay.

The raging wars inflicted upon Xuzhou until the Emperor Taizong of Tang's enthronement in 626. Keeping the northern rebellions and warfare a distance gave Xuzhou scope for developing during the most period of the Tang Dynasty. According to the Old Book of Tang and the New book of Tang, in 639, the total population of Pengcheng County, Fei County and Pei County was only 21,768, versus 205,286 in 742.[9]

In 781, General Li Na rebelled, but his cousin Li Wei (李洧) as the prefectural governor of Xuzhou refused to cooperate with him. As a result, Na commanded his army to lay siege to the burg of Xuzhou. Several days afterwards, the imperial authority's force arrived and defeated Na's.

In 868, a furious troop with about 800 soldiers from Xuzhou and Sizhou mutinied because of extended service and abuse by officer. The government pretended to be conciliatory to permit them back, but planned to put them down in fact. Then the soldiers perceived and revolted. They chose Pang Xun (庞勋) to be their leader. Pang captured Xuzhou in 869 and also the vicinity with the favour of local people. In the end of next year, the government troop beat him. Consequently, thousands people were executed.

After the Yellow River began to change course during the Song Dynasty (AD 960−1279), heavy silting at the Yellow River estuary forced the river to channel its flow into the lower Huai River tributary. The region became barren thereafter due to persistent flooding, nutrient depletion and salination of the once fertile soil.

After the Jingkang incident, Wanyan Zonghan's army marched to the Yangtze River in 1129, meanwhile he ordered his subordinate Nijuhun to storm Xuzhou. On February 17, Nijuhun occupied Xuzhou after a 27-days siege, and the guarding governor Wang Fu was executed (王复) for refusing to surrender. Wang's successor Zhao Li (赵立) regroup his forces and raided the enemy. He achieved an enormous victory, however, as a strategic decision, he evacuated from Xuzhou with soldiers and citizens, went south to rescue the siege of Chuzhou in the end of this year. Henceforth, Xuzhou was ruled by Jurchen over a century.

In the early Ming Dynasty, aimed at protecting the two capitals and maintaining Caoyun (漕运) System, three garrison areas, namely Wei (卫) were established in modern Xuzhou region : Xuzhou Wei (徐州卫), Xuzhou Left Wei (徐州左卫), Pizhou Wei (邳州卫). More than 10,000 soldiers were stationed there.

Xuzhou Transshipment-storehouse (广运仓) as a part of the Caoyun System, was established in 1415 when the Yongle Emperor reigned.

Choe Bu (崔溥), a Korean official, who passed Xuzhou along the Grand Canal in 1488, his book, the Geumnam pyohaerok writes:

The cities in the north of the Yangtze River, such as Yangzhou, Huaian, and the ones in the north of the Huai River, such as Xuzhou, Jining, Linqing, are prosperous and bustling just like the Jiangnan region...

(江以北,若揚州、淮安,及淮河以北,若徐州、濟寧、臨清,繁華豐阜,無異江南……)

After the Prince of Fu was crowned as the Hongguang emperor on 1644, four Burgs in the north of the Yangtze River (江北四镇), including Xuzhou, were designated to defend Nanjing from the Qing military forces. In 1645, being aware of forthcoming attack, the guarding general Li Chengdong (李成栋) deserted Xuzhou, then the Qing military captured it. The Tancheng Earthquake in 1688 involved Xuzhou, its disastrous consequence was recorded by local chorography:[10]

Ramparts,government offices and also residents' houses, mostly of them were ruined, and the collapsing buildings around the area led to enormous deaths...

(城垣、官署、民廬傾覆過半,遠近壓死人不可數計……)

Then many people were living outside or in shacks, and the circumstances were restored after several months.

The Yellow River changed its course and not flowed through Xuzhou any longer in 1855, gave a great shock to the economy of city. The Nian Rebellion at its height in the same year. Felt obliged, Zeng Guofan rushed to Xuzhou and commanded the troops. The army of Nian attempted to attack city in the following decade for several times, but all in vain.

Modern China[edit]

The Qing-loyalist general, Zhang Xun escaped toward Xuzhou with his army after Nanking Uprising. At the Yuan Shikai's behest, he commanded his troops to against the Nanking Government in January 1912. Sun Yat-sen sent three troops to attack Xuzhou. On February 11, the revolutionary army arrived the south of Xuzhou and capture ensued. As Xuzhou was the front line of the Second Revolution, the Nationalist Party's army set out on July 15, 1913, but was defeated by Beiyang Army. On July 24, Zhang returned and recaptured Xuzhou. Regarding Xuzhou as a base, he summoned the rest of Beiyang Clique for the anti-republican meeting four times in 1916 and 1917. On September, 1916, Zhang invited Liang Qichao and Kang Youwei to Xuzhou for restoring Puyi. His failure in the next year spread and caused a terrible wave of theft and arson committed by his garrisons later in Xuzhou.

The area was the site both of the Battle of Xuzhou in 1938 against the Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War and of the critical battle in the Chinese Civil War, the Huaihai Campaign in 1948-49. The capitulation of Chiang Kai-shek to Chinese communist forces at Xuzhou [11] led to the fall of the Nationalist Chinese capital Nanking.

The Huaihai Campaign ended on January 10, 1949, and KMT still controlled remaining region of Jiangsu, hence, Shandong Province administrated Xuzhou and Lianyungang of the time temporarily. Although the period was short (1949–52), the followed impacts on Xuzhou was lasting. For instance, Xuzhou Railway Branch Administration affiliated to Jinan Railway Administration from then on until transferring to Shanghai in 2008.

On April 22, 1993, Xuzhou was ratified as "Larger Municipality" with legislative power by the State Council.[12]

Administration[edit]

The Historical evolution of Administration[edit]

The prefecture-level city of Xuzhou administers ten county-level divisions, including five districts, two county-level cities and three counties. These are further divided into 157 township-level divisions.

Map Subdivision Hanzi Pinyin Population (2010) Area (km2) Density
City Proper
Yunlong District 云龙区 Yúnlóng Qū 1,536,502 438 3,508
Gulou District 鼓楼区 Gúlóu Qū
Quanshan District 泉山区 Quánshān Qū
Suburban
Tongshan District 铜山区 Tóngshān Qū 1,086,564 1,909 569
Jiawang District 贾汪区 Jiǎwāng Qū 430,712 690 624.22
Rural
Suining County 睢宁县 Suíníng Xiàn 1,039,315 1,767 588.01
Pei County 沛县 Pèi Xiàn 1,141,935 1,349 847
Feng County 丰县 Fēng Xiàn 963,531 1,446 666
Satellite cities (County-level cities)
Pizhou 邳州市 Pīzhōu Shì 1,458,038 2,088 698
Xinyi 新沂市 Xīnyí Shì 920,628 1,571 586
Total 8,577,225 11,259 762

Geography[edit]

Geology[edit]

The geologic structure of Xuzhou is relatively stable, consisting of Shandong-Jiangsu traps (鲁苏地盾), Tancheng-Lujiang fault zone (郯庐断裂带), Xu-Huai downwarp-fold belt (徐淮坳褶带) and fault-block of West Shandong (鲁西断块) from the east to the west. The formation was occurred in the Archean Eon.[13]

Landform[edit]

Xuzhou is mostly located in the Xu-Huai alluvial plain (徐淮黄泛平原), the southeast part of the North China Plain[13].

Hydrology and Water resources[edit]

Xuzhou Urban is bisected by the abandoned Yellow River, and Yunlong Lake (云龙湖) is located in the central of the city.

Luoma Lake, located on the Xinyi–Suqian boundaries, is the main resource of tap water for Xuzhou since 2016.

Climate[edit]

Xuzhou has a monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with cool, dry winters, warm springs, long, hot and humid summers, and crisp autumns. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 0.4 °C (32.7 °F) in January to 27.1 °C (80.8 °F) in July; the annual mean is 14.48 °C (58.1 °F). Snow may occur during winter, though rarely heavily. Precipitation is light in winter, and a majority of the annual total of 832 millimetres (32.8 in) occurs from June thru August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 44% in July to 54% in three months, the city receives 2,221 hours of bright sunshine annually.

The lowest temperature recorded in Xuzhou was -23.3 °C, on 6 February 1969.[14]

Climate data for Xuzhou (1971−2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
7.8
(46)
13.4
(56.1)
20.9
(69.6)
26.3
(79.3)
30.4
(86.7)
31.4
(88.5)
30.6
(87.1)
26.9
(80.4)
21.5
(70.7)
14.1
(57.4)
7.7
(45.9)
19.7
(67.4)
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
3.2
(37.8)
9.8
(49.6)
15.1
(59.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.5
(74.3)
22.7
(72.9)
17.4
(63.3)
10.9
(51.6)
4.0
(39.2)
−1.6
(29.1)
10.0
(50.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 17.6
(0.693)
20.5
(0.807)
36.0
(1.417)
47.1
(1.854)
65.5
(2.579)
106.8
(4.205)
241.0
(9.488)
132.6
(5.22)
72.3
(2.846)
51.5
(2.028)
26.7
(1.051)
14.0
(0.551)
831.6
(32.739)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 4.0 5.4 6.4 7.1 7.4 8.0 13.5 9.9 7.2 6.8 5.1 3.7 84.5
Average relative humidity (%) 66 64 62 62 64 67 80 81 74 70 69 66 68.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 144.8 147.5 177.0 210.5 232.7 218.6 191.9 202.8 188.3 190.8 164.2 151.8 2,220.9
Percent possible sunshine 46 48 48 54 54 51 44 49 51 54 53 50 50.2
Source: China Meteorological Administration [15]

Natural disasters[edit]

Floods[edit]

Earthquakes[edit]

Xuzhou is sometimes affected by earthquakes in its vicinity, though the earthquakes' epicenters rarely lie in its area. The most destructive two earthquakes, the 462 Yanzhou earthquake and 1668 Tancheng earthquake, occurred on August 16, 462, and July 25, 1668 respectively. Both of them caused enormous losses and casualties.

The latest earthquake whose epicenter was located in Xuzhou occurred on December 10, 2015 with magnitude 1.5 MW.[16]

Demographics[edit]

According to the 1% National Population Sample Survey in 2015, the total resident population of Xuzhou reached 8.66 millions, and the sex ratio was 101.40 males to 100 females.[17]

The census of Xuzhou, Republic of China period[9]
Year Tongshan

County*

Feng County Pei County Suining County Pi County** Total
1912 836,080 340,061 300,275 684,075 586,933 2,749,336
1913 826,083 291,562 280,345 501,867 636,040 2,749,336
1918 854,213 281,696 294,604 506,975 639,064 2,578,470
1919 858,390 291,023 274,985 430,720 511,443 2,368,480
1928 954,939 308,968 329,933 508,226 568,193 2,672,187
1929 984,428 321,341 332,017 514,164 581,652 2,735,531
1930 954,944 308,968 329,933 508,226 568,193 2,672,194
1932 986,536 304,480 346,593 547,848 584,904 2,772,293
1933 987,301 307,857 348,614 521,788 584,904 2,752,397
1935 1,099,296 364,007 391,121 645,890 642,641 3,144,890
* the data of Tongshan County including the urban of Xuzhou

** the region of Pi County including part of Xinyi nowadays

Economy[edit]

Xuzhou is a vital hub for freight to link northern China and eastern China. Its historical prosperity almost attributed to the Caoyun (漕运) System, until the Yellow River flooded and changed its course in 1855. However, as the railways built, Xuzhou appeared to be prospering again, and it opened to foreign traders formally in 1922. [18]

From 1910s to 1940s, the staple merchandise for sale were peanut, soya bean, soya bean meal, wheat, sesame, sunflower seed, daylily, alive swine and pelt. Meanwhile, the ones for purchase were fabric, cotton yarn, sugar, salt, cigarettes, kerosene, etc. And the main domestic trades were occurred among Nanjing and Shanghai.

Xuzhou has about 93% of the Jiangsu coals reserves.[13] The coals of Xuzhou were discovered during the Song Dynasty. Then they were utilized to smelt Liguo’s iron ore, replaced the charcoal. Su Shi ever wrote a poem entitled “石炭” to record that. It marks that the establishing of initial Xuzhou coal industry no later than 1079. In 1970, Datun mining area was put under Shanghai administration for providing Shanghai enough coals.

The most important industries in Xuzhou are machinery, energy and food production.

The construction machinery manufacturer XCMG is the largest company based in Xuzhou. It is the world's tenth-largest construction equipment maker measured by 2011 revenues, and the third-largest based in China (after Sany and Zoomlion).[19]

Education[edit]

Xuzhou was nearly barren of education resources compared with the Jiangnan regions until 1950s. In 1903, Tongshan public primary school of the senior grade (铜山县官绅公立高等小学堂) as the first modern school in Xuzhou was founded. There were only three colleges in existence in Xuzhou before the 1950's.[20]

  • Huaihai College (淮海学院, Reorganized National Government of China period)
  • Jiangsu Provincial College of Jiangsu (江苏省立江苏学院,1946-1949)
  • North China Theological Seminary (华北神学院,1946-1948)

In 1958, Jiangsu Normal Academy (江苏师范专科学校) relocated to Xuzhou. And Nanjing Medical College, Xuzhou was founded in July. In the next year, Xuzhou Normal Academy (徐州师范专科学校) was merged with Jiangsu Normal Academy and became the Xuzhou Normal College (徐州师范学院). In 1962, Premier Zhou Enlai gave instructions to maintain both colleges after the Great Leap Forward. In 1978, China Institute of Mining and Technology (中国矿业学院) relocated to Xuzhou from the west of China. Nowadays, Xuzhou has a high overall education level next to Nanjing in Jiangsu Province.

Schools[edit]

Universities and colleges[edit]

Scenic spots[edit]

Tourist attractions in Xuzhou include Yunlong Mountain (Cloud Dragon Mountain) and the nearby Yunlong Lake, which are near the downtown area. There are also Xuzhou Museum and Han Dynasty Stone Carvings museum next to the Yunlong Mountain.

The most important places of interest in Xuzhou are the relics of Han Dynasty, including Terracotta Army of Han, Mausoleum of the Emperors of Han and the art of stone graving.

Religion[edit]

According to the local administrator's survey in 2014, around 4.76% of the population of Xuzhou, namely 0.46 million people belongs to organised religions.The largest groups being Protestants with 350,000 people , followed by Buddhists with 70,000 people.

The Roman Catholic Diocese of Xuzhou/Süchow (徐州教区) is a diocese located in the city of Xuzhou in the Ecclesiastical province of Nanjing in China.

Xinghua Temple (兴化寺), the famous Buddhist temple built on the top of the Yunlong Mountain since 450, during the The Northern Wei period.

Xuzhou Catholic Church (徐州天主堂 or 耶稣圣心堂), was completed in 1910.

Xuzhou West Huaihai Road Church (徐州淮海西路教堂), established by Presbyterian Church in the United States, and was completed in 1914.

Daoism and Chinese folk religion[edit]

The City God Temple of Xuzhou used to be popular.

Christianism[edit]

"The Xuzhou Church Cases"[edit]

As the Qing government became too feeble to prohibit foreign clergies from preaching, they were active in Xuzhou since 1890s. Then the contradiction and conflict between local people and the clergies were intensified. The resenting Christian crowd rioted, ruining the churches and even killing the Christians. The most serious one occurred in 1896 influenced by Shandong's peasants revolt while the cause was a local Christian snatching someone's wheat.[21]

Although the ultimate aim of the clergies was preaching, they established several hospitals and schools which were associated to the ones in Xuzhou Nowadays.

In 1897, a US missionary Nettie Donaldson Grier (葛壁玺), who also was a doctor,established the first modern clinic in Xuzhou: Gospel Clinic.

Shiu-Ying Hu (胡秀英), once was studying in a girls' School of Xuzhou Church. Being benefit from Church's grant, she received her degree in Ginling College.

And the clergies shielded some citizens in the Second Sino-Japanese War.[22]

The various religious practices gradually suspended since 1952, and recommenced in 1979 for the relaxed condition.

Media[edit]

The first newspaper in Xuzhou entitled Xingxu Daily (醒徐日報) was started in 1913 by a member of Tongmenghui, Gao Mianzhi (高勉之). Xingxu means "arousing people in Xuzhou".[23]

Xuzhou Daily (徐州日报) is an official newspaper of the CPC Xuzhou Committee since 1952.

Japanese founded Xuzhou Broadcasting Station (徐州放送局) in 1938, after they captured Xuzhou. And KMT took over it subsequent to the end of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1945. Then the CPC took over it in 1949.

Culture[edit]

Traditional Arts[edit]

According to a Ming Dynasty dramatist, Xu Wei(徐渭)'s 南词叙录, During the Mid-Ming period, Yuyao Tone (余姚腔), one of the Southern Operas, was prevalent in Xuzhou (“稱余姚腔者,出於會稽,常、潤、池、太、揚、徐用之”). Then Liuqin Opera (柳琴戏), Jiangsu Bangzi (江苏梆子) are prevalent since the Qing Dynasty.

Li Keran (李可染), who was born in Xuzhou, was a renowned contemporary Chinese painter.

Modern Arts[edit]

In 2011, a new state-of-the-art concert hall was opened. It is specifically designed to resemble a myrtle flower. The striking architecture and lakeside location have helped the theater gain landmark status locally. Among the top artists who have performed in Xuzhou concert hall are Dutch vocal ensemble 'Vocal Group Utrecht' and Canadian brass ensemble 'Brassroots'.

Ma Ke (马可), who was borned in Xuzhou, was a famous musician.

Dialect[edit]

Most people in Xuzhou utter Xuzhou dialect (徐州话), which is a type of the Central Plains Mandarin (中原官话), especially in the suburb and rural.

Cuisine[edit]

See also: Xuzhou cuisine

Xuzhou cuisine is closely related to Shandong cuisine's Jinan-style. Xuzhou's most well known foods include bǎzi ròu (pork belly, and other items stewed in a thick broth), sha tang (饣它.svg汤), and various dog meat dishes.

Horse and warrior figures from the Han Dynasty Guishan Tomb near Xuzhou

Another one of Xuzhou's famous dishes is di guo (地锅) style cooking which places ingredients with a spicy sauce in a deep black skillet and cooks little pieces of flatbread on the side or top. Common staples of di guo style cooking include: chicken, fish, lamb, pork rib and eggplant.

Fu Yang Festival (伏羊节) is a traditional festival celebrated in the city. It starts on Chufu (初伏) which is around mid-July and lasts for about one month. During the festival, people eat lamb meat and drink lamb soup. This festival is very popular among all the citizens.

Transport[edit]

Xuzhou is a major railroad hub

Roads[edit]

Expressways[edit]

National Highway[edit]

Rail[edit]

The Xuzhou Railway Station is one of the largest Chinese railway stations. Xuzhou is one of the most important railway hubs in China. It is the interchange station of Jinghu Railway, Longhai Railway and Hasan Railway. The Xuzhou East Railway Station lies in the eastern suburb of Xuzhou, which is the hub of Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway and Xuzhou–Lanzhou High-Speed Railway.

Aviation[edit]

Xuzhou Guanyin Airport serves the area with scheduled passenger flights to major airports in China including Beijing, Shanghai, Nanjing, Hong Kong and many other cities.

A general airport will be finished in Xinyi by 2017.[24]

Public transportation[edit]

Xuzhou is the first city in North Jiangsu to build a subway system. The project was approved by State Council in 2013. 3 subway lines are being built and expected to be completed by 2019-2020, with total length of 67 km.

Xuzhou has a public bicycle system since 2012.

The others[edit]

The Grand Canal flows through Xuzhou.

Luning oil pipeline, which from Shandong Linyi (临邑) County to Nanjing, passes through Xuzhou.

Sport[edit]

Military[edit]

Xuzhou is headquarters of the 12th Group Army of the People's Liberation Army, one of the three group armies that compose the Nanjing Military Region responsible for the defense of China's eastern coast and possible military engagement with Taiwan. The People's Liberation Army Navy also has a Type 054A frigate that shares the name of the region.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.citypopulation.de/php/china-jiangsu-admin.php
  2. ^ Postal romanization, See, e.g., this 1947 ROC map.
  3. ^ Rosario Renaud, Süchow. Diocèse de Chine 1882-1931, Montréal, 1955.
  4. ^ a b Canadian Missionaries, Indigenous Peoples: Representing Religion at Home and Abroad. University of Toronto Press. 2005. p. 208. 
  5. ^ Louis Hermand, Les étapes de la Mission du Kiang-nan 1842-1922 et de la Mission de Nanking 1922-1932, Shanghai, 1933.
  6. ^ See: Wade-Giles.
  7. ^ Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z. p. 1116. 
  8. ^ Book of Song indicates Pengcheng as the capital of Xu Province since Cao Wei and Jin dynasty, however some subsequent historians such as Tan Qixiang thought it was questionable for the variance with the Records of the Three Kingdoms and the Book of Jin.
  9. ^ a b "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Demography Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press. 
  10. ^ "徐州会发生地震吗?". 
  11. ^ "Battle of Suchow". Life Magazine, December 6, 1948.
  12. ^ "国务院关于同意苏州市和徐州市为"较大的市"的批复". 
  13. ^ a b c "Jiangsu Provincial Geography" (in Chinese). Beijing:Beijing Normal University Publishing Group. 2011. 
  14. ^ "23日至25日最低气温或降至-14℃". 
  15. ^ 中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年) (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. June 2011. Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  16. ^ "A retrospection of Xuzhou's seismic regime in 2015". 
  17. ^ "The bulletin of 1% National Population Sample Survey in Xuzhou 2015 's main data". 
  18. ^ "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Comprehensive Economy Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  19. ^ "Analysis: China's budding Caterpillars break new ground overseas". Reuters. 8 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012. 
  20. ^ "A research on Xuzhou's conditions and the changes of environment, economy and society(during 1882-1948)" (in Chinese). Jinan:Shandong University. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  21. ^ "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Chronicle of events" (1st volume in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press. 
  22. ^ "The Christians preaching and development in Xuzhou". 
  23. ^ "Jiangsu Provincial Chorographies: Press Chorography" (in Chinese). Nanjing:Jiangsu Guji Press. 
  24. ^ "徐州新沂通用机场建设工程环境影响评价第一次公示". 

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