John C. Salvi III (March 2, 1972 – November 29, 1996) was an American who carried out fatal shootings at two reproductive health clinics in Brookline, Massachusetts, on December 30, 1994, killing two and wounding five. The motive for these attacks was his opposition to abortion. He was convicted, and later died in 1996 of an apparent suicide.
Brookline MA Clinic Shootings
In the mid-morning of December 30, 1994, John Salvi walked into the Planned Parenthood clinic on Beacon Street in Brookline, Massachusetts, carrying a black duffle bag. In the waiting room, he took a modified semiautomatic .22 rifle from the bag and, wordlessly, opened fire. A clinic assistant, Arjana Agrawal, was hit in the abdomen, and Salvi shot the receptionist who had greeted him, Shannon Lowney, in the neck, killing her instantly. Approximately forty people were in the room during the assault; of these, three were wounded. 
Salvi then drove down Beacon Street to the Preterm Health Services office. He asked receptionist Leeann Nichols, "Is this Preterm?" When she said yes, witnesses report that Salvi responded,"This is what you get! You should pray the rosary!" and then shot her multiple times. As he had at Planned Parenthood, Salvi continued to fire. Among those injured was part-time security guard, Richard J. Seron. Seron returned fire while protecting injured clinic worker Jane Sauer, who had been hit and was on the floor. Seron himself was shot four times in the arms, and once in the left hand. Salvi then dropped the black duffle bag, which contained a gun, receipts from a gun dealer in New Hampshire, and 700 rounds of ammunition. He fled in his Audi. Police were able to identify him from the gun shop receipt in the abandoned bag.
John Salvi was captured in Norfolk, Virginia, after firing over a dozen bullets into the Hillcrest Clinic. The clinic was not open at the time.
On March 19, 1996, he was found guilty of murdering receptionists Lee Ann Nichols and Shannon Lowney. After an unsuccessful defense strategy related to Salvi's mental state, he was convicted in both killings.
Examining the Causes for Salvi's Violence in the Immediate Aftermath
Salvi had long shown signs of mental illness. Despite erratic outbursts, difficulty living alone, earlier threats of violence, and the possibility that he was involved in an arson in Florida, neither the anti-abortion protestors who saw Salvi become distraught at their vigils, nor his family who had witnessed glaring signs of his illness, had taken steps to prevent Salvi from hurting himself or others. Although Salvi's parents had been concerned that he was troubled, they did not seek professional psychiatric advice on how to help their son, as they worried that the stigma of mental illness would impair Salvi's ability to live on his own.
Then Cardinal of the Archidiocese of Massachusetts, Bernard Law, called for a moratorium on clinic protests following the shooting. Part of his reasoning was the possibility that other disturbed individuals were being inspired to commit violence during the protests. However, the moratorium was largely ignored by aggressive anti-abortionists in the archdiocese, including Catholic members of the local Operation Rescue group.
The shooting at the Hillcrest clinic, in Norfolk Virginia, had been a target of pickets by Donald Spitz, a known supporter of anti-abortion terrorism. It was reported by the Boston Globe that Salvi had Spitz's name and unlisted phone number on his person at the time of his arrest. Spitz was never charged in connection with Salvi's activities. Spitz held a rally in support of Salvi outside of Norfolk City Jail. The Massachusetts Citizens for Life requested that Spitz not attend Salvi's trial, because of his outspoken endorsement of anti-abortion violence.
During Salvi's trial, the defense argued that Salvi suffered from schizophrenia. Several expert witnesses, including noted forensic psychiatrist Phillip J. Resnick, M.D., testified that Salvi exhibited schizophrenic behavior and was not competent to stand trial. John's mother Anne Marie Salvi testified that her son had told her that he, "was the thief on the cross with Jesus." The defense argued that Salvi told his parents that "...the mafia and KKK are out to get me". The prosecution utilized the testimony of Bridgewater State Hospital psychologist Joel Haycock, who spent eleven days with Salvi out of his sixty days under observation at Bridgewater State Hospital. Haycock claimed Salvi purposefully chose not to give a narrative of the events of December 30, 1994, and concluded that Salvi had no mental disease at the time of the crime and was competent to stand trial. Salvi was found competent to stand trial and was found guilty.
Salvi's conviction was ultimately overturned by the sentencing judge. Judge Barbara Dortch-Okara invoked the legal principle that a conviction may not stand if the accused dies before his appeals are exhausted.
John Salvi had extensive beliefs in a number of conspiracy theories. While considered by his defense as evidence of severe mental illness, many elements of his conspiracy beliefs reflected those of others on the extreme end of anti-abortion activism : "Shortly after his arrest he released a handwritten note alleging conspiracies of Freemasons, conspiracies to manipulate paper currency, and conspiracies against Catholics. ... He has talked about the Vatican printing its own currency and a specific conspiracy of the Ku Klux Klan, the Freemasons, and the Mob."
Salvi was found dead in his prison cell at MCI Cedar Junction in Walpole, Massachusetts with a garbage bag over his head tied around his neck on November 29, 1996. The official report states that Salvi's death was a suicide.
- McGrory, Brian; Cullen, Kevin (December 31, 1994). "Abortion Violence Hits Home Gunman Opens Fire in Brookline Clinics, Kills 2 and Wounds 5". Boston Globe. ProQuest.
- Kifner, John (December 31, 1994). "ANTI-ABORTION KILLINGS: THE OVERVIEW; Gunman Kills 2 at Abortion Clinics in Boston Suburb". New York imes. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- "An Armed Fanatic Raises the Stakes". Time. January 9, 1995.
- Bostrum, Barry; Seron, Richard; Bungard, Chad (Fall 2002). "JOHN SALVI III'S REVENGE FROM THE GRAVE: HOW THE ABATEMENT DOCTRINE UNDERCUTS THE ABILITY OF ABORTION PROVIDERS TO STOP CLINIC VIOLENCE". CUNY Law Review. 5 (2): 141–144.
- Daly, Christopher (March 19, 1996). "Salvi Convicted of Murder in Shootings". Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Zaritsky, John; Storring, Virginia. "FRONTLINE: Murder on Abortion Row". pbs.org. WGBH Boston. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Ibid. "FRONTLINE: Murder on Abortion Row". Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Wrath of Angels, James Risen, p.368, ISBN 978-0465092734, 1999, Basic Books
- *Christopher B. Daly (March 19, 1996). "Salvi Convicted of Murder in Shootings". The Washington Post.
- Extremist groups: information for students, Volume 1 - Thomson/Gale, 2006
- "Don Spitz unwelcomed in Massachusetts". Armyofgod.com. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- PBS Frontline. (1995). Salvi's Hearing Transcripts. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
- PBS Frontline. (1996). Murder on "Abortion Row" - Transcript. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
- "Salvi's Hearing Transcripts | Murder On Abortion Row | FRONTLINE". Pbs.org. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- The New York Times. (1997). Conviction in Killings at Clinics Is Overturned. Retrieved February 7, 2007.
- "The Website of Political Research Associates". PublicEye.org. Retrieved 2016-06-15.
- "Abortion clinic gunman dies John Salvi, who killed two at Mass. facilities, commits suicide in cell". Baltimore Sun. 30 November 1996. Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- The John Salvi papers, 1994-1996 are located in the Northeastern University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections Department, Boston, MA.