Julian Ewell

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Julian Johnson Ewell
Julian Ewell.jpg
Major General Ewell, 9th Infantry Division commander, 1968
Born(1915-11-05)November 5, 1915
Stillwater, Oklahoma
DiedJuly 27, 2009(2009-07-27) (aged 93)
Fairfax, Virginia
BuriedArlington National Cemetery
AllegianceUnited States of America
Service/branchUnited States Army seal United States Army
Years of service1939–1973
RankUS-O9 insignia.svg Lieutenant General
Commands held3rd Battalion 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment
501st Parachute Infantry Regiment
9th Infantry Regiment
9th Infantry Division
II Field Force
Battles/warsWorld War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
AwardsDistinguished Service Cross
Distinguished Service Medal
Silver Star
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star
Purple Heart
Air Medal
Combat Infantryman Badge
Major General Julian J. Ewell (center) listens to 1st Brigade commander Colonel John Geraci while Colonel Ira A. Hunt Jr., the 9th Infantry Division chief of staff, stands to the right.

Julian Johnson Ewell (November 5, 1915 – July 27, 2009) was a career United States Army officer who served in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. He commanded the 9th Infantry Division and II Field Force in Vietnam, and attained the rank of lieutenant general.

The son of a career Army officer, Ewell graduated from the New Mexico Military Institute and the United States Military Academy. Commissioned as a second lieutenant of infantry in 1939, he volunteered for paratrooper training at the start of World War II. During the war, he commanded 3rd Battalion, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, part of the 101st Airborne Division. He took part in a parachute jump into Normandy during the D-Day invasion, and continued to take part in combat against the Nazis in Europe. Ewell later commanded the 501st Regiment, which included participation in Operation Market Garden and the defense of Bastogne in the Battle of the Bulge. He received the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroism at Bastogne.

After the war, Ewell continued his Army career, and his command assignments included the 9th Infantry Regiment in South Korea during the Korean War, Assistant Commandant of Cadets at West Point, Assistant Division Commander of the 8th Infantry Division, and Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff for the Combat Developments Command.

During the Vietnam War, Ewell commanded the 9th Infantry Division (1968-1969) and II Field Force (1969-1970). He later served as military advisor to the U.S.-South Vietnamese delegation at the negotiations for the Paris Peace Accords and Chief of Staff of the NATO Southern Command. Ewell's Vietnam service generated controversy, especially over concerns that his focus on "body counts" as a measure of success caused his subordinates to inflate their numbers by counting civilian dead as enemy combatants and by committing atrocities. Among the most well-known operations he took part in was Operation Speedy Express, which was estimated by internal Department of Defense documents to have killed as many as 5,000 to 7,000 civilians.[1] David Hackworth alleges that among those in the 9th Division he had commanded, this earned him the nickname the "Butcher of the Delta".[2] According to Geoffrey Ward and Ken Burns in The Vietnam War: An Intimate History, Ewell was apparently proud of this nickname, and saw nothing wrong with what the soldiers under his command had done.[3]

Ewell died in Virginia in 2009, and was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.

Early life and start of career[edit]

Julian Johnson Ewell was the son of Jimmie Morrison (Offutt) Ewell and Colonel George W. Ewell (1879-1972), a career Army officer. He was born in Stillwater, Oklahoma on November 5, 1915, while his father was serving as a Reserve Officer Training Corps instructor at Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College (now Oklahoma State University–Stillwater).[4][5] He was raised in California, Panama, Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C., and graduated from New Mexico Military Institute in 1932.[6] He attended Duke University[7] before transferring to the United States Military Academy, from which he graduated in 1939. He received his commission as a Second Lieutenant of Infantry, and received paratrooper training at the start of World War II.[8]

Military education[edit]

General Ewell was a graduate of the United States Army Command and General Staff College (1946), United States Army War College (1952) and National War College (1959).[9][10]

World War II[edit]

Having advanced to lieutenant colonel during the war, Ewell assumed command of 3rd Battalion, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, part of the 101st Airborne Division. In June 1944, Ewell parachuted into Normandy and led his men into combat for the first time. Despite being unable to immediately account for a majority of his battalion because so many paratroopers had missed their landing zones, Ewell was still able to regroup and engage the German defenses.[11][12][13]

On September 17, 1944, Ewell's battalion parachuted into the Netherlands as part of Operation Market Garden[14] and Ewell soon moved up to regimental executive officer. With the death of 501st commander Colonel Howard R. Johnson on October 8, Ewell moved up to regimental command.

That winter, he commanded the 501st when the 101st Airborne Division was rushed into the emergency defense of Bastogne in the Battle of the Bulge, and received the Distinguished Service Cross for his heroic actions.[15][16]

Korean War[edit]

Ewell continued his service after World War II. As a colonel in the late 1940s he served as executive officer to General Maxwell Taylor during Taylor's command of U.S. forces in Berlin.[17] In 1953, he was assigned as commander of the 9th Infantry Regiment in South Korea.[18][19]

Vietnam War[edit]

After the Korean War, Ewell attained the rank of brigadier general, and his assignments included: Assistant Commandant of Cadets at West Point;[20] Executive Assistant to General Taylor during Taylor's assignment as Military Aide to President John F. Kennedy and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff;[21][22] Assistant Division Commander of the 8th Infantry Division;[23] Chief of Staff of V Corps in West Germany; and Deputy Commander and Chief of Staff for Combat Developments Command.[24][25]

From 1968 to 1969, Ewell commanded the 9th Infantry Division as a major general.[26][27] During his command, the division carried out Operation Speedy Express, an effort to eliminate Viet Cong and North Vietnamese soldiers with overwhelming force.[28][29]

From 1969 to 1970, Ewell commanded II Field Force in Vietnam, receiving promotion to lieutenant general.[30][31]

After relinquishing command of II Field Force, Ewell was military advisor to the U.S.-South Vietnamese delegation at the negotiations for the Paris Peace Accords.[32]

Post-Vietnam War[edit]

From 1972 until his 1973 retirement, Ewell was Chief of Staff of NATO's Allied Forces Southern Europe in Naples, Italy.[33][34]

Vietnam War controversy[edit]

Critics have charged Ewell with focusing obsessively on "body counts" during the Vietnam War, causing his subordinates to inflate their numbers in an effort to demonstrate success by counting civilian dead as enemy combatants and committing atrocities.[35][36] David Hackworth, author of Steel my Soldiers' Hearts, was critical of Ewell's performance.[37] Hackworth, who served in the 9th Division during the Vietnam War, wrote that in 1968 and 1969 the division was credited with killing 20,000 enemy, yet recovered only 2,000 weapons, suggesting that the numbers of enemy dead were vastly inflated.[38] According to Hackworth, Ewell's focus on body counts earned him the nickname the "Butcher of the Delta" from members of the 9th Division[39]

A 1972 Inspector General report concluded that there may have been as many as 5,000 to 7,000 civilian deaths during Speedy Express out of a total of 11,000 enemy combatants reported killed by troops.[40][41]

In 1995, General Ewell and Ira Hunt, a retired major general who had served as Ewell's Chief of Staff in the 9th Division, published Sharpening the Combat Edge. In their book, Ewell and Hunt argued that the allegations of obsession with the body count were unfounded, and that their effort to inflict maximum damage had "unbrutalized" the war for civilians in South Vietnam.[42]

The version of events presented by Ewell and Hunt—an "unbrutalized' civilian population—is countered in Nick Turse's book, Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam.[43] Turse presents detailed documentation of war crimes, including those he argues are Ewell's, and argues that the coverup of Speedy Express went to the top of American decision-making in Vietnam.[44] Turse's book is intended to present a sharp counterpoint to those he argues attempt to minimize the viciousness and unethical behavior shown by some American commanders and soldiers in Vietnam.[45]

Awards[edit]

In addition to the Distinguished Service Cross, General Ewell's awards and decorations included: the Distinguished Service Medal (4); Silver Star (3); Legion of Merit (2); Bronze Star; Purple Heart; Air Medal; and Combat Infantryman Badge. He was also a recipient of several foreign decorations, including the Legion of Honor (Chevalier) from France.[46]

Citation for Distinguished Service Cross[edit]

The President of the United States takes pleasure in presenting the Distinguished Service Cross to Julian J. Ewell (0-21791), Lieutenant Colonel (Infantry), U.S. Army, for extraordinary heroism in connection with military operations against an armed enemy while serving as Commanding Officer, 501st Parachute Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division, in action against enemy forces on the night of 18–19 December 1944, at Bastogne, Belgium. In the darkness of 18–19 December 1944, Colonel Ewell's regiment was the first unit of the 101st Airborne Division to reach the vicinity of Bastogne, Belgium, then under attack by strong enemy forces. While his regiment assembled, Lieutenant Colonel Ewell went forward alone to Bastogne to obtain first hand enemy information. During the night of 18–19 December 1944, Lieutenant Colonel Ewell made a personal reconnaissance amid intermingled friendly and hostile troops and on 19 December, by his heroic and fearless leadership of his troops, contributed materially to the defeat of enemy efforts to prostrate Bastogne. On 3 January 1945, when an enemy attack threatened to blunt the impetus of the regimental offensive, Lieutenant Colonel Ewell personally lead a counterattack which stopped the enemy and made possible the continued offensive action of his regiment. Throughout the action at Bastogne, the heroic and fearless personal leadership of Lieutenant Colonel Ewell were a source of inspiration to the troops he commanded. His intrepid actions, personal bravery and zealous devotion to duty exemplify the highest traditions of the military forces of the United States and reflect great credit upon himself, the 101st Airborne Division, and the United States Army.[47]

Headquarters, XVIII Airborne Corps, General Orders No. 19 (March 14, 1945) Hometown: Washington, D.C.[48]

Ewell's memorabilia[edit]

World War II memorabilia from Ewell is on display at the December 44 Museum in La Gleize, a facility which commemorates the Battle of the Bulge.[49]

Retirement, death and burial[edit]

In retirement, General Ewell lived in the Fairfax Retirement Community at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.[50] He died at Inova Fairfax Hospital in Fairfax on July 27, 2009.[51][52] He was buried at Arlington National Cemetery, Section 59, Grave 3854.[53]

Family[edit]

General Ewell was married four times. His first two marriages, to Mary Gillem and Jean Hoffman, resulted in divorces. He was married to his third wife, Beverly McGammon Moses, for forty years before her death in 1995. In 2005, he married Patricia Gates Lynch. Ewell had four children and two stepchildren.[54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2017-09-05). The Vietnam War: An Intimate History. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 356–357. ISBN 9781524733100.
  2. ^ "Peoples Century | Guerrilla Wars | Col. David Hackworth". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  3. ^ Ward, Geoffrey C.; Burns, Ken (2017-09-05). The Vietnam War: An Intimate History. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group. pp. 356–357. ISBN 9781524733100.
  4. ^ John Sperry, 9th Infantry Division: Old Reliables, 2000, page 93
  5. ^ 9th Infantry Division, Commander's Profile, Julian Ewell, Octofoil magazine, Volume 1, Number 2 (July–September, 1968), page 27
  6. ^ New Mexico Military Institute, Alumni Who Have Achieved Flag Officer Rank in any of the National Uniformed Military Services[permanent dead link], accessed February 1, 2013
  7. ^ John C. McManus, Alamo in the Ardennes, 2007, page 175
  8. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War, 2011, page 355
  9. ^ Spencer C. Tucker, The Encyclopedia of the Vietnam War, page 355
  10. ^ Ewell, Julian (February 16, 1967). "Guest Speaker's Biography, Julian Ewell" (PDF). CIA Reading Room. Langley, VA: Central Intelligence Agency. p. 1. Retrieved June 26, 2018.
  11. ^ George Koskimaki, D-Day with the Screaming Eagles, 2006, pages 153 to 154
  12. ^ Joseph Balkoski, Utah Beach: The Amphibious Landing and Airborne Operations on D-Day, June 6, 1944, 2006, page 46
  13. ^ John C. McManus, The Americans at Normandy, 2005, page 116
  14. ^ Maxwell D. Taylor, Swords and Plowshares, 1990, page 91
  15. ^ Robert K. Wright, John T. Greenwood, Airborne Forces at War: From Parachute Test Platoon to the 21st Century, 2007, page 75
  16. ^ Keith William Nolan, House to House: Playing the Enemy's Game in Saigon, May 1968, 2006, page 151
  17. ^ Associated Press, Milwaukee Journal, GIs in Berlin Drill for Riots, December 22, 1949
  18. ^ Hal Barker, editor, Korean War Project, 1953, page 4
  19. ^ Charles R. Shrader, Center of Military History (U S Army), History of Operations Research in the United States Army, Volume 2; Volumes 1961-1973 (2008), page 322
  20. ^ United States Military Academy, Annual Catalog, 1954, page xiii
  21. ^ Army and Navy Journal Incorporated, Army, Navy, Air Force Journal, Volume 98, Issues 27-52, 1961, page 1316
  22. ^ Douglas Kinnard, The Certain Trumpet: Maxwell Taylor & the American Experience in Vietnam, 1991, page 67
  23. ^ Paul Martell, Grace P. Hayes, World Military Leaders, 1974, page 68
  24. ^ United States Department of Defense, Commanders Digest, Volumes 2-3 (1966), page 28
  25. ^ Army and Navy Journal Incorporated, The Journal of the Armed Forces, Volume 105, Issues 1-26 (1967), page 2
  26. ^ Ira Augustus Hunt, The 9th Infantry Division in Vietnam: Unparalleled and Unequaled, 2010, page 16
  27. ^ David H. Hackworth, Steel My Soldiers' Hearts, 2003, page 1
  28. ^ William S. Turley, The Second Indochina War: A Concise Political and Military History, 2009, page 198
  29. ^ Guenter Lewy, America in Vietnam, 1980, page 142
  30. ^ Brian M. De Toy, Turning Victory Into Success: Military Operations After the Campaign, 2004, page 156
  31. ^ Graham A. Cosmas, MACV: The Joint Command in the Years of Withdrawal, 1968-1973, 2007, page 138
  32. ^ Vinh Truong, Vietnam War: The New Legion, Volume 1, 2010, page 53
  33. ^ Association of the United States Army, Army magazine, Volume 22, 1972, page 120
  34. ^ U.S. Army Command and General Staff College, Military Review, Volume 62, 1982, page 233
  35. ^ T. Louise Brown, War and Aftermath in Vietnam, 1991, page 191
  36. ^ Nick Turse, The Nation, A My Lai a Month, December 1, 2008
  37. ^ "'Look Truth Right in the Eye'". U.S. Naval Institute. 2002. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  38. ^ David H. Hackworth, The Horror That Will Never go Away, King Features Syndicate, May 1, 2001
  39. ^ "Peoples Century | Guerrilla Wars | Col. David Hackworth". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2018-06-02.
  40. ^ William M. Hammond, Center for Military History, Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1968-1973, 1996, page 238
  41. ^ Turse, Nick (2013). Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam. New York, NY: Henry Holt and Company. p. 256. ISBN 978-0-8050-8691-1.
  42. ^ Ewell, Julian; Hunt Jr., Ira. Sharpening the Combat Edge: The Use of Analysis to Reinforce Military Judgment. Department of the Army.
  43. ^ John Tirman, Washington Post, ‘Kill Anything that Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam’ By Nick Turse, January 25, 2013
  44. ^ Alfred W. McCoy, History News Network, Review of Nick Turse's "Kill Anything That Moves: The Real American War in Vietnam", February 22, 2013
  45. ^ Steve Weinberg, Minneapolis Star-Tribune, Book Review: "Kill Anything that Moves," by Nick Turse, January 19, 2013
  46. ^ Patricia Sullivan, Washington Post, Julian J. Ewell, 93, Dies; Decorated General Led Forces in Vietnam, August 5, 2009
  47. ^ "Julian Johnson Ewell". Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved June 4, 2013.
  48. ^ Home of Heroes, Citation, Distinguished Service Cross, Julian J. Ewell, accessed February 1, 2013
  49. ^ December 44 Museum, Home page, December 44 Museum, accessed July 14, 2013
  50. ^ Washington Times, Obituary, Beverly Ewell, 74, Army General's Wife, January 5, 1995
  51. ^ Social Security Death Index, entry for Julian J. Ewell, accessed february 1, 2013
  52. ^ Patricia Sullivan, Washington Post, Julian J. Ewell, 93, Dies
  53. ^ Arlington National Cemetery Gravesite Locator, accessed February 1, 2013
  54. ^ Patricia Sullivan, Washington Post, Julian J. Ewell, 93, Dies

External links[edit]